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#19725078   2009/09/15 Save this To Up

Proteomic analysis of increased Parkin expression and its interactants provides evidence for a role in modulation of mitochondrial function.

Parkin is an ubiquitin-protein ligase (E3), mutations of which cause juvenile onset - autosomal recessive Parkinson's disease, and result in reduced enzymic activity. In contrast, increased levels are protective against mitochondrial dysfunction and neurodegeneration, the mechanism of which is largely unknown. In this study, 2-DE and MS proteomic techniques were utilised to investigate the effects of increased Parkin levels on protein expression in whole cell lysates using in an inducible Parkin expression system in HEK293 cells, and also to isolate potential interactants of Parkin using tandem affinity purification and MS. Nine proteins were significantly differentially expressed (+/-2-fold change; p<0.05) using 2-DE analysis. MS revealed the identity of these proteins to be ACAT2, HNRNPK, HSPD1, PGK1, PRDX6, VCL, VIM, TPI1, and IMPDH2. The first seven of these were reduced in expression. Western blot analysis confirmed the reduction in one of these proteins (HNRNPK), and that its levels were dependent on 26S proteasomal activity. Tandem affinity purification/MS revealed 14 potential interactants of Parkin; CKB, DBT, HSPD1, HSPA9, LRPPRC, NDUFS2, PRDX6, SLC25A5, TPI1, UCHL1, UQCRC1, VCL, YWHAZ, YWHAE. Nine of these are directly involved in mitochondrial energy metabolism and glycolysis; four were also identified in the 2-DE study (HSP60, PRDX6, TPI1, and VCL). This study provides further evidence for a role for Parkin in regulating mitochondrial activity within cells.

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#17548253   2007/06/05 Save this To Up

Identification of genes upregulated by recombinant interferon-alpha in HepG2 cells by suppressive subtractive hybridization analysis.

Interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) is an important cytokine with multiple functions, but the target genes transactivated by IFN-alpha remain largely unknown. A study of such genes will help to understand the mechanism of function of IFN-alpha. To isolate the gene transcripts specifically upregulated by IFN-alpha in HepG2 cells, we conducted suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH) analysis.

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#16647063   2006/05/09 Save this To Up

A critical role for the histidine residues in the catalytic function of acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase catalysis: evidence for catalytic difference between ACAT1 and ACAT2.

To investigate a role for histidine residues in the expression of normal acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) activity, the histidine residues located at five different positions in two isoenzymes were substituted by alanine, based on the sequence homology between ACAT1 and ACAT2. Among the 10 mutants generated by baculovirus expression technology, H386A-ACAT1, H460A-ACAT1, H360A-ACAT2, and H399A-ACAT2 lost their enzymatic activity completely. A reduction in catalytic activity is unlikely to result from structural changes in the substrate-binding pocket, because their substrate-binding affinities were normal. However, the enzymatic activity of H386A-ACAT1 was restored to <37% of the level of the wild-type activity when cholesterol was replaced by 25-hydroxycholesterol as substrate. H527A-ACAT1 and H501A-ACAT2, termed carboxyl end mutants, exhibit activities of approximately 96% and approximately 75% of that of the wild-type. Interestingly, H425A-ACAT1 showed 59% of the wild-type activity, in contrast to its equivalent mutant, H399A-ACAT2. These results demonstrate that the histidine residues located at the active site are very crucial both for the catalytic activity of the enzyme and for distinguishing ACAT1 from ACAT2 with respect to enzyme catalysis and substrate specificity.

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#12808042   2003/06/16 Save this To Up

Human acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase expressed in chinese hamster ovary cells: membrane topology and active site location.

Acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) is a membrane-bound enzyme that produces cholesteryl esters intracellularly. Two ACAT genes (ACAT1 and ACAT2) have been identified. The expression of ACAT1 is ubiquitous, whereas that of ACAT2 is tissue restricted. Previous research indicates that ACAT1 may contain seven transmembrane domains (TMDs). To study ACAT2 topology, we inserted two different antigenic tags (hemagglutinin, monoclonal antibody Mab1) at various hydrophilic regions flanking each of its predicted TMDs, and expressed the recombinant proteins in mutant Chinese hamster ovary cells lacking endogenous ACAT. Each tagged ACAT2 was expressed in the endoplasmic reticulum as a single undegraded protein band and was at least partially active enzymatically. We then used cytoimmunofluorescence and protease protection assays to monitor the sidedness of the hemagglutinin and Mab1 tags along the ER membranes. The results indicated that ACAT2 contains only two detectable TMDs, located near the N terminal region. We also show that a conserved serine (S245), a candidate active site residue, is not essential for ACAT catalysis. Instead, a conserved histidine (H434) present within a hydrophobic peptide segment, may be essential for ACAT catalysis. H434 may be located at the cytoplasmic side of the membrane.

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#12518221   2003/01/08 Save this To Up

Preparation of an anti-Cdx-2 antibody for analysis of different species Cdx-2 binding to acat2 promoter.

The homeodomain protein, Cdx-2, as transcription factor has been implicated in the transcriptional regulation of genes expressed in small intestine and the process of tumorgenesis. In current work, a conserved mouse Cdx-2 domain (mCdx-2D) coded by its cDNA fragment, which was amplified and cloned into the expression vector pGEX-4T1, was expressed as a fusion protein with GST (GST-mCd x-2D) and purified by one step of affinity chromatography. A polyclonal antibody against Cdx-2 was raised by using the recombinant fusion protein GST-mCdx-2D as antigen and was fractionated from the rabbit anti-serum. Western blot and EMSA (electrophoretic mobility shift assay) demonstrate that the natural and denatured Cdx-2s from different species (mouse and human) can be detected by the prepared anti-Cdx-2 antibody. Most notably, we found that the Cdx-2 in human intestine cell line Caco-2 is expressed in a differentiation-dependent manner and can efficiently bind to the mouse and human acat2 (acyl-coenzyme A: cholesterol acyltransferase 2) promoter regions, suggesting that the transcriptional factor Cdx-2 may play a role in regulating the acat2 expression in the intestinal cells.

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