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           Search results for: Recombinant Human AKR1C3 Proteins    

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#27453434   2016/08/29 Save this To Up

Rational design of an AKR1C3-resistant analog of PR-104 for enzyme-prodrug therapy.

The clinical stage anti-cancer agent PR-104 has potential utility as a cytotoxic prodrug for exogenous bacterial nitroreductases expressed from replicating vector platforms. However substrate selectivity is compromised due to metabolism by the human one- and two-electron oxidoreductases cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) and aldo-keto reductase 1C3 (AKR1C3). Using rational drug design we developed a novel mono-nitro analog of PR-104A that is essentially free of this off-target activity in vitro and in vivo. Unlike PR-104A, there was no biologically relevant cytotoxicity in cells engineered to express AKR1C3 or POR, under aerobic or anoxic conditions, respectively. We screened this inert prodrug analog, SN34507, against a type I bacterial nitroreductase library and identified E. coli NfsA as an efficient bioactivator using a DNA damage response assay and recombinant enzyme kinetics. Expression of E. coli NfsA in human colorectal cancer cells led to selective cytotoxicity to SN34507 that was associated with cell cycle arrest and generated a robust 'bystander effect' at tissue-like cell densities when only 3% of cells were NfsA positive. Anti-tumor activity of SN35539, the phosphate pre-prodrug of SN34507, was established in 'mixed' tumors harboring a minority of NfsA-positive cells and demonstrated marked tumor control following heterogeneous suicide gene expression. These experiments demonstrate that off-target metabolism of PR-104 can be avoided and identify the suicide gene/prodrug partnership of E. coli NfsA/SN35539 as a promising combination for development in armed vectors.

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#27055738   2016/05/02 Save this To Up

Carbonyl reduction of warfarin: Identification and characterization of human warfarin reductases.

Warfarin is a widely used anticoagulant and, unfortunately, is a drug that is commonly implicated in serious adverse events including fatalities. Although several factors, including the metabolism of warfarin via CYP450, have been reported to affect the safety and efficacy of warfarin therapy, the wide variance in the warfarin dosage in patients has not been completely clarified. In addition to the oxidative metabolism of warfarin mediated by CYP450, reductive metabolism is involved in warfarin biotransformation. However, the reductive metabolism of warfarin has been largely unexplored and deserves further investigation. We studied warfarin reduction by human liver fractions and found a 9-fold higher velocity of warfarin reduction in the cytosol than in microsomes (Vmax=77.2 vs. 8.7pmol/mgprotein/min, respectively). Furthermore, of nine recombinant cytosolic carbonyl reducing enzymes tested for their ability to reduce warfarin, AKR1C3 and CBR1 were identified as warfarin reductases and their kinetic parameters were determined. The internal clearance of warfarin was 3 orders of magnitude higher with AKR1C3 than with CBR1 (CLint=65.922 vs. 0.070μl/mgprotein/min, respectively). This is the first time that warfarin reducing enzymes in human liver subcellular fraction have been identified. Moreover, we have described the chiral aspects of warfarin reduction using an HPLC method that enabled the detection of individual warfarin alcohol stereoisomers. Cytosol and AKR1C3 exhibit the stereoselective metabolism of (R)-warfarin to preferentially form (SR)-warfarin alcohol as the primary in vivo metabolite of warfarin. On the other hand, microsomes and CBR1 preferentially reduce (S)-warfarin to form (RS)-warfarin alcohol and (SS)-warfarin alcohol, respectively.

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#25986883   2015/07/08 Save this To Up

Pharmacokinetic interactions of breast cancer chemotherapeutics with human doxorubicin reductases.

Paclitaxel (PTX), docetaxel (DTX), 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), cyclophosphamide (CYC) or tamoxifen (TMX) are combined with doxorubicin (DOX) in first-line chemotherapy regimens that are indicated for breast cancer patients. Although the efficacies of these drugs in combination treatments have been demonstrated in clinical practice, their possible interference with DOX metabolism has not been described in detail to date. In the present study, we investigated the possible interactions of human carbonyl reducing enzymes with 5-FU, PTX, DTX, CYC and TMX. First, the reducing activities of carbonyl reducing enzymes toward DOX were tested using incubations with purified recombinant enzymes. In the subsequent studies, we investigated the possible effects of the tested anticancer agents on the DOX-reducing activities of the most potent enzymes (AKR1C3, CBR1 and AKR1A1) and on the DOX metabolism driven by MCF7, HepG2 and human liver cytosols. In both of these assays, we observed that CYC and its active metabolites inhibited DOX metabolism. In the final study, we tracked the changes in AKR1C3, CBR1 and AKR1A1 expression levels following exposure to the tested cytostatics in MCF7 and HepG2 cells. Consequently, no significant changes in the expression levels of tested enzymes were detected in either cell line. Based on these findings, it is feasible to presume that inhibition rather than induction plays a role in the interactions of the tested anticancer agents with DOX-reducing enzymes. In conclusion, our results describe important molecular events that occur during combination breast cancer therapies and might modulate pharmacokinetic DOX resistance and/or behaviour.

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#25595226   2015/04/29 Save this To Up

Carbonyl-reducing enzymes as targets of a drug-immobilised affinity carrier.

Proteins, peptides and nucleic acids are commonly isolated and purified in almost all bioscience laboratories. Methods based on molecular recognition are currently the most powerful tool in separation processes due to their selectivity and recovery. The aim of this study was to prove the versatility and the ability of an affinity carrier containing the immobilised ligand oracin (previously developed by our workgroup) to selectively bind carbonyl-reducing enzymes. These enzymes play an important role in metabolic pathways of various endogenic compounds and xenobiotics. Many important drugs, such as doxorubicin, daunorubicin, haloperidol and the model anticancer drug oracin, are metabolised by carbonyl-reducing enzymes. The functionality of the presented carrier was demonstrated with pure recombinant enzymes (AKR1A1, AKR1B1, AKR1B10, AKR1C1, AKR1C2, AKR1C3, AKR1C4, CBR1 and CBR3) as well as with two model biological samples (cell extract from genetically modified Escherichia coli and pre-purified human liver cytosol). Enzymes that show an affinity toward oracin were efficiently captured, gently eluted using 150 mM ammonium hydroxide and subsequently identified by MS. The method is highly selective and robust and may be applied to the purification and identification of various carbonyl-reducing enzymes from any biological sample.

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#24832494   2014/06/16 Save this To Up

Anthracycline resistance mediated by reductive metabolism in cancer cells: the role of aldo-keto reductase 1C3.

Pharmacokinetic drug resistance is a serious obstacle that emerges during cancer chemotherapy. In this study, we investigated the possible role of aldo-keto reductase 1C3 (AKR1C3) in the resistance of cancer cells to anthracyclines. First, the reducing activity of AKR1C3 toward anthracyclines was tested using incubations with a purified recombinant enzyme. Furthermore, the intracellular reduction of daunorubicin and idarubicin was examined by employing the transfection of A549, HeLa, MCF7 and HCT 116 cancer cells with an AKR1C3 encoding vector. To investigate the participation of AKR1C3 in anthracycline resistance, we conducted MTT cytotoxicity assays with these cells, and observed that AKR1C3 significantly contributes to the resistance of cancer cells to daunorubicin and idarubicin, whereas this resistance was reversible by the simultaneous administration of 2'-hydroxyflavanone, a specific AKR1C3 inhibitor. In the final part of our work, we tracked the changes in AKR1C3 expression after anthracycline exposure. Interestingly, a reciprocal correlation between the extent of induction and endogenous levels of AKR1C3 was recorded in particular cell lines. Therefore, we suggest that the induction of AKR1C3 following exposure to daunorubicin and idarubicin, which seems to be dependent on endogenous AKR1C3 expression, eventually might potentiate an intrinsic resistance given by the normal expression of AKR1C3. In conclusion, our data suggest a substantial impact of AKR1C3 on the metabolism of daunorubicin and idarubicin, which affects their pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic behavior. In addition, we demonstrate that the reduction of daunorubicin and idarubicin, which is catalyzed by AKR1C3, contributes to the resistance of cancer cells to anthracycline treatment.

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#24088726   2014/04/28 Save this To Up

Deeper insight into the reducing biotransformation of bupropion in the human liver.

Bupropion is widely used as an antidepressant drug and also as a smoking cessation aid. In humans, this drug is extensively metabolized to form several metabolites. Oxidised hydroxybupropion and two reduced metabolites, threohydrobupropion and erythrohydrobupropion, are major metabolites. All of these metabolites are considered to be active. Although the oxidative metabolic pathway and the central role of CYP2B6 are known, the enzymes that participate in the reduction have not been identified to date. The aim of this study was to confirm the role of human liver subcellular fractions in the metabolism of bupropion and elucidate the contribution of particular carbonyl-reducing enzymes. An HPLC method for the determination of bupropion metabolites was utilised. Bupropion is reduced to threohydrobupropion and less to erythrohydrobupropion in human liver cytosol, microsomes and also mitochondria. Surprisingly, intrinsic clearance for formation of both metabolites is the highest in mitochondrial fraction. Moreover this study provides the first direct evidence that 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1, AKR1C1, AKR1C2, AKR1C3 and CBR1 participate in the reducing biotransformation of bupropion in vitro. The enzyme kinetics of all of these reductases was investigated and kinetic parameters were calculated.

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#23544749   2013/05/03 Save this To Up

Quantitative analysis of the human AKR family members in cancer cell lines using the mTRAQ/MRM approach.

Members of human aldo-keto reductase (AKR) superfamily have been reported to be involved in cancer progression, whereas the final conclusion is not generally accepted. Herein, we propose a quantitative method to measure human AKR proteins in cells using mTRAQ-based multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). AKR peptides with multiple transitions were carefully selected upon tryptic digestion of the recombinant AKR proteins, while AKR proteins were identified by SDS-PAGE fractionation coupled with LC-MS/MS. Utilizing mTRAQ triplex labeling to produce the derivative peptides, calibration curves were generated using the mixed lysate as background, and no significantly different quantification of AKRs was elicited from the two sets of calibration curves under the mixed and single lysate as background. We employed this approach to quantitatively determine the 6 AKR proteins, AKR1A1, AKR1B1, AKR1B10, AKR1C1/C2, AKR1C3, and AKR1C4, in 7 different cancer cell lines and for the first time to obtain the absolute quantities of all the AKR proteins in each cell. The cluster plot revealed that AKR1A and AKR1B were widely distributed in most cancer cells with relatively stable abundances, whereas AKR1Cs were unevenly detected among these cells with diverse dynamic abundances. The AKR quantitative distribution in different cancer cells, therefore, may assist further exploration toward how the AKR proteins are involved in tumorigenesis.

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#21123164   2011/02/18 Save this To Up

Characterization of human liver enzymes involved in the biotransformation of boceprevir, a hepatitis C virus protease inhibitor.

Boceprevir (SCH 503034), a protease inhibitor, is under clinical development for the treatment of human hepatitis C virus infections. In human liver microsomes, formation of oxidative metabolites after incubations with [(14)C]boceprevir was catalyzed by CYP3A4 and CYP3A5. In addition, the highest turnover was observed in recombinant CYP3A4 and CYP3A5. After a single radiolabeled dose to human, boceprevir was subjected to two distinct pathways, namely cytochrome P450-mediated oxidation and ketone reduction. Therefore, attempts were made to identify the enzymes responsible for the formation of carbonyl-reduced metabolites. Human liver S9 and cytosol converted ∼ 28 and ∼ 68% of boceprevir to M28, respectively, in the presence of an NADPH-generating system. Screening of boceprevir with recombinant human aldo-keto reductases (AKRs) revealed that AKR1C2 and AKR1C3 exhibited catalytic activity with respect to the formation of M+2 metabolites (M28 and M31). The formation of M28 was inhibited by 100 μM flufenamic acid (80.3%), 200 μM mefenamic acid (83.7%), and 100 μM phenolphthalein (86.1%), known inhibitors of AKRs, suggesting its formation through carbonyl reduction pathway. Formation of M28 was also inhibited by 100 μM diazepam (75.1%), 1 mM ibuprofen (70%), and 200 μM diflunisal (89.4%). These data demonstrated that CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 are primarily responsible for the formation of oxidative metabolites and the formation of M28 and M31, the keto-reduced metabolites, are most likely mediated by AKR1C2 and AKR1C3. Because the biotransformation and clearance of boceprevir involves two different enzymatic pathways, boceprevir is less likely to be a victim of significant drug-drug interaction with concomitant medication affecting either of these pathways.

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#20837989   2010/11/18 Save this To Up

Naturally occurring variants of human aldo-keto reductases with reduced in vitro metabolism of daunorubicin and doxorubicin.

Doxorubicin (DOX) and daunorubicin (DAUN) are effective anticancer drugs; however, considerable interpatient variability exists in their pharmacokinetics. This may be caused by altered metabolism by nonsynonymous single-nucleotide polymorphisms (ns-SNPs) in genes encoding aldo-keto reductases (AKRs) and carbonyl reductases. This study examined the effect of 27 ns-SNPs, in eight human genes, on the in vitro metabolism of both drugs to their major metabolites, doxorubicinol and daunorubicinol. Kinetic assays measured metabolite levels by high-performance liquid chromatography separation with fluorescence detection using purified, histidine-tagged, human wild-type, and variant enzymes. Maximal rate of activity (V(max)), substrate affinity (K(m)), turnover rate (k(cat)), and catalytic efficiency (k(cat)/K(m)) were determined. With DAUN as substrate, variants for three genes exhibited significant differences in these parameters compared with their wild-type counterparts: the A106T, R170C, and P180S variants significantly reduced metabolism compared with the AKR1C3 wild-type (V(max), 23-47% decrease; k(cat), 22-47%; k(cat)/K(m), 38-44%); the L311V variant of AKR1C4 significantly decreased V(max) (47% lower) and k(cat) and k(cat)/K(m) (both 43% lower); and the A142T variant of AKR7A2 significantly affected all kinetic parameters (V(max) and k(cat), 61% decrease; K(m), 156% increase; k(cat)/K(m), 85% decrease). With DOX, the R170C and P180S variants of AKR1C3 showed significantly reduced V(max) (41-44% decrease), k(cat) (39-45%), and k(cat)/K(m) (52-69%), whereas the A142T variant significantly altered all kinetic parameters for AKR7A2 (V(max), 41% decrease; k(cat), 44% decrease; K(m), 47% increase; k(cat)/K(m), 60% decrease). These findings suggest that ns-SNPs in human AKR1C3, AKR1C4, and AKR7A2 significantly decrease the in vitro metabolism of DOX and DAUN.

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#20036328   2010/02/03 Save this To Up

Aldo-keto reductase 1C3 expression in MCF-7 cells reveals roles in steroid hormone and prostaglandin metabolism that may explain its over-expression in breast cancer.

Aldo-keto reductase (AKR) 1C3 (type 5 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and prostaglandin F synthase), may stimulate proliferation via steroid hormone and prostaglandin (PG) metabolism in the breast. Purified recombinant AKR1C3 reduces PGD(2) to 9alpha,11beta-PGF(2), Delta(4)-androstenedione to testosterone, progesterone to 20alpha-hydroxyprogesterone, and to a lesser extent, estrone to 17beta-estradiol. We established MCF-7 cells that stably express AKR1C3 (MCF-7-AKR1C3 cells) to model its over-expression in breast cancer. AKR1C3 expression increased steroid conversion by MCF-7 cells, leading to a pro-estrogenic state. Unexpectedly, estrone was reduced fastest by MCF-7-AKR1C3 cells when compared to other substrates at 0.1muM. MCF-7-AKR1C3 cells proliferated three times faster than parental cells in response to estrone and 17beta-estradiol. AKR1C3 therefore represents a potential target for attenuating estrogen receptor alpha induced proliferation. MCF-7-AKR1C3 cells also reduced PGD(2), limiting its dehydration to form PGJ(2) products. The AKR1C3 product was confirmed as 9alpha,11beta-PGF(2) and quantified with a stereospecific stable isotope dilution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method. This method will allow the examination of the role of AKR1C3 in endogenous prostaglandin formation in response to inflammatory stimuli. Expression of AKR1C3 reduced the anti-proliferative effects of PGD(2) on MCF-7 cells, suggesting that AKR1C3 limits peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) signaling by reducing formation of 15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)-PGJ(2) (15dPGJ(2)).

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