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#16469875   2006/05/04 Save this To Up

SHP1 tyrosine phosphatase negatively regulates NPM-ALK tyrosine kinase signaling.

Anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL) is frequently associated with the 2;5 translocation and expresses the NPM-ALK fusion protein, which possesses a constitutive tyrosine kinase activity. We analyzed SHP1 tyrosine phosphatase expression and activity in 3 ALK-positive ALCL cell lines (Karpas 299, Cost, and SU-DHL1) and in lymph node biopsies (n = 40). We found an inverse correlation between the level of NPM-ALK phosphorylation and SHP1 phosphatase activity. Pull-down and coimmunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated a SHP1/NPM-ALK association. Furthermore, confocal microscopy performed on ALCL cell lines and biopsy specimens showed the colocalization of the 2 proteins in cytoplasmic bodies containing Y664-phosphorylated NPM-ALK. Dephosphorylation of NPM-ALK by SHP1 demonstrated that NPM-ALK was a SHP1 substrate. Downregulation of SHP1 expression by RNAi in Karpas cells led to hyperphosphorylation of NPM-ALK, STAT3 activation, and increase in cell proliferation. Furthermore, SHP1 overexpression in 3T3 fibroblasts stably expressing NPM-ALK led to the decrease of NPM-ALK phosphorylation, lower cell proliferation, and tumor progression in nude mice. These findings show that SHP1 is a negative regulator of NPM-ALK signaling. The use of tissue microarrays revealed that 50% of ALK-positive ALCLs were positive for SHP1. Our results suggest that SHP1 could be a critical enzyme in ALCL biology and a potential therapeutic target.

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#12748172   2003/08/04 Save this To Up

Identification and characterization of a nuclear interacting partner of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (NIPA).

Anaplastic large-cell lymphoma is a subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphomas characterized by the expression of CD30. More than half of these lymphomas carry a chromosomal translocation t(2;5) leading to expression of the oncogenic tyrosine kinase nucleophosmin-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (NPM-ALK). NPM-ALK is capable of transforming fibroblasts and lymphocytes in vitro and of causing lymphomas in mice. Previously, we and others demonstrated phospholipase C-gamma and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase as crucial downstream signaling mediators of NPM-ALK-induced oncogenicity. In this study, we used an ALK fusion protein as bait in a yeast two-hybrid screen identifying NIPA (nuclear interacting partner of ALK) as a novel downstream target of NPM-ALK. NIPA encodes a 60-kDa protein that is expressed in a broad range of human tissues and contains a classical nuclear translocation signal in its C terminus, which directs its nuclear localization. NIPA interacts with NPM-ALK and other ALK fusions in a tyrosine kinase-dependent manner and is phosphorylated in NPM-ALK-expressing cells on tyrosine and serine residues with serine 354 as a major phosphorylation site. Overexpression of NIPA in Ba/F3 cells was able to protect from apoptosis induced by IL-3 withdrawal. Mutations of the nuclear translocation signal or the Ser-354 phosphorylation site impaired the antiapoptotic function of NIPA. In NPM-ALK-transformed Ba/F3 cells, apoptosis triggered by wortmannin treatment was enhanced by overexpression of putative dominant-negative NIPA mutants. These results implicate an antiapoptotic role for NIPA in NPM-ALK-mediated signaling events.

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#12424201   2003/02/13 Save this To Up

NPM-ALK transgenic mice spontaneously develop T-cell lymphomas and plasma cell tumors.

Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphomas (ALCLs) carry translocations in which the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene is juxtaposed to various genes, the most common of which is the NPM/B23 gene. ALK fusion proteins result in the constitutive activation of ALK tyrosine kinase, thereby enhancing proliferation and increasing cell survival. A direct role for NPM-ALK in cellular transformation has been shown in vitro with immortalized cell lines and in vivo using retroviral transfer experiments. Nonetheless, there is no direct evidence of its oncogenic potential in T lymphocytes, which represent the most common target of ALK chimeras. Here, we describe a new mouse model of lymphomagenesis in which human NPM-ALK transcription was targeted to T cells. NPM-ALK transgenic (Tg) mice were born with the expected mendelian distribution, normal lymphoid organs, and a normal number and proportion of helper and suppressor T cells. However, after a short period of latency, all NPM-ALK Tg mice developed malignant lymphoproliferative disorders (mean survival, 18 weeks). NPM-ALK Tg thymic lymphomas displayed a T-cell phenotype characteristic of immature thymocytes and frequently coexpressed surface CD30. A subset of the NPM-ALK Tg mice also developed clonal B-cell plasma cell neoplasms. These tumors arose in peripheral lymphoid organs (plasmacytomas) or within the bone marrow and often led to peripheral neuropathies and limb paralysis. Our NPM-ALK Tg mice are a suitable model to dissect the molecular mechanisms of ALK-mediated transformation and to investigate the efficacy of new therapeutic approaches for the treatment of human ALCL in vivo.

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#11704868   2001/11/12 Save this To Up

Expression of the oncogenic NPM-ALK chimeric protein in human lymphoid T-cells inhibits drug-induced, but not Fas-induced apoptosis.

Anaplastic large cell lymphomas (ALCLs) are frequently associated with the t(2;5)(p23;q35) translocation, leading to the expression of NPM-ALK, a fusion protein linking nucleophosmin and anaplastic lymphoma kinase, a receptor tyrosine kinase. In ALCLs, dimerization of NPM-ALK leads to constitutive autophosphorylation and activation of the kinase, necessary for NPM-ALK oncogenicity. To investigate whether NPM-ALK, like other oncogenic tyrosine kinases, can inhibit drug-induced apoptosis, we permanently transfected NPM-ALK into Jurkat T-cells. As in ALCLs, NPM-ALK was expressed as a constitutively kinase-active 80 kDa protein, and could be detected by immunocytochemistry in nucleoli, nuclei and cytoplasm. Doxorubicin-induced apoptosis (assessed by cell morphology and annexin V-FITC binding) was significantly inhibited in two independent NPM-ALK-expressing clones (5.2+/-1.8 and 7.5+/-0.8% apoptosis), compared to control vector-transduced cells (36+/-6.7%). Similar results were observed with etoposide. In contrast, Fas-induced apoptosis was not inhibited. Cytochrome c release into the cytosol was delayed in doxorubicin-, but not anti-Fas-treated transfectant cells, indicating that apoptosis inhibition occurred upstream of mitochondrial events. Using NPM-ALK mutants, we demonstrated that inhibition of drug-induced apoptosis: (1) requires functional kinase activity, (2) does not involve phospholipase C-gamma, essential for NPM-ALK-mediated mitogenicity and (3) appears to be phosphoinositide 3-kinase independent, despite a strong Akt/PKB activation observed in wild type NPM-ALK-expressing cells. These results suggest that the NPM-ALK antiapoptotic and mitogenic pathways are distinct.

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#11494142   2001/08/08 Save this To Up

Biochemical differences between SUDHL-1 and KARPAS 299 cells derived from t(2;5)-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma are responsible for the different sensitivity to the antiproliferative effect of p27(Kip1).

An inverse correlation between p27(Kip1) expression and proliferation has been recently established in tissues derived from human lymphomas. The nucleophosmin-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (NPM-ALK)/phospholipase C-gamma (PLCgamma) complex also appears to play an important role in cell proliferation and malignant transformation of anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL). In this study, we report that SUDHL-1 and KARPAS 299 ALCL-derived cell lines present different sensitivity to the antiproliferative effect of recombinant adenovirus-mediated p27(Kip1) expression or to serum-starvation in culture media. The results indicate that exogenous p27(Kip1) may interact with the NPM-ALK/PLCgamma pathway in SUDHL-1 but not in KARPAS 299 cells. This interaction correlates with changes in cell cycle and cell morphology observed mainly in SUDHL-1 cells. The percentage of SUDHL-1 cells in S phase declines, whereas it is almost unchanged in KARPAS 299 cells as compared to the controls after 96 h of infection with the recombinant adenovirus. Furthermore KARPAS 299 cells are resistant to serum-starvation due to deficient p27(Kip1)-upregulation and G1 arrest, whereas SUDHL-1 cells respond with increased G1 phase and p27(Kip1)-upregulation after 48 h of serum-starvation. Both cell lines express appropriate variation of levels of cyclins E and A, and Rb-phosphorylation as expected by growing them in culture media with different FBS content. Although both cell lines express cyclin D2, SUDHL-1 cells only present high level of cyclin D3. Moreover SUDHL-1 cells express high level of PTEN and the PKB/Akt pathway is constitutively activated in both cell lines. Lastly SUDHL-1 cells show higher levels of phosphotyrosine-containing proteins that is correlated with a higher NPM-ALK-associated autophosphorylation activity compared to KARPAS 299 cells. Our study clearly identifies some of the biochemical differences that may explain the difference in sensitivity to antiproliferative stimuli shown by two cell lines derived from the same type of lymphoma.

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#11110708   2000/12/21 Save this To Up

Nucleophosmin-anaplastic lymphoma kinase associated with anaplastic large-cell lymphoma activates the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt antiapoptotic signaling pathway.

More than half of anaplastic large-cell lymphomas (ALCLs) have a chromosomal translocation t(2;5) that leads to the expression of a hybrid protein composed of the nucleolar phosphoprotein nucleophosmin (NPM) and the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) that exhibits an unregulated tyrosine kinase activity. We have previously identified PLC-gamma as a crucial downstream signaling molecule of NPM-ALK that contributes to its mitogenic potential. Here, we show that NPM-ALK recruits the C-terminal SH2 domain of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3kinase) p85 subunit. PI 3-kinase assays revealed that the kinase is activated by NPM-ALK in vivo, in turn activating PKB/Akt in NPM-ALK-expressing cells. The use of 2 specific PI 3-kinase inhibitors, wortmannin and LY294002, demonstrated the requirement of PI 3-kinase for the growth of NPM-ALK-transformed cell lines, as well as a cell line established from a patient with ALCL. Primary murine bone marrow retrovirally transduced with NPM-ALK showed a transformed phenotype that was reversible on treatment with PI 3-kinase inhibitors. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that wortmannin-treated NPM-ALK-transformed cell lines underwent apoptosis. Furthermore, apoptosis induced by overexpression of the proapoptotic molecule Bad could be partially blocked by the overexpression of NPM-ALK. Thus, NPM-ALK activates the antiapoptotic PI 3-kinase/Akt pathway, which likely contributes to the molecular pathogenesis of ALCL. (Blood. 2000;96:4319-4327)

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#10741140   2000/06/20 Save this To Up

[Ki-1 lymphoma].

ALCL is widely recognized with its broad morphologic and phenotypic spectrum causing controversy in the diagnosis of this peculiar neoplasm. It is now beyond doubt that a significant proportion(64 to 84%) of the cases diagnosed as ALCL is closely associated with the expression of chimeric NPM-ALK protein activated by the (2;5) (p23;q35) chromosomal translocation, which can be detected by anti-p80NPM/ALK or ALK1 antibodies. Recently, some investigators including us asserted that these p80NPM/ALK or ALK1-positive(p80/ALK+) ALCLs represent a distinct genetic entity with occurrence in young patients and a favorable prognosis, and should be differentiated from the p80/ALK- tumors with the relatively aggressive clinical course. The p80/ALK+ lymphomas also revealed the characteristic morphology such as horseshoe-like, kidney-like or doughnut-like nuclei and frequent expression of EMA and cytotoxic molecules. However, these features are shared, though to a lesser degree, by other p80/ALK-negative lymphoid neoplasms. Indeed, it is indicated that cytotoxic ALCL cases may be either p80/ALK positive or negative, suggesting that the cytotoxicity and expression of p80/ALK are independent phenomena among the cases of ALCL of T- and null-cell type. Thus, several areas of disagreement and controversy that surround the diagnosis and categorization of ALCL remain.

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#9328447   1997/11/05 Save this To Up

MNDA binds NPM/B23 and the NPM-MLF1 chimera generated by the t(3;5) associated with myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia.

The myeloid cell nuclear differentiation antigen (MNDA) is a nuclear protein expressed specifically in developing cells of the human myelomonocytic lineage, including the end-stage monocytes/macrophages and granulocytes. Nuclear localization, lineage- and stage-specific expression, association with chromatin, and regulation by interferon alpha indicate that this protein is involved in regulating gene expression uniquely associated with the differentiation process and/or function of the monocyte/macrophage. MNDA does not bind specific DNA sequences, but rather a set of nuclear proteins that includes nucleolin (C23). Both in vitro binding assays and co-immunoprecipitation were used to demonstrate that MNDA also binds protein B23 (nucleophosmin/NPM). Three reciprocal chromosome translocations found in certain cases of leukemia/lymphoma involve fusions with the NPM/B23 gene, t(5;17) NPM-RARalpha, t(2;5) NPM-ALK, and the t(3;5) NPM-MLF1. In the current study, MNDA was not able to bind the NPM-ALK chimera originating from the t(2;5) and containing residues 1-117 of NPM. However, MNDA did bind the NPM-MLF1 product of the t(3;5) that contains the N-terminal 175 residues of NPM. The additional 58 amino acids (amino acids 117-175) of the NPM sequence that are contained in the product of the NPM-MLF1 fusion gene relative to the product of the NPM-ALK fusion appear responsible for MNDA binding. This additional NPM sequence contains a nuclear localization signal and clusters of acidic residues believed to bind nuclear localization signals of other proteins. Whereas NPM and nucleolin are primarily localized within the nucleolus, MNDA is distributed throughout the nucleus including the nucleolus, suggesting that additional interactions define overall MNDA localization.

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#9337149   1997/11/05 Save this To Up

The activated anaplastic lymphoma kinase increases cellular proliferation and oncogene up-regulation in rat 1a fibroblasts.

More than 60% of anaplastic large-cell lymphomas (Ki-1 lymphoma) are associated with a t(2;5)(p23;q35) translocation that produces an 80 kDa hyperphosphorylated chimeric protein (p80) derived from the fusion of the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) with nucleophosmin (NPM). The NPM-ALK chimeric gene is an activated tyrosine kinase that has been shown to be a potent oncogene. We have developed a cellular model for the study of p80 action in rat 1a fibroblasts. Expression of cDNA's encoding NPM-ALK (p80) in rat 1a fibroblasts induces anchorage-independent growth in soft agar and promotes foci formation in culture. Cells expressing exogenous p80 showed significantly increased proliferation characterized by accelerated cell cycle entry into S-phase. Consistent with increased G0/G1 to S-phase transition, there is also marked up-regulation of cyclin A and cyclin D1 expression. In addition, p80 transformed cells showed elevated expression of several immediate early genes involved in cellular proliferation, including fos, jun, and c-myc. DNA binding analysis of nuclear extracts prepared from p80 transformed cells reveal marked up-regulation of AP-1 DNA binding activity. Functional AP-1-specific transfection assays also show up-regulation of AP-1-dependent transcriptional activation. These finding demonstrate that p80 transformed rat 1a fibroblast can be a highly useful model system for the molecular and biochemical characterization of the mechanisms of action of this interesting new oncogene.

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#9209450   1997/08/07 Save this To Up

Anaplastic large cell lymphomas expressing the novel chimeric protein p80NPM/ALK: a distinct clinicopathologic entity.

Some anaplastic large cell lymphomas (ALCLs) carry a specific chromosomal translocation, t(2;5)(p23;q35). Recently, we found a novel hyperphosphorylated 80-kDa protein tyrosine kinase, p80, in ALCLs with t(2;5). Subsequent cDNA cloning revealed p80 to be a fusion protein of two genes, the novel tyrosine kinase gene and the nucleophosmin gene, in accordance with the sequence of the NPM/ALK gene (Morris et al.). Meanwhile, the clinicopathologic features of p80-carrying ALCLs have remained unclear. Paraffin sections of 105 cases of ALCL were immunostained using anti-p80 antibody, and 30 of them were shown to express p80. Clinicopathological comparison between p80-positive and -negative ALCLs revealed that p80-positive cases occurred in a far younger patient age group and the patients showed a far better 5-year survival rate. These data showed that p80-positive ALCL is a distinct entity both clinically and pathogenetically, and should be differentiated from p80-negative ALCL.

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