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#26365706   2015/10/20 Save this To Up

Alkynol natural products target ALDH2 in cancer cells by irreversible binding to the active site.

Falcarinol and stipudiol are natural products with potent anti-cancer activity found in several vegetables. Here, we use a chemical proteomic strategy to identify ALDH2 as a molecular target of falcarinol in cancer cells and confirm enzyme inhibition via covalent alkylation of the active site. Furthermore, the synthesis of stipudiol led to the observation that ALDH2 exhibits preference for alkynol-based binders. Inhibition of ALDH2 impairs detoxification of reactive aldehydes and limits oxidative stress response, two crucial pathways for cellular viability.

1405 related Products with: Alkynol natural products target ALDH2 in cancer cells by irreversible binding to the active site.

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#25354921   2014/12/17 Save this To Up

Tamoxifen, an anticancer drug, is an activator of human aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1.

The modulation of aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity has been suggested as a promising option for the prevention or treatment of many diseases. To date, only few activating compounds of ALDHs have been described. In this regard, N-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-ylmethyl)-2,6-dichlorobenzamide has been used to protect the heart against ischemia/reperfusion damage. In the search for new modulating ALDH molecules, the binding capability of different compounds to the active site of human aldehyde dehydrogenase class 1A1 (ALDH1A1) was analyzed by molecular docking, and their ability to modulate the activity of the enzyme was tested. Surprisingly, tamoxifen, an estrogen receptor antagonist used for breast cancer treatment, increased the activity and decreased the Km for NAD(+) by about twofold in ALDH1A1. No drug effect on human ALDH2 or ALDH3A1 was attained, showing that tamoxifen was specific for ALDH1A1. Protection against thermal denaturation and competition with daidzin suggested that tamoxifen binds to the aldehyde site of ALDH1A1, resembling the interaction of N-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-ylmethyl)-2,6-dichlorobenzamide with ALDH2. Further kinetic analysis indicated that tamoxifen activation may be related to an increase in the Kd for NADH, favoring a more rapid release of the coenzyme, which is the rate-limiting step of the reaction for this isozyme. Therefore, tamoxifen might improve the antioxidant response, which is compromised in some diseases.

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#24169088   2013/11/18 Save this To Up

Inhibition of human alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases by acetaminophen: Assessment of the effects on first-pass metabolism of ethanol.

Acetaminophen is one of the most widely used over-the-counter analgesic, antipyretic medications. Use of acetaminophen and alcohol are commonly associated. Previous studies showed that acetaminophen might affect bioavailability of ethanol by inhibiting gastric alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). However, potential inhibitions by acetaminophen of first-pass metabolism (FPM) of ethanol, catalyzed by the human ADH family and by relevant aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) isozymes, remain undefined. ADH and ALDH both exhibit racially distinct allozymes and tissue-specific distribution of isozymes, and are principal enzymes responsible for ethanol metabolism in humans. In this study, we investigated acetaminophen inhibition of ethanol oxidation with recombinant human ADH1A, ADH1B1, ADH1B2, ADH1B3, ADH1C1, ADH1C2, ADH2, and ADH4, and inhibition of acetaldehyde oxidation with recombinant human ALDH1A1 and ALDH2. The investigations were done at near physiological pH 7.5 and with a cytoplasmic coenzyme concentration of 0.5 mM NAD(+). Acetaminophen acted as a noncompetitive inhibitor for ADH enzymes, with the slope inhibition constants (Kis) ranging from 0.90 mM (ADH2) to 20 mM (ADH1A), and the intercept inhibition constants (Kii) ranging from 1.4 mM (ADH1C allozymes) to 19 mM (ADH1A). Acetaminophen exhibited noncompetitive inhibition for ALDH2 (Kis = 3.0 mM and Kii = 2.2 mM), but competitive inhibition for ALDH1A1 (Kis = 0.96 mM). The metabolic interactions between acetaminophen and ethanol/acetaldehyde were assessed by computer simulation using inhibition equations and the determined kinetic constants. At therapeutic to subtoxic plasma levels of acetaminophen (i.e., 0.2-0.5 mM) and physiologically relevant concentrations of ethanol (10 mM) and acetaldehyde (10 μm) in target tissues, acetaminophen could inhibit ADH1C allozymes (12-26%) and ADH2 (14-28%) in the liver and small intestine, ADH4 (15-31%) in the stomach, and ALDH1A1 (16-33%) and ALDH2 (8.3-19%) in all 3 tissues. The results suggest that inhibition by acetaminophen of hepatic and gastrointestinal FPM of ethanol through ADH and ALDH pathways might become significant at higher, subtoxic levels of acetaminophen.

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#23220590   2013/03/18 Save this To Up

Inhibition of human alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases by cimetidine and assessment of its effects on ethanol metabolism.

Previous studies have reported that cimetidine, an H2-receptor antagonist used to treat gastric and duodenal ulcers, can inhibit alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs) and ethanol metabolism. Human alcohol dehydrogenases and aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs), the principal enzymes responsible for metabolism of ethanol, are complex enzyme families that exhibit functional polymorphisms among ethnic groups and distinct tissue distributions. We investigated the inhibition by cimetidine of alcohol oxidation by recombinant human ADH1A, ADH1B1, ADH1B2, ADH1B3, ADH1C1, ADH1C2, ADH2, and ADH4, and aldehyde oxidation by ALDH1A1 and ALDH2 at pH 7.5 and a cytosolic NAD(+) concentration. Cimetidine acted as competitive or noncompetitive inhibitors for the ADH and ALDH isozymes/allozymes with near mM inhibition constants. The metabolic interactions between cimetidine and ethanol/acetaldehyde were assessed by computer simulation using the inhibition equations and the determined kinetic constants. At therapeutic drug levels (0.015 mM) and physiologically relevant concentrations of ethanol (10 mM) and acetaldehyde (10 μM) in target tissues, cimetidine could weakly inhibit (<5%) the activities of ADH1B2 and ADH1B3 in liver, ADH2 in liver and small intestine, ADH4 in stomach, and ALDH1A1 in the three tissues, but not significantly affect ADH1A, ADH1B1, ADH1C1/2, or ALDH2. At higher drug levels, which may accumulate in cells (0.2 mM), the activities of the weakly-inhibited enzymes may be decreased more significantly. The quantitative effects of cimetidine on metabolism of ethanol and other physiological substrates of ADHs need further investigation.

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#22840776   2012/07/30 Save this To Up

ALDH2 mediates 5-nitrofuran activity in multiple species.

Understanding how drugs work in vivo is critical for drug design and for maximizing the potential of currently available drugs. 5-nitrofurans are a class of prodrugs widely used to treat bacterial and trypanosome infections, but despite relative specificity, 5-nitrofurans often cause serious toxic side effects in people. Here, we use yeast and zebrafish, as well as human in vitro systems, to assess the biological activity of 5-nitrofurans, and we identify a conserved interaction between aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) 2 and 5-nitrofurans across these species. In addition, we show that the activity of nifurtimox, a 5-nitrofuran anti-trypanosome prodrug, is dependent on zebrafish Aldh2 and is a substrate for human ALDH2. This study reveals a conserved and biologically relevant ALDH2-5-nitrofuran interaction that may have important implications for managing the toxicity of 5-nitrofuran treatment.

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#22339434   2012/03/19 Save this To Up

Differences in susceptibility to inactivation of human aldehyde dehydrogenases by lipid peroxidation byproducts.

Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) are involved in the detoxification of aldehydes generated as byproducts of lipid peroxidation. In this work, it was determined that, among the three most studied human ALDH isoforms, ALDH2 showed the highest catalytic efficiency for oxidation of acrolein, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE), and malondialdehyde. ALDH1A1 also exhibited significant activity with these substrates, whereas ALDH3A1 only showed activity with 4-HNE. ALDH2 was also the most sensitive isoform to irreversible inactivation by these compounds. Remarkably, ALDH3A1 was insensitive to these aldehydes even at concentrations as high as 20 mM. Formation of adducts of ALDH1A1 and ALDH2 with acrolein increased their K(d) values for NAD(+) by 2- and 3-fold, respectively. NADH exerted a higher protection than propionaldehyde to the inactivation by acrolein, and this protection was additive. These results suggested that both binding sites, those for aldehyde and NAD(+) in ALDH2, are targets for the inactivation by lipid peroxidation products. Thus, with the advantage of being relatively inactivation-insensitive, ALDH1A1 and ALDH3A1 may be actively participating in the detoxification of these aldehydes in the cells.

1343 related Products with: Differences in susceptibility to inactivation of human aldehyde dehydrogenases by lipid peroxidation byproducts.

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#21252222   2011/03/30 Save this To Up

Regulation of human mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH-2) activity by electrophiles in vitro.

Recently, mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH-2) was reported to reduce ischemic damage in an experimental myocardial infarction model. ALDH-2 activity is redox-sensitive. Therefore, we here compared effects of various electrophiles (organic nitrates, reactive fatty acid metabolites, or oxidants) on the activity of ALDH-2 with special emphasis on organic nitrate-induced inactivation of the enzyme, the biochemical correlate of nitrate tolerance. Recombinant human ALDH-2 was overexpressed in Escherichia coli; activity was determined with an HPLC-based assay, and reactive oxygen and nitrogen species formation was determined by chemiluminescence, fluorescence, protein tyrosine nitration, and diaminonaphthalene nitrosation. The organic nitrate glyceryl trinitrate caused a severe concentration-dependent decrease in enzyme activity, whereas incubation with pentaerythritol tetranitrate had only minor effects. 4-Hydroxynonenal, an oxidized prostaglandin J(2), and 9- or 10-nitrooleate caused a significant inhibition of ALDH-2 activity, which was improved in the presence of Mg(2+) and Ca(2+). Hydrogen peroxide and NO generation caused only minor inhibition of ALDH-2 activity, whereas peroxynitrite generation or bolus additions lead to severe impairment of the enzymatic activity, which was prevented by the thioredoxin/thioredoxin reductase (Trx/TrxR) system. In the presence of glyceryl trinitrate and to a lesser extent pentaerythritol tetranitrate, ALDH-2 may be switched to a peroxynitrite synthase. Electrophiles of different nature potently regulate the enzymatic activity of ALDH-2 and thereby may influence the resistance to ischemic damage in response to myocardial infarction. The Trx/TrxR system may play an important role in this process because it not only prevents inhibition of ALDH-2 but is also inhibited by the ALDH-2 substrate 4-hydroxynonenal.

2683 related Products with: Regulation of human mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH-2) activity by electrophiles in vitro.

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#20616185   2010/09/21 Save this To Up

Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1B1: molecular cloning and characterization of a novel mitochondrial acetaldehyde-metabolizing enzyme.

Ethanol-induced damage is largely attributed to its toxic metabolite, acetaldehyde. Clearance of acetaldehyde is achieved by its oxidation, primarily catalyzed by the mitochondrial class II aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2). ALDH1B1 is another mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) that shares 75% peptide sequence homology with ALDH2. Recent population studies in whites suggest a role for ALDH1B1 in ethanol metabolism. However, to date, no formal documentation of the biochemical properties of ALDH1B1 has been forthcoming. In this current study, we cloned and expressed human recombinant ALDH1B1 in Sf9 insect cells. The resultant enzyme was purified by affinity chromatography to homogeneity. The kinetic properties of purified human ALDH1B1 were assessed using a wide range of aldehyde substrates. Human ALDH1B1 had an exclusive preference for NAD(+) as the cofactor and was catalytically active toward short- and medium-chain aliphatic aldehydes, aromatic aldehydes, and the products of lipid peroxidation, 4-hydroxynonenal and malondialdehyde. Most importantly, human ALDH1B1 exhibited an apparent K(m) of 55 μM for acetaldehyde, making it the second low K(m) ALDH for metabolism of this substrate. The dehydrogenase activity of ALDH1B1 was sensitive to disulfiram inhibition, a feature also shared with ALDH2. The tissue distribution of ALDH1B1 in C57BL/6J mice and humans was examined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and immunohistochemical analysis. The highest expression occurred in the liver, followed by the intestinal tract, implying a potential physiological role for ALDH1B1 in these tissues. The current study is the first report on the expression, purification, and biochemical characterization of human ALDH1B1 protein.

1983 related Products with: Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1B1: molecular cloning and characterization of a novel mitochondrial acetaldehyde-metabolizing enzyme.

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#19911309   2010/01/21 Save this To Up

Analysis of nucleoside-binding proteins by ligand-specific elution from dye resin: application to Mycobacterium tuberculosis aldehyde dehydrogenases.

We show that Cibacron Blue F3GA dye resin chromatography can be used to identify ligands that specifically interact with proteins from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and that the identification of these ligands can facilitate structure determination by enhancing the quality of crystals. Four native Mtb proteins of the aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) family were previously shown to be specifically eluted from a Cibacron Blue F3GA dye resin with nucleosides. In this study we characterized the nucleoside-binding specificity of one of these ALDH isozymes (recombinant Mtb Rv0223c) and compared these biochemical results with co-crystallization experiments with different Rv0223c-nucleoside pairings. We found that the strongly interacting ligands (NAD and NADH) aided formation of high-quality crystals, permitting solution of the first Mtb ALDH (Rv0223c) structure. Other nucleoside ligands (AMP, FAD, adenosine, GTP and NADP) exhibited weaker binding to Rv0223c, and produced co-crystals diffracting to lower resolution. Difference electron density maps based on crystals of Rv0223c with various nucleoside ligands show most share the binding site where the natural ligand NAD binds. From the high degree of similarity of sequence and structure compared to human mitochondrial ALDH-2 (BLAST Z-score = 53.5 and RMSD = 1.5 A), Rv0223c appears to belong to the ALDH-2 class. An altered oligomerization domain in the Rv0223c structure seems to keep this protein as monomer whereas native human ALDH-2 is a multimer.

1813 related Products with: Analysis of nucleoside-binding proteins by ligand-specific elution from dye resin: application to Mycobacterium tuberculosis aldehyde dehydrogenases.

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#19911129   2009/11/13 Save this To Up

Efficient expression of codon-adapted human acetaldehyde dehydrogenase 2 cDNA with 6xHis tag in Pichia pastoris.

Human mitochondrial acetaldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) catalyzes the oxidation of acetaldehyde to acetic acid. Therefore, ALDH2 has therapeutic potential in detoxification of acetaldehyde. Furthermore, ALDH2 catalyzes nitroglycerin to nitrate and 1, 2-glyceryldinitrate during therapy for angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, and heart failure. Large quantities of ALDH2 will be needed for potential clinical practice. In this study, Pichia pastoris was used as a platform for expression of human ALDH2. Based on the ALDH2*1 cDNA sequence, we designed ALDH2 cDNA by choosing the P. pastoris preferred codons and by decreasing the G + C content level. The sequence was synthesized using the overlap extension PCR method. The cDNA and 6xHis tags were subcloned into the plasmid pPIC9K. The recombinant protein was expressed in P. pastoris GS115 and purified using Ni(2+)-Sepharose affinity chromatography. The amount of secreted protein in the culture was 80 mg/L in shake-flask cultivation and 260 mg/L in high-density bioreactor fermentation. Secreted ALDH2 was easily purified from the culture supernatant by using Ni(2+)-Sepharose affinity chromatography. After purification of the fermentation supernatant, the enzyme had a specific activity of 1.2 U/mg protein. The yield was about 16 mg/L in a shake flask culture of P. pastoris GS115 which contained the original human ALDH2*1 cDNA.

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