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#25841968   2015/05/19 Save this To Up

A functional study of proximal goat β-casein promoter and intron 1 in immortalized goat mammary epithelial cells.

Goat β-casein (CSN2) promoter has been extensively used to derive expression of recombinant therapeutic protein in transgenic goats; however, little direct evidence exists for signaling molecules and the cis-elements of goat CSN2 promoter in response to lactogenic hormone stimulation in goat mammary epithelial cells. Here, we use an immortalized caprine mammary epithelial cell line (CMC) to search for evidence of the above. Serial 5'-flanking regions deleted of promoter and intron 1 in goat CSN2 (-4,047 to +2,054) driven by firefly luciferase reporter gene were constructed and applied to measure promoter activity in CMC. The intron 1 region (+393 to +501) significantly decreased basal activity of the promoter. This finding contradicts other studies of the role of intron 1. The signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)5a played a significant role in activating promoter activity by prolactin stimulation. Hydrocortisone enhanced and prolonged the activity of STAT5a and promoter in CMC, but was independent of the glucocorticoid receptor response element. The minimum length of the CSN2 promoter segment in response to lactogenic stimulation was confirmed by 5' serial deletions. A cis-element located from -300 to -90 in proximal goat CSN2 promoter that is absent in bovine and human CSN2 promoter was newly identified. We demonstrated the presence of a STAT5a binding site (-102 to -82) and preservation of the guanosine nucleotide at position -90 based on responses to the presence of lactogenic hormone using internal deletions and point mutations of the predicted STAT5a binding site, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Together, these findings demonstrate that the proximal -300 bp of goat CSN2 promoter containing the STAT5a binding site (-102 to -82) is the response element for lactogenic hormone stimulation. Additionally, intron 1 may be required for tissue or developmental stage-specific expression in mammary gland. The role of the far-distal regions of goat CSN2 promoter in high-level lactogenic hormone induction and specific expression require further examination.

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Goat Anti-Human Casein Ki Goat Anti- TRPM8, (intern Goat Anti- TFAP2D, (inter Goat Anti- T1R3, (interna Goat Anti-Human Synaptota Goat Anti-Human STK39 SPA Goat Anti-Human SPHK1, (i Goat Anti-Human SODD, (in Goat Anti-Human SIGLEC8, Goat Anti-Human SH2D4A, ( Goat Anti-Human SEPT7, (i Goat Anti-Human SEPT6, (i

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#22829284   2012/10/11 Save this To Up

Bovine prolactin elevates hTF expression directed by a tissue-specific goat β-casein promoter through prolactin receptor-mediated STAT5a activation.

Prolactin promotes the expression of exogenous human transferrin gene in the milk of transgenic mice. To elucidate this, a recombinant plasmid of bovine prolactin plus human transferrin vector was co-transfected into cultured murine mammary gland epithelial cells. Prolactin-receptor antagonist and shRNA corresponding to prolactin-receptor mRNA were added into the cell culture mixture to investigate the relations between prolactin-receptor and human transferrin expression after bovine prolactin inducement. Levels of human transferrin in the supernatants were increased under the presentation of bovine prolactin (from 1,076 ± 115 to 1,886 ± 114 pg/ml). With the treatment of prolactin-receptor antagonist or shRNA, human transferrin in cells was declined (1,886 ± 113 vs. 1,233 ± 85 pg/ml or 1,114 ± 75 pg/ml, respectively). An inverse correlation was found between the dosage of prolactin-receptor antagonist and expression level of human transferrin. Real-time qRT-PCR analysis showed that the relative level of signal transducer and activator of transcription 5a (STAT5a) transcript in transfected cells correlated with expression levels of human transferrin in the supernatant of the same cells. Bovine prolactin thus improved the expression of human transferrin through such a possible mechanism that bovine prolactin activated STAT5a transcription expression via combined with prolactin-receptor and suggest a potential utility of the bovine prolactin for efficient expression of valuable pharmaceutical proteins in mammary glands of transgenic animals.

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prolactin receptor antibo NATIVE HUMAN PROLACTIN, P NATIVE HUMAN PROLACTIN, P MOUSE ANTI BOVINE ROTAVIR Goat Anti-Bovine ALPI Ant TNFRSF1B - Goat polyclona Recombinant Human Prolact Recombinant Human Prolact Recombinant Sheep Prolact Recombinant Sheep Prolact Recombinant Sheep Prolact Anti RAGE (Receptor for A

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#16899562   2006/08/10 Save this To Up

Anti-prolactin (PRL) autoantibody-binding sites (epitopes) on PRL molecule in macroprolactinemia.

Macroprolactinemia, in which serum prolactin (PRL) mainly consists of PRL with a molecular mass greater than 100 kDa, has been demonstrated to be associated with hyperprolactinemia. We previously reported that anti-PRL autoantibody is the major cause of macroprolactinemia. In this study, the autoantibody-binding sites (epitopes) on the PRL molecule were examined using deletion mutant PRL. The sera from 159 patients with hyperprolactinemia were screened for macroprolactinemia using the polyethylene glycol method and 18 patients (11%) were diagnosed with macroprolactinemia. The sera from these patients were incubated with glutathione S-transferase-human prolactin (hPRL) fragment fusion proteins immobilized on glutathione sepharose and the amounts of bound immunoglobulin G (IgG) were measured using ELISA. IgG was bound to full-length hPRL1-199 in significantly greater amounts in sera from 14 of 18 patients with macroprolactinemia than in controls. hPRL, but not PRL of other species such as bovine, porcine, rat, or human GH, dose-dependently displaced the binding, suggesting that these patients had hPRL-specific autoantibodies. Deletion of 34 amino acid residues from N-and/or C-terminals significantly reduced the binding and N- or C-terminal fragment alone showed partial but significant binding, suggesting that the major epitopes recognized by anti-PRL autoantibodies are located in both N- and C-terminal residues of the PRL molecule.

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Rabbit Anti-Human PRL Ant Rabbit Anti-Human PRL Ant Rabbit Anti-FGF3 Oncogene Fish prolactin,PRL ELISA Goat Anti-Human PTP4A1 PR Goat Anti-Human Vitamin D anti-Diazepam Binding Inh anti-Diazepam Binding Inh Rat monoclonal anti mouse Rat monoclonal anti mouse Rat monoclonal anti mouse Rat monoclonal anti mouse

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#16597920   2006/08/09 Save this To Up

Involvement of JAK2 and Src kinase tyrosine phosphorylation in human growth hormone-stimulated increases in cytosolic free Ca2+ and insulin secretion.

We previously reported that human growth hormone (hGH) increases cytoplasmic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) and proliferation in pancreatic beta-cells (Sjöholm A, Zhang Q, Welsh N, Hansson A, Larsson O, Tally M, and Berggren PO. J Biol Chem 275: 21033-21040, 2000) and that the hGH-induced rise in [Ca(2+)](i) involves Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+) release facilitated by tyrosine phosphorylation of ryanodine receptors (Zhang Q, Kohler M, Yang SN, Zhang F, Larsson O, and Berggren PO. Mol Endocrinol 18: 1658-1669, 2004). Here we investigated the tyrosine kinases that convey the hGH-induced rise in [Ca(2+)](i) and insulin release in BRIN-BD11 beta-cells. hGH caused tyrosine phosphorylation of Janus kinase (JAK)2 and c-Src, events inhibited by the JAK2 inhibitor AG490 or the Src kinase inhibitor PP2. Although hGH-stimulated rises in [Ca(2+)](i) and insulin secretion were completely abolished by AG490 and JAK2 inhibitor II, the inhibitors had no effect on insulin secretion stimulated by a high K(+) concentration. Similarly, Src kinase inhibitor-1 and PP2, but not its inactive analog PP3, suppressed [Ca(2+)](i) elevation and completely abolished insulin secretion stimulated by hGH but did not affect responses to K(+). Ovine prolactin increased [Ca(2+)](i) and insulin secretion to a similar extent as hGH, effects prevented by the JAK2 and Src kinase inhibitors. In contrast, bovine GH evoked a rise in [Ca(2+)](i) but did not stimulate insulin secretion. Neither JAK2 nor Src kinase inhibitors influenced the effect of bovine GH on [Ca(2+)](i). Our study indicates that hGH stimulates rise in [Ca(2+)](i) and insulin secretion mainly through activation of the prolactin receptor and JAK2 and Src kinases in rat insulin-secreting cells.

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#16174355   2005/09/26 Save this To Up

Growth hormone acts on the synthesis and secretion of alpha-casein in bovine mammary epithelial cells.

To study the effect of growth hormone (GH) on the functions of mammary epithelia, we examined the effect of GH on the synthesis and secretion of alpha-casein in a bovine mammary epithelial cell (BMEC) clonal line, which was established from a 26-d-pregnant Holstein heifer. GH receptors (GHR) were observed in the BMEC on the membrane as well as in the cytoplasm. After BMEC were plated onto cell culture inserts, GH stimulated alpha-casein release in both the presence and absence of the lactogenic hormone complex, which included dexamethasone, insulin and prolactin (DIP). DIP enhanced the effect of GH on alpha-casein release. Although alpha(s1-) casein mRNA expression was not detected in untreated control cells, its expression was observed in BMEC in response to the GH, DIP and GH + DIP treatments. Expression was greater for GH and GH + DIP than for just DIP. Expression of GHR mRNA was increased by DIP treatment, while the mRNA expression was little changed by GH treatment. We conclude that GH acts on BMEC and induces the expression of both the alpha-casein gene and protein. GHR gene expression was shown to be regulated by DIP and GHR. GHR may be involved in a synergic effect between GH and DIP on casein secretion. These results suggest that GH, in addition to its widely accepted homeorhetic role in vivo, also can act on the mammary parenchyma, and that the effects of GH on mammary epithelial cells could partly account for the clear galactopoietic effect of recombinant bovine GH seen in lactating dairy cows.

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GLP 1 ELISA Kit, Rat Gluc Epidermal Growth Factor ( Epidermal Growth Factor ( Glucagon ELISA KIT, Rat G Leptin ELISA Kit, Rat Lep Human Internal Mammary Ar GFP Expressing Human Inte Bovine Mullerian Inhibiti Interleukins Recombinant Interleukins Recombinant Interleukins Recombinant Bovine Growth Hormone (BG

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#15232067   2004/07/02 Save this To Up

Interferon-tau upregulates prolactin receptor mRNA in the ovine endometrium during the peri-implantation period.

Our objective was to determine the effect of ovine interferon-tau (IFN-tau) on prolactin receptor (PRL-R) gene expression in the ovine endometrium. IFN-tau is an embryonic cytokine which, via its paracrine anti-luteolytic activity, plays a critical role in maternal recognition of pregnancy in ruminants. Using ribonuclease protection assay procedures, we compared endometrial PRL-R mRNA levels in ewes that were intrauterine injected with either 2 mg bovine serum albumin or 2 mg recombinant ovine IFN-tau on day 10 of the oestrous cycle (day 0 = day of oestrus). IFN treatment significantly increased the abundance of both the long and short forms of PRL-R mRNA in the ovine uterus, but had no effect on the long:short form ratio. In situ hybridization experiments revealed that the increase in abundance of PRL-R mRNA in the uterus was localized to the glandular compartment of the endometrium. In pregnant ewes, a similar increase in PRL-R mRNA abundance was found to occur in ovine endometrium on days 14-15 post conception. Collectively, these data provided strong evidence that IFN-tau modulates the level of lactogenic hormone receptor mRNA in the ovine uterus. Whether the effect of IFN-tau on PRL-R expression is mediated directly or influenced, at least in part, by progesterone remains to be elucidated.

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#12403840   2002/10/29 Save this To Up

Multiple internalization motifs differentially used by prolactin receptor isoforms mediate similar endocytic pathways.

Prolactin (PRL) regulates a variety of physiological processes, including mammary gland growth and differentiation, modulation of behavior, and immune function. A long PRL receptor (lPRLR) and short (sPRLR) isoform were identified in ruminants and rodents, which differ in their distal cytoplasmic domains and possess markedly distinct signaling capacities. Here we compared endocytosis of the bovine isoforms and found that the lPRLR internalized faster than the sPRLR, which would contribute to short-term down-regulation of lPRLR signaling at targets expressing both isoforms. Multiple motifs were required to mediate internalization of the lPRLR, including a phenylalanine (F290) plus a nearby dileucine, and three dileucines proximal to amino acid 272. This is different from the closely related GH receptor that requires only the phenyl-alanine-containing motif for endocytosis. Truncated lPRLR (cT272), which is the same length as the sPRLR and contained the proximal three dileucines, internalized at the same rate as the full-length lPRLR. Finally, the two dileucines shared by the sPRLR were able to mediate similar endocytic pathways as the lPRLR, as revealed by overexpression of mutant dynamin and clathrin hub, despite the slower rate. These studies define the basis of cellular trafficking of PRLR isoforms and increase our understanding of control of target cell responsiveness by PRL.

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prolactin receptor antibo Recombinant Human Prolact Recombinant Human Prolact Prolactin Receptor, human Prolactin Receptor, rat r Prolactin Receptor, rat r Receptor (Human) Quantita N A Anti-14-3-3, multiple Estrogen Receptor; Clone Estrogen Receptor; Clone Progesterone Receptor (P Progesterone Receptor (P

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#11746508   2001/12/17 Save this To Up

Trichostatin A inhibits beta-casein expression in mammary epithelial cells.

Many aspects of cellular behavior are defined by the content of information provided by association of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and with cell membrane receptors. When cultured in the presence of laminin-containing ECM and prolactin (Prl), normal mammary epithelial cells express the milk protein beta-casein. We have previously found that the minimal ECM- and Prl-responsive enhancer element BCE-1 was only active when stably integrated into chromatin, and that trichostatin A (TSA), a reagent that leads to alterations in chromatin structure, was able to activate the integrated enhancer element. We now show that endogenous beta-casein gene, which is controlled by a genetic assembly that is highly similar to that of BCE-1 and which is also activated by incubation in ECM and Prl, is instead inhibited by TSA. We provide evidence that the differing response of beta-casein and BCE-1 to TSA is neither due to an unusual effect of TSA on mammary epithelial cells, nor to secondary consequences from the expression of a separate gene, nor to a particular property of the BCE-1 construct. As a component of this investigation, we also showed that ECM mediated rapid histone deacetylation in mammary epithelial cells. These results are discussed in combination with previous work showing that TSA mediates the differentiation of many types of cancer cells but inhibits differentiation of some nonmalignant cell types.

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#11483014   2001/08/02 Save this To Up

Large-scale preparation of recombinant ovine prolactin and determination of its in vitro and in vivo activity.

Recombinant bovine Ala-prolactin (PRL) (GenBank Accession No. V00112) in prokaryotic expression plasmid pMON3401 was mutated using a mutagenesis kit, to prepare plasmid encoding ovine PRL (oPRL) (GenBank Accession No. M27057) Escherichia coli cells transformed with this latter plasmid overexpressed large amounts of oPRL upon induction with nalidixic acid. The expressed protein, found in inclusion bodies, was refolded and purified to homogeneity on a Q-Sepharose column, yielding an electrophoretically pure fraction composed of over 98% monomeric protein of the expected molecular mass of approximately 23 kDa. The biological activity of the recombinant oPRL after proper renaturation was evidenced in vitro by its ability to stimulate proliferation of rat lymphoma Nb(2) cells possessing PRL receptors, to stimulate luciferase activity in HEK 293 cells transiently transfected with oPRL receptors, and to induce progesterone secretion in primary cultures of luteal cells obtained from midpregnant ewes. In contrast to ovine growth hormone or ovine placental lactogen, recombinant oPRL had no galactopoietic effect in lactating ewes.

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Recombinant Ovine Interfe Recombinant Ovine Interfe EnzyChrom™ Kinase Assay MarkerGeneTM in vivo lacZ MarkerGeneTM Fluorescent Resorufin Oleate, Fluorog MarkerGeneTM Long Wavelen MarkerGeneTMFluorescent A Macrophage Colony Stimula Macrophage Colony Stimula Recombinant Influenza HA Recombinant Influenza HA

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#11043570   2001/01/24 Save this To Up

The antiangiogenic factor 16K PRL induces programmed cell death in endothelial cells by caspase activation.

We asked whether the antiangiogenic action of 16K human PRL (hPRL), in addition to blocking mitogen-induced vascular endothelial cell proliferation, involved activation of programmed cell death. Treatment with recombinant 16K hPRL increased DNA fragmentation in cultured bovine brain capillary endothelial (BBE) and human umbilical vein endothelial (HUVE) cells in a time- and dose-dependent fashion, independent of the serum concentration. The activation of apoptosis by 16K hPRL was specific for endothelial cells, and the activity of the peptide could be inhibited by heat denaturation, trypsin digestion, and immunoneutralization, but not by treatment with the endotoxin blocker, polymyxin-B. 16K hPRL-induced apoptosis was correlated with the rapid activation of caspases 1 and 3 and was blocked by pharmacological inhibition of caspase activity. Caspase activation was followed by inactivation of two caspase substrates, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and the inhibitor of caspase-activated deoxyribonuclease (DNase) (ICAD). Furthermore, 16K hPRL increased the conversion of Bcl-X to its proapoptotic form, suggesting that the Bcl-2 protein family may also be involved in 16K hPRL-induced apoptosis. These findings support the hypothesis that the antiangiogenic action of 16K hPRL includes the activation of programmed cell death of vascular endothelial cells.

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