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Conformational heterogeneity in the Hsp70 chaperone-substrate ensemble identified from analysis of NMR-detected titration data.

The Hsp70 chaperone system plays a critical role in cellular homeostasis by binding to client protein molecules. We have recently shown by methyl-TROSY NMR methods that the Escherichia coli Hsp70, DnaK, can form multiple bound complexes with a small client protein, hTRF1. In an effort to characterize the interactions further we report here the results of an NMR-based titration study of hTRF1 and DnaK, where both molecular components are monitored simultaneously, leading to a binding model. A central finding is the formation of a previously undetected 3:1 hTRF1-DnaK complex, suggesting that under heat shock conditions, DnaK might be able to protect cytosolic proteins whose net concentrations would exceed that of the chaperone. Moreover, these results provide new insight into the heterogeneous ensemble of complexes formed by DnaK chaperones and further emphasize the unique role of NMR spectroscopy in obtaining information about individual events in a complex binding scheme by exploiting a large number of probes that report uniquely on distinct binding processes.

2240 related Products with: Conformational heterogeneity in the Hsp70 chaperone-substrate ensemble identified from analysis of NMR-detected titration data.

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An E3 ubiquitin ligase from Brassica napus induces a typical heat-shock response in its own way in Escherichia coli.

Previously, we have identified a novel E3 ubiquitin ligase, BNTR1, which plays a key role in heat stress response in Brassica napus. In this study, we accidentally found that BNTR1 can also improve thermal tolerance and reduce growth inhibition at 42°C in Escherichia coli, in a manner different from that in plant. We show that BNTR1 activates E. coli heat-shock response at low concentration in soluble form instead of in inclusion body, but BNTR1 is not functioning as a heat-shock protein (HSP) because deficient temperature-sensitive mutants of HSP genes display unconspicuous thermal tolerance in the presence of BNTR1. Our further studies show that BNTR1 triggers heat-shock response by competing with σ32 (σ32, heat-shock transcription factor) to its binding proteins DnaJ (HSP40) and DnaK (HSP70), which results in the release and accumulation of σ32, thereby promoting the heat-shock response, even under the non-heat-shock conditions. At 37°C, accumulation of the HSPs induced by BNTR1 could make cells much more tolerant than those without BNTR1 at 42°C. Thus, our results suggest that BNTR1 may potentially be a promising target in fermentation industry for reducing impact from temperature fluctuation, where E. coli works as bioreactors.

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Influence of Escherichia coli chaperone DnaK on protein immunogenicity.

The production of anti-drug antibodies can impact significantly upon the safety and efficacy of biotherapeutics. It is known that various factors, including aggregation and the presence of process-related impurities, can modify and augment the immunogenic potential of proteins. The purpose of the investigations reported here was to characterize in mice the influence of aggregation and host cell protein impurities on the immunogenicity of a humanized single-chain antibody variable fragment (scFv), and mouse albumin. Host cell protein impurities within an scFv preparation purified from Escherichia coli displayed adjuvant-like activity for responses to the scFv in BALB/c strain mice. The 70 000 MW E. coli chaperone protein DnaK was identified as a key contaminant of scFv by mass spectrometric analysis. Preparations of scFv lacking detectable DnaK were spiked with recombinant E. coli DnaK to mimic the process-related impurity. Mice were immunized with monomeric and aggregated preparations, with and without 0·1% DnaK by mass. Aggregation alone enhanced IgM and IgG2a antibody responses, but had no significant effect on total IgG or IgG1 responses. The addition of DnaK further enhanced IgG and IgG2a antibody responses, but only in the presence of aggregated protein. DnaK was shown to be associated with the aggregated scFv by Western blot analysis. Experiments with mouse albumin showed an overall increase in immunogenicity with protein aggregation alone, and the presence of DnaK increased the vigour of the IgG2a antibody response further. Collectively these data reveal that DnaK has the potential to modify and enhance immunogenicity when associated with aggregated protein.

2477 related Products with: Influence of Escherichia coli chaperone DnaK on protein immunogenicity.

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Structural and functional studies of the Leishmania braziliensis mitochondrial Hsp70: Similarities and dissimilarities to human orthologues.

Heat shock protein 70 kDa (Hsp70) is a conserved molecular chaperone family involved in several functions related to protein homeostasis. In eukaryotes, Hsp70 homologues are found in all cell compartments. The mitochondrial Hsp70 isoform (mtHsp70) is involved in import of mitochondrial matrix proteins as well as their folding and maturation. Moreover, mtHsp70 has the propensity to self-aggregate, and it depends on the action of the co-chaperone Hsp70-escort protein 1 (Hep1) to be produced functional. Here, we analyze the solution structure and function of mtHsp70 of Leishmania braziliensis (LbmtHsp70). This recombinant protein was obtained folded, in the monomeric state and it has an elongated shape. We observed that LbmtHsp70 suffers thermal aggregation that depends on the protein concentration and is composed of domains with different thermal stabilities. LbmtHsp70 interacted with adenosine nucleotides with a thermodynamic signature different from those reported for human orthologues and interacted, driven by both enthalpy and entropy, with L. braziliensis Hep1 (LbHep1) with a nanomolar dissociation constant. Moreover, LbHep1 stimulated the LbmtHsp70 ATPase activity. Since little is known about mitochondrial Hsp70, particularly in protozoa, we believe that our data are of interest for understanding protozoan Hsp70 machinery.

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Use of a Chimeric Hsp70 to Enhance the Quality of Recombinant Plasmodium falciparum S-Adenosylmethionine Decarboxylase Protein Produced in Escherichia coli.

S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (PfAdoMetDC) from Plasmodium falciparum is a prospective antimalarial drug target. The production of recombinant PfAdoMetDC for biochemical validation as a drug target is important. The production of PfAdoMetDC in Escherichia coli has been reported to result in unsatisfactory yields and poor quality product. The co-expression of recombinant proteins with molecular chaperones has been proposed as one way to improve the production of the former in E. coli. E. coli heat shock proteins DnaK, GroEL-GroES and DnaJ have previously been used to enhance production of some recombinant proteins. However, the outcomes were inconsistent. An Hsp70 chimeric protein, KPf, which is made up of the ATPase domain of E. coli DnaK and the substrate binding domain of P. falciparum Hsp70 (PfHsp70) has been previously shown to exhibit chaperone function when it was expressed in E. coli cells whose resident Hsp70 (DnaK) function was impaired. We proposed that because of its domain constitution, KPf would most likely be recognised by E. coli Hsp70 co-chaperones. Furthermore, because it possesses a substrate binding domain of plasmodial origin, KPf would be primed to recognise recombinant PfAdoMetDC expressed in E. coli. First, using site-directed mutagenesis, followed by complementation assays, we established that KPf with a mutation in the hydrophobic residue located in its substrate binding cavity was functionally compromised. We further co-expressed PfAdoMetDC with KPf, PfHsp70 and DnaK in E. coli cells either in the absence or presence of over-expressed GroEL-GroES chaperonin. The folded and functional status of the produced PfAdoMetDC was assessed using limited proteolysis and enzyme assays. PfAdoMetDC co-expressed with KPf and PfHsp70 exhibited improved activity compared to protein co-expressed with over-expressed DnaK. Our findings suggest that chimeric KPf may be an ideal Hsp70 co-expression partner for the production of recombinant plasmodial proteins in E. coli.

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Glutathionylation of the Bacterial Hsp70 Chaperone DnaK Provides a Link between Oxidative Stress and the Heat Shock Response.

DnaK is the major bacterial Hsp70, participating in DNA replication, protein folding, and the stress response. DnaK cooperates with the Hsp40 co-chaperone DnaJ and the nucleotide exchange factor GrpE. Under non-stress conditions, DnaK binds to the heat shock transcription factor σ(32)and facilitates its degradation. Oxidative stress results in temporary inactivation of DnaK due to depletion of cellular ATP and thiol modifications such as glutathionylation until normal cellular ATP levels and a reducing environment are restored. However, the biological significance of DnaK glutathionylation remains unknown, and the mechanisms by which glutathionylation may regulate the activity of DnaK are also unclear. We investigated the conditions under which Escherichia coli DnaK undergoesS-glutathionylation. We observed glutathionylation of DnaK in lysates of E. coli cells that had been subjected to oxidative stress. We also obtained homogeneously glutathionylated DnaK using purified DnaK in the apo state. We found that glutathionylation of DnaK reversibly changes the secondary structure and tertiary conformation, leading to reduced nucleotide and peptide binding ability. The chaperone activity of DnaK was reversibly down-regulated by glutathionylation, accompanying the structural changes. We found that interaction of DnaK with DnaJ, GrpE, or σ(32)becomes weaker when DnaK is glutathionylated, and the interaction is restored upon deglutathionylation. This study confirms that glutathionylation down-regulates the functions of DnaK under oxidizing conditions, and this down-regulation may facilitate release of σ(32)from its interaction with DnaK, thus triggering the heat shock response. Such a mechanism provides a link between oxidative stress and the heat shock response in bacteria.

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Heat Shock Protein 70 (H Heat Shock Protein 70 (H Fatty acid free heat sho Fatty acid free heat sho Fatty acid free heat sho Fatty acid free heat sho OXI TEK (Oxidative Stress TCP-1 theta antibody Sour Recombinant E. coli HSP70 Recombinant E. coli HSP70 Recombinant E. coli HSP70 Anti beta3 AR Human, Poly

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GroEL to DnaK chaperone network behind the stability modulation of σ(32) at physiological temperature in Escherichia coli.

The stability of heat-shock transcription factor σ(32) in Escherichia coli has long been known to be modulated only by its own transcribed chaperone DnaK. Very few reports suggest a role for another heat-shock chaperone, GroEL, for maintenance of cellular σ(32) level. The present study demonstrates in vivo physical association between GroEL and σ(32) in E. coli at physiological temperature. This study further reveals that neither DnaK nor GroEL singly can modulate σ(32) stability in vivo; there is an ordered network between them, where GroEL acts upstream of DnaK.

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Modulation of the chaperone DnaK allosterism by the nucleotide exchange factor GrpE.

Hsp70 chaperones comprise two domains, the nucleotide-binding domain (Hsp70NBD), responsible for structural and functional changes in the chaperone, and the substrate-binding domain (Hsp70SBD), involved in substrate interaction. Substrate binding and release in Hsp70 is controlled by the nucleotide state of DnaKNBD, with ATP inducing the open, substrate-receptive DnaKSBD conformation, whereas ADP forces its closure. DnaK cycles between the two conformations through interaction with two cofactors, the Hsp40 co-chaperones (DnaJ in Escherichia coli) induce the ADP state, and the nucleotide exchange factors (GrpE in E. coli) induce the ATP state. X-ray crystallography showed that the GrpE dimer is a nucleotide exchange factor that works by interaction of one of its monomers with DnaKNBD. DnaKSBD location in this complex is debated; there is evidence that it interacts with the GrpE N-terminal disordered region, far from DnaKNBD. Although we confirmed this interaction using biochemical and biophysical techniques, our EM-based three-dimensional reconstruction of the DnaK-GrpE complex located DnaKSBD near DnaKNBD. This apparent discrepancy between the functional and structural results is explained by our finding that the tail region of the GrpE dimer in the DnaK-GrpE complex bends and its tip contacts DnaKSBD, whereas the DnaKNBD-DnaKSBD linker contacts the GrpE helical region. We suggest that these interactions define a more complex role for GrpE in the control of DnaK function.

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[Preparation and identification of the polyclonal antibody against heat shock protein 70 (DnaK) from Shigella flexneri 5a M90T].

To generate polyclonal antibodies against Shigella flexneri 5a M90T heat shock protein 70 (DnaK) and identify the specificity and titer of antibodies.

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Heat Shock Protein 70 (H Heat Shock Protein 70 (H Heat Shock Protein 70, hu Heat Shock Protein 70, hu Heat Shock Protein 70, hu Mouse Anti-Heat Shock Pro Heat shock protein 70 HS Heat Shock 70kDa Protein Androgen Receptor (Phosph Androgen Receptor (Phosph Zap 70 (Phospho Tyr319) A Zap 70 (Phospho Tyr493) A

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Induction of boosted immune response in mice by leptospiral surface proteins expressed in fusion with DnaK.

Leptospirosis is an important global disease of human and veterinary concern. Caused by pathogenic Leptospira, the illness was recently classified as an emerging infectious disease. Currently available veterinarian vaccines do not induce long-term protection against infection and do not provide cross-protective immunity. Several studies have suggested the use of DnaK as an antigen in vaccine formulation, due to an exceptional degree of immunogenicity. We focused on four surface proteins: rLIC10368 (Lsa21), rLIC10494, rLIC12690 (Lp95), and rLIC12730, previously shown to be involved in host-pathogen interactions. Our goal was to evaluate the immunogenicity of the proteins genetically fused with DnaK in animal model. The chosen genes were amplified by PCR methodology and cloned into pAE, an E. coli vector. The recombinant proteins were expressed alone or in fusion with DnaK at the N-terminus. Our results demonstrate that leptospiral proteins fused with DnaK have elicited an enhanced immune response in mice when compared to the effect promoted by the individual proteins. The boosted immune effect was demonstrated by the production of total IgG, lymphocyte proliferation, and significant amounts of IL-10 in supernatant of splenocyte cell cultures. We believe that this approach could be employed in vaccines to enhance presentation of antigens of Leptospira to professional immune cells.

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