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#28820715   2017/08/18 Save this To Up

Limited Transmission Potential of Takeda's Tetravalent Dengue Vaccine Candidate by Aedes albopictus.

Recombinant live-attenuated chimeric tetravalent dengue vaccine viruses, TDV-1, -2, -3, and -4, contain the premembrane and envelope genes of dengue virus serotypes 1-4 in the replicative background of the attenuated dengue virus type-2 (DENV-2) PDK-53 vaccine strain. Previous results have shown that these recombinant vaccine viruses demonstrate limited infection and dissemination in Aedes aegypti and are unlikely to be transmitted by the primary mosquito vector of DENVs. In this report, we expand this analysis by assessing vector competence of all four serotypes of the TDV virus in Aedes albopictus, the secondary mosquito vector of DENVs. Our results indicate that these vaccine viruses demonstrate incompetence or defective infection and dissemination in these mosquitoes and will likely not be transmissible.

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#28750738   2017/07/28 Save this To Up

Dengue Virus Evades AAV-Mediated Neutralizing Antibody Prophylaxis in Rhesus Monkeys.

Development of vaccines against mosquito-borne Flaviviruses is complicated by the occurrence of antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE), which can increase disease severity. Long-term delivery of neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) has the potential to effectively block infection and represents an alternative to vaccination. The risk of ADE may be avoided by using prophylactic nAbs harboring amino acid mutations L234A and L235A (LALA) in the immunoglobulin G (IgG) constant region. Here, we used recombinant adeno-associated viruses (rAAVs) to deliver the anti-dengue virus 3 (DENV3) nAb P3D05. While the administration of rAAV-P3D05-rhesus immunoglobulin G1 (rhIgG1)-LALA to rhesus macaques engendered DENV3-neutralizing activity in serum, it did not prevent infection. The emergence of viremia following DENV3 challenge was delayed by 3-6 days in the rAAV-treated group, and replicating virus contained the envelope mutation K64R. This neutralization-resistant variant was also confirmed by virus outgrowth experiments in vitro. By delivering P3D05 with unmutated Fc sequences, we further demonstrated that DENV3 also evaded wild-type nAb prophylaxis, and serum viral loads appeared to be higher in the presence of low levels of unmutated P3D05-rhIgG1. Our study shows that a vectored approach for long-term delivery of nAbs with the LALA mutations is promising, but prophylaxis using a single nAb is likely insufficient at preventing DENV infection and replication.

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#28713027   2017/07/17 Save this To Up

An "on-matrix" digestion procedure for AP-MS experiments dissects the interplay between complex-conserved and serotype-specific reactivities in Dengue virus-human plasma interactome.

The interactions between the four Dengue virus (DENV) serotypes and plasma proteins are crucial in the initial steps of viral infection to humans. Affinity purification combined with quantitative mass spectrometry analysis, has become one of the most powerful tools for the investigation on novel protein-protein interactions. Using this approach, we report here that a significant number of bait-interacting proteins do not dissociate under standard elution conditions, i.e. acid pH and chaotropic agents, and that this problem can be circumvented by using the "on-matrix" digestion procedure described here. This procedure enabled the identification of 16 human plasma proteins interacting with domain III from the envelope protein of DENV serotypes 1, 3 and 4 that would have not been detected otherwise and increased the known DIIIE interactors in human plasma to 59 proteins. Selected Reaction Monitoring analysis evidenced DENV interactome in human plasma is rather conserved although significant differences on the reactivity of viral serotypes with specific proteins do exist. A comparison between the serotype-dependent profile of reactivity and the conservation pattern of amino acid residues suggests an evolutionary selection of highly conserved interactions with the host and other interactions mediated for surface regions of higher variability.

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#28674411   2017/07/04 Save this To Up

In Vitro Assembly and Stabilization of Dengue and Zika Virus Envelope Protein Homo-Dimers.

Zika virus (ZIKV) and the 4 dengue virus (DENV) serotypes are mosquito-borne Flaviviruses that are associated with severe neuronal and hemorrhagic syndromes. The mature flavivirus infectious virion has 90 envelope (E) protein homo-dimers that pack tightly to form a smooth protein coat with icosahedral symmetry. Human antibodies that strongly neutralize ZIKV and DENVs recognize complex quaternary structure epitopes displayed on E-homo-dimers and higher order structures. The ZIKV and DENV E protein expressed as a soluble protein is mainly a monomer that does not display quaternary epitopes, which may explain the modest success with soluble recombinant E (sRecE) as a vaccine and diagnostic antigen. New strategies are needed to design recombinant immunogens that display these critical immune targets. Here we present two novel methods for building or stabilizing in vitro E-protein homo-dimers that display quaternary epitopes. In the first approach we immobilize sRecE to enable subsequent dimer generation. As an alternate method, we describe the use of human mAbs to stabilize homo-dimers in solution. The ability to produce recombinant E protein dimers displaying quaternary structure epitopes is an important advance with applications in flavivirus diagnostics and vaccine development.

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#28669618   2017/07/03 Save this To Up

Immunization of Zika virus envelope protein domain III induces specific and neutralizing immune responses against Zika virus.

In this study, we described the generation and immunogenicity of the Zika Virus (ZIKV) envelope protein (E) domain III (DIII) as a protein subunit vaccine candidate. ZIKV EDIII (zEDIII) was rapidly produced in E. coli in inclusion bodies. ZIKV EDIII was solubilized, refolded and purified to >95% homogeneity with a one-step Ni(2+) affinity chromatography process. Further analysis revealed that zEDIII was refolded properly and demonstrated specific binding to an anti-zEDIII monoclonal antibody that recognizes a zEDIII conformational epitope. Subcutaneous immunization of mice with 25 and 50μg of zEDIII was performed over a period of 11weeks. zEDIII evoked ZIKV-specific and neutralizing antibody response with titers that exceed the threshold that correlates with protective immunity against ZIKV. The antigen-specific IgG isotypes were predominantly IgG1 and splenocyte cultures from immunized mice secreted IFN-gamma, IL-4 and IL-6. Notably, zEDIII-elicited antibodies did not enhance the infection of dengue virus in Fc gamma receptor (FcγR)-expressing cells. This study provided a proof of principle for the further development of recombinant protein-based subunit vaccines against ZIKV.

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#28622093   2017/06/16 Save this To Up

Suppressive effect of dengue virus envelope protein domain III on megakaryopoiesis.

Dengue virus (DENV) infection can cause severe, life-threatening events, and no specific treatments of DENV infection are currently approved. Although thrombocytopenia is frequently observed in dengue patients, its pathogenesis is still not fully understood. Previous studies have suggested that DENV-induced thrombocytopenia occurs through viral-replication-mediated megakaryopoiesis inhibition in the bone marrow; however, the exact mechanism for megakaryopoiesis suppression remains elusive. In this study, a reductionist approach was applied, in which C57B/6J mice were inoculated with recombinant DENV-envelope protein domain III (DENV-EIII) instead of the full viral particle. Our results demonstrated that DENV-EIII-suppressed megakaryopoiesis is similar to those observed with DENV infection. Furthermore, in agreement with our in vivo analyses, DENV-EIII sufficiently suppressed the megakaryopoiesis of progenitor cells from murine bone marrow and human cord blood in vitro. Additional analyses suggested that autophagy impairment and apoptosis are involved in DENV-EIII-mediated suppression of megakaryopoiesis. These data suggest that, even without viral replication, the binding of DENV-EIII to the cell surface is sufficient to suppress megakaryopoiesis.

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#28427960   2017/04/21 Save this To Up

Construct and expression of recombinant domains I/II of dengue virus- 2 and its efficacy to evaluate immune response in endemic area: Possible use in prognosis.

The envelope (E) protein from DENV, contain three functional and structural domains (DI, DII and DIII). Some studies suggest that neutralizing antibodies during natural DENV infection are predominantly against DI and DII, in contrast, low proportion of the antibodies were against DIII. Thus it is necessary to establish the proportion of human antibodies against DENV E protein that bind to DI and DII during the normal course of infection; as an indicator of the quality of the antibody response and to further design new vaccine candidates for DENV. The aim of this study was to express recombinant proteins harboring a 240-aminoacid fragment of the E protein from DI and DII of DENV serotypes 2 and 3 in a eukaryotic S2 system. Further, we evaluate the antibodies against these antigens in samples from patients in acute phase of DF or DHF and compare it with the response of samples from healthy individuals from the same endemic areas and samples from healthy individuals from a non-endemic area (EA and NEA, respectively). These results suggest that the presence of antibodies against rEDI/DII might be used to identify patients at risk for severe disease.

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#28418786   2017/04/18 Save this To Up

Evaluation in Mice of the Immunogenicity of a Tetravalent Subunit Vaccine Candidate Against Dengue Virus Using Mucosal and Parenteral Immunization Routes.

Our group has developed a subunit vaccine candidate against Dengue virus (DENV) based on two different viral regions, the domain III of the envelope protein and the capsid protein. The chimeric proteins for each serotype (DIIIC1-4), aggregated with the oligodeoxynucleotide 39 M, form the tetravalent formulation named Tetra DIIIC. Tetra DIIIC induces a protective immune response in mice when it is inoculated by intraperitoneal route. However, if children are the main targets for a DENV vaccine, then a needle-free route of administration should be attractive and advantageous. In this study, we evaluated for the first time, in vivo, a vaccine candidate against DENV based on recombinant proteins using the intranasal route. After three doses of Tetra DIIIC in mice, we measured the humoral immune response against the four DENV serotypes and the corresponding recombinant proteins. Moreover, the functionality of these antibodies was evaluated through a plaque reduction neutralization test. Finally, to assess the cellular immune response induced, we measured the IFN-γ-levels secreted by spleen cells after in vitro stimulation with DENV. The results presented in this study indicate that the intranasal immunization with Tetra DIIIC favors the generation of DENV-specific cell-mediated immunity. On the other hand, the immunization using intraperitoneal and intranasal routes, simultaneously, generate functional antibodies (anti-DIIIC and anti-DENV) and an in vitro response of IFN-γ secretion.

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#28393307   2017/04/10 Save this To Up

A dose-response study in mice of a tetravalent vaccine candidate composed of domain III-capsid proteins from dengue viruses.

Tetra DIIIC is a subunit vaccine candidate based on domain III of the envelope protein and the capsid protein of the four serotypes of dengue virus. This vaccine preparation contains the DIIIC proteins aggregated with a specific immunostimulatory oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN 39M). Tetra DIIIC has already been shown to be immunogenic and protective in mice and monkeys. In this study, we evaluated the immunogenicity in mice of several formulations of Tetra DIIIC containing different amounts of the recombinant proteins. The Tetra DIIIC formulation induced a humoral immune response against the four DENV serotypes, even at the lowest dose assayed. In contrast, the highest level of cell-mediated immunity, measured as frequency of IFNγ-producing cells, was detected in animals immunized with the lowest dose. The protective capacity of the tetravalent formulations was assessed using the mouse model of dengue virus encephalitis. Upon challenge, vaccinated mice showed significantly reduced virus replication in all tested groups. This study provides new information about the functionality of Tetra DIIIC as a vaccine candidate and also supports the crucial role of cell-mediated immunity in protection against dengue virus.

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#28376812   2017/04/05 Save this To Up

Multi-walled carbon nanotubes functionalized with recombinant Dengue virus 3 envelope proteins induce significant and specific immune responses in mice.

Dengue is the most prevalent arthropod-borne viral disease in the world. In this article we present results on the development, characterization and immunogenic evaluation of an alternative vaccine candidate against Dengue.

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