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#28714365   2017/07/17 Save this To Up

Conjugation of gold nanoparticles and recombinant human endostatin modulates vascular normalization via interruption of anterior gradient 2-mediated angiogenesis.

Several studies have revealed the potential of normalizing tumor vessels in anti-angiogenic treatment. Recombinant human endostatin is an anti-angiogenic agent which has been applied in clinical tumor treatment. Our previous research indicated that gold nanoparticles could be a nanoparticle carrier for recombinant human endostatin delivery. The recombinant human endostatin-gold nanoparticle conjugates normalized vessels, which improved chemotherapy. However, the mechanism of recombinant human endostatin-gold nanoparticle-induced vascular normalization has not been explored. Anterior gradient 2 has been reported to be over-expressed in many malignant tumors and involved in tumor angiogenesis. To date, the precise efficacy of recombinant human endostatin-gold nanoparticles on anterior gradient 2-mediated angiogenesis or anterior gradient 2-related signaling cohort remained unknown. In this study, we aimed to explore whether recombinant human endostatin-gold nanoparticles could normalize vessels in metastatic colorectal cancer xenografts, and we further elucidated whether recombinant human endostatin-gold nanoparticles could interrupt anterior gradient 2-induced angiogenesis. In vivo, it was indicated that recombinant human endostatin-gold nanoparticles increased pericyte expression while inhibit vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 and anterior gradient 2 expression in metastatic colorectal cancer xenografts. In vitro, we uncovered that recombinant human endostatin-gold nanoparticles reduced cell migration and tube formation induced by anterior gradient 2 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Treatment with recombinant human endostatin-gold nanoparticles attenuated anterior gradient 2-mediated activation of MMP2, cMyc, VE-cadherin, phosphorylation of p38, and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Our findings demonstrated recombinant human endostatin-gold nanoparticles might normalize vessels by interfering anterior gradient 2-mediated angiogenesis in metastatic colorectal cancer.

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#28061542   2017/01/07 Save this To Up

An efficient method for native protein purification in the selected range from prostate cancer tissue digests.

Prostate cancer (CP) cells differ from their normal counterpart in gene expression. Genes encoding secreted or extracellular proteins with increased expression in CP may serve as potential biomarkers. For their detection and quantification, assays based on monoclonal antibodies are best suited for development in the clinical setting. One approach to obtain antibodies is to use recombinant proteins as immunogen. However, the synthesis of recombinant protein for each identified candidate is time-consuming and expensive. It is also not practical to generate high quality antibodies to all identified candidates individually. Furthermore, non-native forms (e.g., recombinant) of proteins may not always lead to useful antibodies. Our approach was to purify a subset of proteins from CP tissue specimens for use as immunogen.

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#26876500   2016/03/21 Save this To Up

Mass spectrometry analysis of the oxidation states of the pro-oncogenic protein anterior gradient-2 reveals covalent dimerization via an intermolecular disulphide bond.

Anterior Gradient-2 (AGR2) is a component of a pro-oncogenic signalling pathway that can promote p53 inhibition, metastatic cell migration, limb regeneration, and cancer drug-resistance. AGR2 is in the protein-disulphide isomerase superfamily containing a single cysteine (Cys-81) that forms covalent adducts with its client proteins. We have found that mutation of Cysteine-81 attenuates its biochemical activity in its sequence-specific peptide docking function, reduces binding to Reptin, and reduces its stability in cells. As such, we evaluated how chemical oxidation of its cysteine affects its biochemical properties. Recombinant AGR2 spontaneously forms covalent dimers in the absence of reductant whilst DTT promotes dimer to monomer conversion. Mutation of Cysteine-81 to alanine prevents peroxide catalysed dimerization of AGR2 in vitro, suggesting a reactive cysteine is central to covalent dimer formation. Both biochemical assays and ESI mass spectrometry were used to demonstrate that low levels of a chemical oxidant promote an intermolecular disulphide bond through formation of a labile sulfenic acid intermediate. However, higher levels of oxidant promote sulfinic or sulfonic acid formation thus preventing covalent dimerization of AGR2. These data together identify the single cysteine of AGR2 as an oxidant responsive moiety that regulates its propensity for oxidation and its monomeric-dimeric state. This has implications for redox regulation of the pro-oncogenic functions of AGR2 protein in cancer cells.

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#25646014   2015/04/11 Save this To Up

New Blocking Antibodies against Novel AGR2-C4.4A Pathway Reduce Growth and Metastasis of Pancreatic Tumors and Increase Survival in Mice.

Anterior gradient 2 (AGR2) promotes cancer growth, metastasis, and resistance to therapy via unknown mechanisms. We investigated the effects of extracellular AGR2 signaling through the orphan glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked receptor C4.4A in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Proliferation, migration, invasion, and apoptosis were measured using colorimetric, Boyden chamber, and FACS analyses. We developed blocking mAbs against AGR2 and C4.4A and tested their effects, along with siRNAs, on cancer cell functions and on orthotopic tumors in nude mice. Extracellular AGR2 stimulated proliferation, migration, invasion, and chemoresistance of PDAC cell lines. AGR2 interacted with C4.4A in cell lysates and mixtures of recombinant proteins. Knockdown of C4.4A reduced migration and resistance to gemcitabine. PDAC tissues, but not adjacent healthy pancreatic tissues, expressed high levels of AGR2 and C4.4A. AGR2 signaling through C4.4A required laminins 1 or 5 and integrin β1. Administration of antibodies against AGR2 and C4.4A reduced growth and metastasis and caused regression of aggressive xenograft tumors, leading to increased survival of mice. These data support a model in which AGR2 binds and signals via C4.4A in an autocrine loop and promotes the growth of pancreas tumors in mice. Blocking mAbs against AGR2 and C4.4A may have therapeutic potential against PDAC.

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#25418581   2015/01/28 Save this To Up

Anterior gradient 2 downregulation in a subset of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is a prognostic factor indicative of epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

Anterior gradient 2 (AGR2), a member of the protein disulfide isomerase family, has been implicated in various cancers including pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and is known to promote cancer progression. However, the prognostic value of AGR2 expression and the interaction with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) remain unclear. We investigated the clinical significance of AGR2 and EMT markers in PDAC patients by immunohistochemical analyses. Although AGR2 expression was not observed in normal pancreas, all pancreatic precursor neoplastic lesions were positive for AGR2, even at the earliest stages, including pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia-1A, AGR2 expression was reduced in 27.7% (54/195 cases) of PDAC patients. AGR2 downregulation correlated with EMT markers (vimentin overexpression and reduced membranous E-cadherin expression), high Union for International Cancer Control stage (P<0.0001), high histological cellular grade (P<0.0001), and adverse outcome (P<0.0001). In vitro, targeted silencing of AGR2 in cancer cells using siRNA reduced cell proliferation, colony formation, cell invasiveness, and migration, but did not alter EMT markers. To confer a more aggressive phenotype and induce EMT in PDAC cells, we co-cultured PDAC cell lines with primary-cultured pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) and found that AGR2 was downregulated in co-cultured PDAC cells compared with PDAC monocultures. Treatment with transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β), secreted from PSCs, decreased AGR2 expression, whereas inhibition of TGF-β signaling using recombinant soluble human TGF-β receptor type II and TGF-β-neutralizing antibodies restored AGR2 expression. We conclude that AGR2 downregulation is a useful prognostic marker, induced by EMT, and that secreted TGF-β from PSCs may partially contribute to AGR2 downregulation in PDAC patients. AGR2 downregulation does not induce EMT or a more aggressive phenotype, but is a secondary effect of these processes in advanced PDAC.

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#25111734   2014/08/12 Save this To Up

AGR2, an endoplasmic reticulum protein, is secreted into the gastrointestinal mucus.

The MUC2 mucin is the major constituent of the two mucus layers in colon. Mice lacking the disulfide isomerase-like protein Agr2 have been shown to be more susceptible to colon inflammation. The Agr2(-/-) mice have less filled goblet cells and were now shown to have a poorly developed inner colon mucus layer. We could not show AGR2 covalently bound to recombinant MUC2 N- and C-termini as have previously been suggested. We found relatively high concentrations of Agr2 in secreted mucus throughout the murine gastrointestinal tract, suggesting that Agr2 may play extracellular roles. In tissue culture (CHO-K1) cells, AGR2 is normally not secreted. Replacement of the single Cys in AGR2 with Ser (C81S) allowed secretion, suggesting that modification of this Cys might provide a mechanism for circumventing the KTEL endoplasmic reticulum retention signal. In conclusion, these results suggest that AGR2 has both intracellular and extracellular effects in the intestine.

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#23712868   2013/11/25 Save this To Up

AGR2 expression is regulated by HIF-1 and contributes to growth and angiogenesis of glioblastoma.

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) tumors are the most common type of brain tumors characterized by extensive angiogenesis that is mostly orchestrated by tumor hypoxia. The hypoxia induced factor-1 (HIF-1) transcriptional complex is the "master control switch" for hypoxia. Dysregulation of anterior gradient protein 2 (AGR2) expression is associated with tumor growth and metastasis. Whether AGR2 is a hypoxia-responsive factor and affects tumor progression via angiogenesis remains unknown. Here, we show that GBM cell lines, U87 and LN18, exhibited enhanced hypoxic responses compared with control normal human astrocytes, and a corresponding HIF-1-dependent increase in AGR2 mRNA and protein. Recombinant AGR2 and conditioned medium from GBM cells induced human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) migration and tube formation, which were abrogated by anti-AGR2 neutralizing antibodies. Expression of the HIF-1α oxygen-dependent degradation domain mutant in cells resulted in elevated AGR2 levels and an increased ability to induce HUVEC migration and tube formation in vitro and enhanced growth and vascularity of tumor xenografts in vivo, which were prevented by AGR2 knockdown. Taken together, these results indicate that AGR2 expression is regulated by HIF-1 and plays an important role in control of glioblastoma growth and vascularity. Our findings suggest that inhibiting AGR2 may represent a new therapeutic target for anti-angiogenic cancer treatment.

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#22089087   2012/02/03 Save this To Up

In vitro induction of anterior gradient-2-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes by dendritic cells transduced with recombinant adenoviruses as a potential therapy for colorectal cancer.

Anterior gradient-2 (AGR2) promotes tumor growth, cell migration, and cellular transformation, and is one of the specific mRNA markers for circulating tumor cells in patients with gastrointestinal cancer. We investigated the feasibility of AGR2 as a potent antigen for tumor immunotherapy against colorectal cancer (CRC) cells using dendritic cells (DCs) transduced with a recombinant adenovirus harboring the AGR2 gene (AdAGR2). DCs transduced with a recombinant adenovirus encoding the AGR2 gene (AdAGR2/DCs) were characterized. These genetically-modified DCs expressed AGR2 mRNA as well as AGR2 protein at a multiplicity of infection of 1,000 without any significant alterations in DC viability and cytokine secretion (IL-10 and IL-12p70) compared with unmodified DCs as a control. In addition, AdAGR2 transduction did not impair DC maturation, but enhanced expression of HLA-DR, CD80, and CD86. AdAGR2/DCs augmented the number of IFN-γ-secreting T-cells and elicited potent AGR2-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes capable of lysing AGR2-expressing CRC cell lines. These results suggest that AGR2 act as a potentially important antigen for immunotherapy against CRC in clinical applications.

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#20888340   2010/11/15 Save this To Up

A divergent substrate-binding loop within the pro-oncogenic protein anterior gradient-2 forms a docking site for Reptin.

Anterior gradient-2 (AGR2) functions in a range of biological systems, including goblet cell formation, limb regeneration, inhibition of p53, and metastasis. There are no well-validated binding proteins for AGR2 protein despite the wealth of data implicating an important cellular function in vertebrates. The yeast two-hybrid system was used to isolate the ATP binding protein Reptin as an AGR2-interacting protein. AGR2 formed a stable complex in human cell lysates with Reptin, thus validating Reptin as an AGR2 binding protein in cells. Reptin was also shown to be overproduced in a panel of primary breast cancer biopsy specimens, relative to normal adjacent tissue from the same patient, suggesting a role in cancer growth in vivo. Mutations were made at the two ATP binding motifs in Reptin to evaluate the effects of ATP on Reptin-AGR2 complex stability. Loss-of-ATP binding mutations at the Walker A motif (K83A) or gain-of-ATP binding mutations at the Walker B motif (D299N) resulted in Reptin mutants with altered oligomerization, thermostability, and AGR2 binding properties. These data indicate that the two ATP binding motifs of Reptin play a role in regulating the stability of the AGR2-Reptin complex. The minimal region of AGR2 interacting with Reptin was localized using overlapping peptide libraries derived from the AGR2 protein sequence. The Reptin docking site was mapped to a divergent octapeptide loop in the AGR2 superfamily between amino acids 104 and 111. Mutations at codon Y104 or F111 in full-length AGR2 destabilized the binding of Reptin. These data highlight the existence of a protein docking motif on AGR2 and an ATP-regulated peptide-binding activity for Reptin. This knowledge has implications for isolating other AGR2-interacting proteins, for developing assays to isolate small molecules that target the Reptin ATP binding site, and for measuring the effects of the Reptin-AGR2 complex in cancer cell growth.

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#20525379   2010/08/06 Save this To Up

Anterior gradient-2 plays a critical role in breast cancer cell growth and survival by modulating cyclin D1, estrogen receptor-alpha and survivin.

Anterior-gradient 2 (AGR2) is an estrogen-responsive secreted protein. Its upregulation has been well documented in a number of cancers, particularly breast cancer, for which mixed data exist on the prognostic implications of AGR2 expression. Although emerging evidence indicates that AGR2 is associated with poor prognosis, its function and impact on cancer-relevant pathways have not been elucidated in breast cancer.

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