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           Search results for: Recombinant Human APG5 Proteins    

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#12665549   2003/03/31 Save this To Up

Mouse Apg16L, a novel WD-repeat protein, targets to the autophagic isolation membrane with the Apg12-Apg5 conjugate.

Macroautophagy is the major intracellular degradation system delivering cytoplasmic components to the lysosome/vacuole. We have shown that, in yeast and mammalian cells, the Apg12-Apg5 protein conjugate, which is formed by a ubiquitin-like system, is essential for autophagosome formation. In yeast, the Apg12-Apg5 conjugate interacts with a small coiled-coil protein, Apg16, to form a approximately 350 kDa multimeric complex. We demonstrate that the mouse Apg12-Apg5 conjugate forms a approximately 800 kDa protein complex containing a novel WD-repeat protein. Because the N-terminal region of this novel protein shows homology with yeast Apg16, we have designated it mouse Apg16-like protein (Apg16L). Apg16L, however, has a large C-terminal domain containing seven WD repeats that is absent from yeast Apg16. Apg16L interacts with both Apg5 and additional Apg16L monomers; neither interaction, however, depends on the WD-repeat domain. In conjunction with Apg12-Apg5, Apg16L associates with the autophagic isolation membrane for the duration of autophagosome formation. Because these features are similar to yeast Apg16, we concluded Apg16L is the functional counterpart of the yeast Apg16. We also found that membrane targeting of Apg16L requires Apg5 but not Apg12. Because WD-repeat proteins provide a platform for protein-protein interactions, the approximately 800 kDa complex is expected to function in autophagosome formation, further interacting with other proteins in mammalian cells.

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#12417306   2002/11/05 Save this To Up

Apoptosis-specific protein (ASP 45 kDa) is distinct from human Apg5, the homologue of the yeast autophagic gene apg5.

We have examined whether the apoptosis-specific protein p45ASP and human Apg5 are identical proteins. Like p45ASP, myc-hApg5 cross-reacted with a c-Jun antibody and approximately 50% of myc-hApg5 was bound to a Triton X-100-insoluble fraction in HeLa cells. However, soluble myc-hApg5 was degraded during apoptosis induced by staurosporine or TNFalpha/cycloheximide whilst expression of soluble p45ASP was stabilised. Furthermore, myc-hApg5 degradation was blocked by the caspase inhibitor Boc-Asp(OMe)FMK whilst p45ASP expression was eliminated. Moreover, myc-hApg5 ( approximately 32 kDa) never assumed the size of p45ASP (45 kDa). It is therefore likely that p45ASP and human Apg5 are distinct proteins although they do share some common characteristics.

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#9852036   1999/01/26 Save this To Up

A new protein conjugation system in human. The counterpart of the yeast Apg12p conjugation system essential for autophagy.

Autophagy is an intracellular process for bulk degradation of cytoplasmic components. We recently found a protein conjugation system essential for autophagy in the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The C-terminal glycine of a novel modifier protein, Apg12p, is conjugated to a lysine residue of Apg5p via an isopeptide bond. This conjugation reaction is mediated by Apg7p, a ubiquitin activating enzyme (E1)-like enzyme, and Apg10p, suggesting that it is a ubiquitination-like system (Mizushima, N., Noda, T., Yoshimori, T., Tanaka, Y., Ishii, T., George, M. D., Klionsky, D. J., Ohsumi, M. , and Ohsumi, Y. (1998) Nature 395, 395-398). Although autophagy is a ubiquitous process in eukaryotic cells, no molecule involved in autophagy has yet been identified in higher eukaryotes. We reasoned that this conjugation system could be conserved. Here we report cloning and characterization of the human homologue of Apg12 (hApg12). It is a 140-amino acid protein and possesses 27% identity and 48% similarity with the yeast Apg12p, but no apparent homology to ubiquitin. Northern blot analysis showed that its expression was ubiquitous in human tissues. We found that it was covalently attached to another protein. This target protein was identified to be the human Apg5 homologue (hApg5). Mutagenic analyses suggested that this conjugation was formed via an isopeptide bond between the C-terminal glycine of hApg12 and Lys-130 of hApg5. These findings indicate that the Apg12 system is well conserved and may function in autophagy also in human cells.

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