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           Search results for: Recombinant Human ACAD8 Proteins    

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#12359260   2002/10/02 Save this To Up

Cloning and functional characterization of ACAD-9, a novel member of human acyl-CoA dehydrogenase family.

Acyl-CoA dehydrogenases (ACADs) are a family of mitochondrial enzymes catalyzing the initial rate-limiting step in the beta-oxidation of fatty acyl-CoA. The reaction provides main source of energy for human heart and skeletal muscle. Eight human ACADs have been described. Deficiency of these enzymes, especially very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD), usually leads to severe human organic diseases, such as sudden death in infancy, infantile cardiomyopathy (CM), hypoketotic hypoglycemia, or hepatic dysfunction. By large-scale random sequencing, we identified a novel homolog of ACADs from human dendritic cell (DC) cDNA library. It contains an open reading frame (ORF) of 1866bp, which encodes a 621 amino acid protein. It shares approximately 47% amino acid identity and 65% similarity with human VLCAD. So, the novel molecule is named as acyl-CoA dehydrogenase-9 (ACAD-9), the ninth member of ACADs. The new gene consists of 18 exons and 17 introns, and is mapped to chromosome 3q26. It contains the two signatures shared by all members of the ACADs. ACAD-9 mRNA is ubiquitously expressed in most normal human tissues and cancer cell lines with high level of expression in heart, skeletal muscles, brain, kidney, and liver. Enzymatic assay proved that the recombinant ACAD-9 protein has the dehydrogenase activity on palmitoyl-coenzyme A (C16:0) and stearoyl-coenzyme A (C18:0). Our results indicate that ACAD-9 is a novel member of ACADs.

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#12359132   2002/10/02 Save this To Up

Identification of isobutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase and its deficiency in humans.

The acyl-CoA dehydrogenases (ACDs) are a family of related enzymes that catalyze the alpha,beta-dehydrogenation of acyl-CoA esters. Two homologues active in branched chain amino acid metabolism have previously been identified. We have used expression in Escherichia coli to produce a previously uncharacterized ACD-like sequence (ACAD8) and define its substrate specificity. Purified recombinant enzyme had a k(cat)/K(m) of 0.8, 0.23, and 0.04 (microM(-1)s(-1)) with isobutyryl-CoA, (S) 2-methylbutyryl-CoA, and n-propionyl-CoA, respectively, as substrates. Thus, this enzyme is an isobutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase. A single patient has previously been described whose fibroblasts exhibit a specific deficit in the oxidation of valine. Amplified ACAD8 cDNA made from patient fibroblast mRNA was homozygous for a single nucleotide change (905G>A) in the ACAD8 coding region compared to the sequence from control cells. This encodes an Arg302Gln substitution in the full-length protein (position 280 in the mature protein), a position predicted by molecular modeling to be important in subunit interactions. The mutant enzyme was stable but inactive when expressed in E. coli. It was also stable and appropriately targeted to mitochondria, but inactive when expressed in mammalian cells. These data confirm further the presence of a separated ACD in humans specific to valine catabolism (isobutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase, IBDH), along with the first enzymatic and molecular confirmation of a deficiency of this enzyme in a patient.

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