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#22809513   2012/08/13 Save this To Up

Lipasin, a novel nutritionally-regulated liver-enriched factor that regulates serum triglyceride levels.

The metabolic syndrome, a common disorder including glucose intolerance and dyslipidemia, poses a major public health issue. Patients with high blood lipids, such as triglycerides, are at high risk in developing atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. To identify genes involved in metabolism, we performed RNA-seq experiments on the liver and fat in mice treated with a high-fat diet or fasting, and identified Gm6484 (named Lipasin) as a novel nutritionally regulated gene. Human LIPASIN is liver specific, while the mouse one is enriched in the liver and fat, including both brown and white adipose tissues. Obesity increases liver Lipasin, whereas fasting reduces its expression in fat. ANGPTL3 (Angiopoietin-like 3) and ANGPTL4 are critical regulators of blood lipids. LIPASIN shares homology with ANGPTL3's N-terminal domain that is needed for lipid regulation, and with ANGPTL4's N-terminal segment that mediates lipoprotein lipase (LPL) binding. Lipasin overexpression by adenoviruses in mice increases serum triglyceride levels, and a recombinant Lipasin inhibits LPL activity. Therefore, a potential mechanism for Lipasin-mediated triglyceride elevation is through reduced triglyceride clearance by LPL inhibition. Lipasin is thus a novel nutritionally-regulated liver-enriched factor that plays a role in lipid metabolism.

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#22732211   2012/08/20 Save this To Up

Triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins protect lipoprotein lipase from inactivation by ANGPTL3 and ANGPTL4.

Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is important for clearance of triacylglycerols (TG) from plasma both as an enzyme and as a bridging factor between lipoproteins and receptors for endocytosis. The amount of LPL at the luminal side of the capillary endothelium determines to what extent lipids are taken up. Mechanisms to control both the activity of LPL and its transport to the endothelial sites are regulated, but poorly understood. Angiopoietin-like proteins (ANGPTLs) 3 and 4 are potential control proteins for LPL, but plasma concentrations of ANGPTLs do not correlate with plasma TG levels. We investigated the effects of recombinant human N-terminal (NT) ANGPTLs3 and 4 on LPL-mediated bridging of TG-rich lipoproteins to primary mouse hepatocytes and found that the NT-ANGPTLs, in concentrations sufficient to cause inactivation of LPL in vitro, were unable to prevent LPL-mediated lipoprotein uptake. We therefore investigated the effects of lipoproteins (chylomicrons, VLDL and LDL) on the inactivation of LPL in vitro by NT-ANGPTLs3 and 4 and found that LPL activity was protected by TG-rich lipoproteins. In vivo, postprandial TG protected LPL from inactivation by recombinant NT-ANGPTL4 injected to mice. We conclude that lipoprotein-bound LPL is stabilized against inactivation by ANGPTLs. The levels of ANGPTLs found in blood may not be sufficient to overcome this stabilization. Therefore it is likely that the prime site of action of ANGPTLs on LPL is in subendothelial compartments where TG-rich lipoprotein concentration is lower than in blood. This could explain why the plasma levels of TG and ANGPTLs do not correlate.

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#21983347   2012/01/02 Save this To Up

Angiopoietin-like-2 and -3 act through their coiled-coil domains to enhance survival and replating capacity of human cord blood hematopoietic progenitors.

Several angiopoietin-like (ANGPTL) molecules have been implicated in enhancement of ex-vivo expansion of murine and human (hu) hematopoietic stem cells, but there are no reports on hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs). We assessed purified recombinant endotoxin-free hu ANGPTL-2 Coiled-Coil (CC), -3, -3CC, -3 fibrinogen-like domain (FLD), -4, -4CC, -5CC, -6 and -7 for effects on proliferation and survival of HPCs from hu cord blood (CB). None of the ANGPTL molecules stimulated CB HPC proliferation, or enhanced or inhibited colony formation of CB HPC stimulated by various growth factors. However, ANGPTL-2CC, -3, and -3CC significantly enhanced survival of HPC (CFU-GM, BFU-E, CFU-GEMM) subjected to delayed addition of growth factors. Survival enhancing effects of ANGPTL-3 were neutralized by purified anti-ANGPTL-3, but not by anti-ANGPTL-4, -6, or -7. ANGPTL-2CC, -3, and -3CC, but not -4, -6, or -7 also enhanced replating capacity of single CB CFU-GEMM colonies, an estimate of the self-renewal capabilities of HPCs, by greater than 2 fold. Effects of at least ANGPTL-3CC may in part be mediated through phosphorylation of ERK. The ANGPTL molecules did not influence ex-vivo expansion of hu CB CD34(+) cells, alone, or in combination with SCF, TPO, Flt3-ligand, with or without IL-3. Thus, among ANGPTL family members, ANGPTL-2 and -3 had enhancing activities on human HPC survival and replating activity, effects requiring the CC domain of the ANGPTL molecules. This information is of relevance to hu HPC regulation.

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#19542565   2009/12/07 Save this To Up

GPIHBP1 stabilizes lipoprotein lipase and prevents its inhibition by angiopoietin-like 3 and angiopoietin-like 4.

Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored HDL-binding protein (GPIHBP1) binds both LPL and chylomicrons, suggesting that GPIHBP1 is a platform for LPL-dependent processing of triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoproteins. Here, we investigated whether GPIHBP1 affects LPL activity in the absence and presence of LPL inhibitors angiopoietin-like (ANGPTL)3 and ANGPTL4. Like heparin, GPIHBP1 stabilized but did not activate LPL. ANGPTL4 potently inhibited nonstabilized LPL as well as heparin-stabilized LPL but not GPIHBP1-stabilized LPL. Like ANGPTL4, ANGPTL3 inhibited nonstabilized LPL but not GPIHBP1-stabilized LPL. ANGPTL3 also inhibited heparin-stabilized LPL but with less potency than nonstabilized LPL. Consistent with these in vitro findings, fasting serum TGs of Angptl4(-/-)/Gpihbp1(-/-) mice were lower than those of Gpihbp1(-/-) mice and approached those of wild-type littermates. In contrast, serum TGs of Angptl3(-/-)/Gpihbp1(-/-) mice were only slightly lower than those of Gpihbp1(-/-) mice. Treating Gpihbp1(-/-) mice with ANGPTL4- or ANGPTL3-neutralizing antibodies recapitulated the double knockout phenotypes. These data suggest that GPIHBP1 functions as an LPL stabilizer. Moreover, therapeutic agents that prevent LPL inhibition by ANGPTL4 or, to a lesser extent, ANGPTL3, may benefit individuals with hyperlipidemia caused by gene mutations associated with decreased LPL stability.

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#19246456   2009/04/27 Save this To Up

A highly conserved motif within the NH2-terminal coiled-coil domain of angiopoietin-like protein 4 confers its inhibitory effects on lipoprotein lipase by disrupting the enzyme dimerization.

Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is a principal enzyme responsible for the clearance of chylomicrons and very low density lipoproteins from the bloodstream. Two members of the Angptl (angiopoietin-like protein) family, namely Angptl3 and Angptl4, have been shown to inhibit LPL activity in vitro and in vivo. Here, we further investigated the structural basis underlying the LPL inhibition by Angptl3 and Angptl4. By multiple sequence alignment analysis, we have identified a highly conserved 12-amino acid consensus motif that is present within the coiled-coil domain (CCD) of both Angptl3 and Angptl4, but not other members of the Angptl family. Substitution of the three polar amino acid residues (His(46), Gln(50), and Gln(53)) within this motif with alanine abolishes the inhibitory effect of Angptl4 on LPL in vitro and also abrogates the ability of Angptl4 to elevate plasma triglyceride levels in mice. The CCD of Angptl4 interacts with LPL and converts the catalytically active dimers of LPL to its inactive monomers, whereas the mutant protein with the three polar amino acids being replaced by alanine loses such a property. Furthermore, a synthetic peptide consisting of the 12-amino acid consensus motif is sufficient to inhibit LPL activity, although the potency is much lower than the recombinant CCD of Angptl4. In summary, our data suggest that the 12-amino acid consensus motif within the CCD of Angptl4, especially the three polar residues within this motif, is responsible for its interaction with and inhibition of LPL by blocking the enzyme dimerization.

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#19028676   2009/01/12 Save this To Up

The angiopoietin-like proteins ANGPTL3 and ANGPTL4 inhibit lipoprotein lipase activity through distinct mechanisms.

Two members of the angiopoietin-like family of proteins, ANGPTL3 and ANGPTL4, have been shown to play important roles in modulating lipoprotein metabolism in the body. Both proteins were found to suppress lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity in vitro as well as in vivo. However, their mechanisms of inhibition remained poorly understood. Using enzyme kinetic analysis with purified recombinant proteins, we have found key mechanistic differences between ANGPTL3 and ANGPTL4. ANGPTL3 reduced LPL catalytic activity but did not significantly alter its self-inactivation rate. In contrast, ANGPTL4 suppressed LPL by accelerating the irreversible inactivation of LPL. Furthermore, heparin was able to overcome the inhibitory effect of ANGPTL3 on LPL but not that of ANGPTL4. Site-directed mutagenesis demonstrated the critical function of Glu(40) in ANGPTL4. In contrast, when cysteine residues involved in disulfide bond formation were mutated to serines, ANGPTL4 retained its activity. Taken together, our data provide a more detailed view of the structure and mechanisms of these proteins. The finding that ANGPTL3 and ANGPTL4 inhibit LPL activity through distinct mechanisms indicates that the two proteins play unique roles in modulation of lipid metabolism in vivo.

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#17110602   2007/01/18 Save this To Up

Angiopoietin-like protein3 regulates plasma HDL cholesterol through suppression of endothelial lipase.

A low level of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in plasma has been recognized as an aspect of metabolic syndrome and as a crucial risk factor of cardiovascular events. However, the physiological regulation of plasma HDL levels has not been completely defined. Current studies aim to reveal the contribution of angiopoietin-like protein3 (angptl3), previously known as a plasma suppressor of lipoprotein lipase, to HDL metabolism.

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#16429146   2006/02/07 Save this To Up

Angiopoietin-like proteins stimulate ex vivo expansion of hematopoietic stem cells.

Successful ex vivo expansion of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) would greatly benefit the treatment of disease and the understanding of crucial questions of stem cell biology. Here we show, using microarray studies, that the HSC-supportive mouse fetal liver CD3(+) cells specifically express the proteins angiopoietin-like 2 (Angptl2) and angiopoietin-like 3 (Angptl3). We observed a 24- or 30-fold net expansion of long-term HSCs by reconstitution analysis when we cultured highly enriched HSCs for 10 days in the presence of Angptl2 or Angptl3 together with saturating levels of other growth factors. The coiled-coil domain of Angptl2 was capable of stimulating expansion of HSCs. Furthermore, angiopoietin-like 5, angiopoietin-like 7 and microfibril-associated glycoprotein 4 also supported expansion of HSCs in culture.

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#16081640   2005/10/17 Save this To Up

Transgenic angiopoietin-like (angptl)4 overexpression and targeted disruption of angptl4 and angptl3: regulation of triglyceride metabolism.

Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is a key regulator of triglyceride clearance. Its coordinated regulation during feeding and fasting is critical for maintaining lipid homeostasis and energy supply. Angiopoietin-like (Angptl)3 and Angptl4 are secreted proteins that have been demonstrated to regulate triglyceride metabolism by inhibiting LPL. We have taken a targeted genetic approach to generate Angptl4- and Angptl3-deficient mice as well as transgenic mice overexpressing human Angptl4 in the liver. The Angptl4 transgenic mice displayed elevated plasma triglycerides and reduced postheparin plasma (PHP) LPL activity. A purified recombinant Angptl4 protein inhibited mouse LPL and recombinant human LPL activity in vitro. In contrast to the transgenic mice, Angptl4-deficient mice displayed hypotriglyceridemia and increased PHP LPL activity, with greater effects in the fasted compared with the fed state. Angptl3-deficient mice also displayed hypotriglyceridemia with elevated PHP LPL activity, but these mice showed a greater effect in the fed state. Mice deficient in both Angptl proteins showed an additive effect on plasma triglycerides and did not survive past 2 months of age. Our results show that Angptl3 and Angptl4 function to regulate circulating triglyceride levels during different nutritional states and therefore play a role in lipid metabolism during feeding/fasting through differential inhibition of LPL.

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#15336575   2004/08/31 Save this To Up

Leptin and insulin down-regulate angiopoietin-like protein 3, a plasma triglyceride-increasing factor.

We reported previously that angiopoietin-like protein3 (ANGPTL3), a liver-specific secretory factor, increased plasma triglyceride (TG) via inhibition of lipoprotein lipase and free fatty acid (FFA) by activating adipose-lipolysis. The current study examined the regulation of Angptl3 by leptin and insulin, both of which are key players in the metabolic syndrome. Angptl3 expression and plasma ANGPTL3 levels were increased in leptin-resistant C57BL/6J(db/db) and -deficient C57BL/6J(ob/ob) mice, relative to the control. Leptin supplements decreased Angptl3 gene expression and plasma ANGPTL3 in C57BL/6J(ob/ob) mice. The changes of Angptl3 were associated with alterations of plasma TG and FFA levels. Leptin treatment directly suppressed Angptl3 gene expression in hepatocytes. Angptl3 gene expression and plasma protein levels were also increased in insulin-deficient streptozotocin-treated mice. Insulin treatment of hepatocytes decreased Angptl3 gene expression and protein secretion. Our results suggest that elevated ANGPTL3 by leptin- or insulin-resistance is attributed to increased plasma TG and FFA concentrations in obesity.

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