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           Search results for: Recombinant Human Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (ALK p80)   

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#12748172   2003/08/04 Save this To Up

Identification and characterization of a nuclear interacting partner of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (NIPA).

Anaplastic large-cell lymphoma is a subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphomas characterized by the expression of CD30. More than half of these lymphomas carry a chromosomal translocation t(2;5) leading to expression of the oncogenic tyrosine kinase nucleophosmin-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (NPM-ALK). NPM-ALK is capable of transforming fibroblasts and lymphocytes in vitro and of causing lymphomas in mice. Previously, we and others demonstrated phospholipase C-gamma and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase as crucial downstream signaling mediators of NPM-ALK-induced oncogenicity. In this study, we used an ALK fusion protein as bait in a yeast two-hybrid screen identifying NIPA (nuclear interacting partner of ALK) as a novel downstream target of NPM-ALK. NIPA encodes a 60-kDa protein that is expressed in a broad range of human tissues and contains a classical nuclear translocation signal in its C terminus, which directs its nuclear localization. NIPA interacts with NPM-ALK and other ALK fusions in a tyrosine kinase-dependent manner and is phosphorylated in NPM-ALK-expressing cells on tyrosine and serine residues with serine 354 as a major phosphorylation site. Overexpression of NIPA in Ba/F3 cells was able to protect from apoptosis induced by IL-3 withdrawal. Mutations of the nuclear translocation signal or the Ser-354 phosphorylation site impaired the antiapoptotic function of NIPA. In NPM-ALK-transformed Ba/F3 cells, apoptosis triggered by wortmannin treatment was enhanced by overexpression of putative dominant-negative NIPA mutants. These results implicate an antiapoptotic role for NIPA in NPM-ALK-mediated signaling events.

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#12424201   2003/02/13 Save this To Up

NPM-ALK transgenic mice spontaneously develop T-cell lymphomas and plasma cell tumors.

Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphomas (ALCLs) carry translocations in which the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene is juxtaposed to various genes, the most common of which is the NPM/B23 gene. ALK fusion proteins result in the constitutive activation of ALK tyrosine kinase, thereby enhancing proliferation and increasing cell survival. A direct role for NPM-ALK in cellular transformation has been shown in vitro with immortalized cell lines and in vivo using retroviral transfer experiments. Nonetheless, there is no direct evidence of its oncogenic potential in T lymphocytes, which represent the most common target of ALK chimeras. Here, we describe a new mouse model of lymphomagenesis in which human NPM-ALK transcription was targeted to T cells. NPM-ALK transgenic (Tg) mice were born with the expected mendelian distribution, normal lymphoid organs, and a normal number and proportion of helper and suppressor T cells. However, after a short period of latency, all NPM-ALK Tg mice developed malignant lymphoproliferative disorders (mean survival, 18 weeks). NPM-ALK Tg thymic lymphomas displayed a T-cell phenotype characteristic of immature thymocytes and frequently coexpressed surface CD30. A subset of the NPM-ALK Tg mice also developed clonal B-cell plasma cell neoplasms. These tumors arose in peripheral lymphoid organs (plasmacytomas) or within the bone marrow and often led to peripheral neuropathies and limb paralysis. Our NPM-ALK Tg mice are a suitable model to dissect the molecular mechanisms of ALK-mediated transformation and to investigate the efficacy of new therapeutic approaches for the treatment of human ALCL in vivo.

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#11704868   2001/11/12 Save this To Up

Expression of the oncogenic NPM-ALK chimeric protein in human lymphoid T-cells inhibits drug-induced, but not Fas-induced apoptosis.

Anaplastic large cell lymphomas (ALCLs) are frequently associated with the t(2;5)(p23;q35) translocation, leading to the expression of NPM-ALK, a fusion protein linking nucleophosmin and anaplastic lymphoma kinase, a receptor tyrosine kinase. In ALCLs, dimerization of NPM-ALK leads to constitutive autophosphorylation and activation of the kinase, necessary for NPM-ALK oncogenicity. To investigate whether NPM-ALK, like other oncogenic tyrosine kinases, can inhibit drug-induced apoptosis, we permanently transfected NPM-ALK into Jurkat T-cells. As in ALCLs, NPM-ALK was expressed as a constitutively kinase-active 80 kDa protein, and could be detected by immunocytochemistry in nucleoli, nuclei and cytoplasm. Doxorubicin-induced apoptosis (assessed by cell morphology and annexin V-FITC binding) was significantly inhibited in two independent NPM-ALK-expressing clones (5.2+/-1.8 and 7.5+/-0.8% apoptosis), compared to control vector-transduced cells (36+/-6.7%). Similar results were observed with etoposide. In contrast, Fas-induced apoptosis was not inhibited. Cytochrome c release into the cytosol was delayed in doxorubicin-, but not anti-Fas-treated transfectant cells, indicating that apoptosis inhibition occurred upstream of mitochondrial events. Using NPM-ALK mutants, we demonstrated that inhibition of drug-induced apoptosis: (1) requires functional kinase activity, (2) does not involve phospholipase C-gamma, essential for NPM-ALK-mediated mitogenicity and (3) appears to be phosphoinositide 3-kinase independent, despite a strong Akt/PKB activation observed in wild type NPM-ALK-expressing cells. These results suggest that the NPM-ALK antiapoptotic and mitogenic pathways are distinct.

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#11494142   2001/08/08 Save this To Up

Biochemical differences between SUDHL-1 and KARPAS 299 cells derived from t(2;5)-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma are responsible for the different sensitivity to the antiproliferative effect of p27(Kip1).

An inverse correlation between p27(Kip1) expression and proliferation has been recently established in tissues derived from human lymphomas. The nucleophosmin-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (NPM-ALK)/phospholipase C-gamma (PLCgamma) complex also appears to play an important role in cell proliferation and malignant transformation of anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL). In this study, we report that SUDHL-1 and KARPAS 299 ALCL-derived cell lines present different sensitivity to the antiproliferative effect of recombinant adenovirus-mediated p27(Kip1) expression or to serum-starvation in culture media. The results indicate that exogenous p27(Kip1) may interact with the NPM-ALK/PLCgamma pathway in SUDHL-1 but not in KARPAS 299 cells. This interaction correlates with changes in cell cycle and cell morphology observed mainly in SUDHL-1 cells. The percentage of SUDHL-1 cells in S phase declines, whereas it is almost unchanged in KARPAS 299 cells as compared to the controls after 96 h of infection with the recombinant adenovirus. Furthermore KARPAS 299 cells are resistant to serum-starvation due to deficient p27(Kip1)-upregulation and G1 arrest, whereas SUDHL-1 cells respond with increased G1 phase and p27(Kip1)-upregulation after 48 h of serum-starvation. Both cell lines express appropriate variation of levels of cyclins E and A, and Rb-phosphorylation as expected by growing them in culture media with different FBS content. Although both cell lines express cyclin D2, SUDHL-1 cells only present high level of cyclin D3. Moreover SUDHL-1 cells express high level of PTEN and the PKB/Akt pathway is constitutively activated in both cell lines. Lastly SUDHL-1 cells show higher levels of phosphotyrosine-containing proteins that is correlated with a higher NPM-ALK-associated autophosphorylation activity compared to KARPAS 299 cells. Our study clearly identifies some of the biochemical differences that may explain the difference in sensitivity to antiproliferative stimuli shown by two cell lines derived from the same type of lymphoma.

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#11110708   2000/12/21 Save this To Up

Nucleophosmin-anaplastic lymphoma kinase associated with anaplastic large-cell lymphoma activates the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt antiapoptotic signaling pathway.

More than half of anaplastic large-cell lymphomas (ALCLs) have a chromosomal translocation t(2;5) that leads to the expression of a hybrid protein composed of the nucleolar phosphoprotein nucleophosmin (NPM) and the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) that exhibits an unregulated tyrosine kinase activity. We have previously identified PLC-gamma as a crucial downstream signaling molecule of NPM-ALK that contributes to its mitogenic potential. Here, we show that NPM-ALK recruits the C-terminal SH2 domain of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3kinase) p85 subunit. PI 3-kinase assays revealed that the kinase is activated by NPM-ALK in vivo, in turn activating PKB/Akt in NPM-ALK-expressing cells. The use of 2 specific PI 3-kinase inhibitors, wortmannin and LY294002, demonstrated the requirement of PI 3-kinase for the growth of NPM-ALK-transformed cell lines, as well as a cell line established from a patient with ALCL. Primary murine bone marrow retrovirally transduced with NPM-ALK showed a transformed phenotype that was reversible on treatment with PI 3-kinase inhibitors. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that wortmannin-treated NPM-ALK-transformed cell lines underwent apoptosis. Furthermore, apoptosis induced by overexpression of the proapoptotic molecule Bad could be partially blocked by the overexpression of NPM-ALK. Thus, NPM-ALK activates the antiapoptotic PI 3-kinase/Akt pathway, which likely contributes to the molecular pathogenesis of ALCL. (Blood. 2000;96:4319-4327)

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#9337149   1997/11/05 Save this To Up

The activated anaplastic lymphoma kinase increases cellular proliferation and oncogene up-regulation in rat 1a fibroblasts.

More than 60% of anaplastic large-cell lymphomas (Ki-1 lymphoma) are associated with a t(2;5)(p23;q35) translocation that produces an 80 kDa hyperphosphorylated chimeric protein (p80) derived from the fusion of the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) with nucleophosmin (NPM). The NPM-ALK chimeric gene is an activated tyrosine kinase that has been shown to be a potent oncogene. We have developed a cellular model for the study of p80 action in rat 1a fibroblasts. Expression of cDNA's encoding NPM-ALK (p80) in rat 1a fibroblasts induces anchorage-independent growth in soft agar and promotes foci formation in culture. Cells expressing exogenous p80 showed significantly increased proliferation characterized by accelerated cell cycle entry into S-phase. Consistent with increased G0/G1 to S-phase transition, there is also marked up-regulation of cyclin A and cyclin D1 expression. In addition, p80 transformed cells showed elevated expression of several immediate early genes involved in cellular proliferation, including fos, jun, and c-myc. DNA binding analysis of nuclear extracts prepared from p80 transformed cells reveal marked up-regulation of AP-1 DNA binding activity. Functional AP-1-specific transfection assays also show up-regulation of AP-1-dependent transcriptional activation. These finding demonstrate that p80 transformed rat 1a fibroblast can be a highly useful model system for the molecular and biochemical characterization of the mechanisms of action of this interesting new oncogene.

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#9209450   1997/08/07 Save this To Up

Anaplastic large cell lymphomas expressing the novel chimeric protein p80NPM/ALK: a distinct clinicopathologic entity.

Some anaplastic large cell lymphomas (ALCLs) carry a specific chromosomal translocation, t(2;5)(p23;q35). Recently, we found a novel hyperphosphorylated 80-kDa protein tyrosine kinase, p80, in ALCLs with t(2;5). Subsequent cDNA cloning revealed p80 to be a fusion protein of two genes, the novel tyrosine kinase gene and the nucleophosmin gene, in accordance with the sequence of the NPM/ALK gene (Morris et al.). Meanwhile, the clinicopathologic features of p80-carrying ALCLs have remained unclear. Paraffin sections of 105 cases of ALCL were immunostained using anti-p80 antibody, and 30 of them were shown to express p80. Clinicopathological comparison between p80-positive and -negative ALCLs revealed that p80-positive cases occurred in a far younger patient age group and the patients showed a far better 5-year survival rate. These data showed that p80-positive ALCL is a distinct entity both clinically and pathogenetically, and should be differentiated from p80-negative ALCL.

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#8701987   1996/09/04 Save this To Up

Detection of t(2;5)(p23;q35) translocation by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization in CD30-positive primary cutaneous lymphoma and lymphomatoid papulosis.

The t(2;5) generates a chimeric NPM-ALK transcript encoded by the nucleophosmin NPM gene fused to the anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene ALK. Using a reverse transcriptase nested polymerase chain reaction assay we have detected NPM-ALK transcripts within CD30+ primary cutaneous lymphoma and lymphomatoid papulosis (LP). The t(2;5) was identified in 4 out of 9 CD30+ anaplastic lymphomas and in 1 out of 4 CD30+ pleomorphic lymphomas. Moreover, the t(2;5) was detected in 3 out of 10 LPs. All NPM-ALK-positive lymphomas and 1 NPM-ALK-positive LP exhibited a clonal rearrangement of the T cell receptor gamma-chain gene. The t(2;5) was detected in 2 cases of LP without other evidence for a clonal lymphoid population. To identify cells carrying the t(2;5) translocation, we used immunohistochemistry to detect the ALK-encoded p80 protein and in situ hybridization for the specific detection of NPM-ALK transcripts. Both p80 protein and NPM-ALK transcripts were expressed by anaplastic or large CD30+ lymphoma cells with positive NPM-ALK amplification. The presence of t(2;5) in a subset of CD30+ cutaneous lymphoma and LP may indicate a common pathogenesis with a subset of anaplastic nodal lymphoma.

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#8633037   1996/07/01 Save this To Up

Characterization of the transforming activity of p80, a hyperphosphorylated protein in a Ki-1 lymphoma cell line with chromosomal translocation t(2;5).

We have molecularly cloned a cDNA encoding a protein uniquely expressed and hyperphosphorylated at tyrosine residues in a Ki-1 lymphoma cell that contained chromosomal translocation t(2;5). The encoded protein p80 was shown to be generated by fusion of a protein-tyrosine kinase and a nucleolar protein B23/nucleophosmin (NPM). The coding sequence of this cDNA turned out to be virtually identical to that of the fusion cDNA for NPM-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) previously cloned from the transcript of the gene at the breakpoint of the same translocation. Overexpression of p80 in NIH 3T3 cells induced neoplastic transformation, suggesting that the p80 kinase is aberrantly activated. The normal form of p80 was predicted to be a receptor-type tyrosine kinase on the basis of its sequence similarity to the insulin receptor family of kinases. However, an immunofluorescence study using COS cells revealed that p80 was localized to the cytoplasm. Thus, subcellular translocation and activation of the tyrosine kinase presumably by its structural alteration would cause the malignant transformation. We also showed that a mutant p80 lacking the NPM portion was unable to transform NIH 3T3 cells. Thus, the NPM sequence is essential for the transforming activity, suggesting that the chromosomal translocation is responsible for the oncogenesis. Finally, Shc and insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) were tyrosine-phosphorylated and bound to p80 in p80-transformed cells. However, mutants of p80 that were defective for binding to and phosphorylation of Shc and insulin receptor substrate 1 could transform NIH 3T3 cells. Association of these mutants with GRB2 was still observed, suggesting that interaction of p80 with GRB2 but not with Shc or IRS-1 was relevant for cell transformation.

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#8558920   1996/02/26 Save this To Up

The (2;5)(p23;q35) translocation in cell lines derived from malignant lymphomas: absence of t(2;5) in Hodgkin-analogous cell lines.

The CD30+ anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) represents a new lymphoma entity thought to be related to Hodgkin'S disease (HD), but displaying also its own unique features. Cytogenetic studies of ALCL have demonstrated the presence of a (2;5)(p23;q35) translocation in a substantial number of these cases. Recently, the t(2;5) has been cloned and described to represent fusion of the NPM gene with the ALK gene on chromosome 5. To better define the spectrum of lymphomas containing this abnormality we have analyzed 50 continuous human cell lines established from various types of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, ALCL and HD. In a first step, the expression of the NPM-ALK fusion gene was examined by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In a second step, the t(2;5)-carrying cells were tested for the translation of functional chimeric mRNA into a fusion protein by immuno-staining of single cells with a polyclonal antibody. The NPM-ALK fusion transcript and the p80 protein were detected in eight of nine ALCL cell lines. We were unable to find PCR evidence for the t(2;5) in any of the non-ALCL cell lines including other CD30+ cell lines. As all seven bona fide HD cell lines were NPM-ALK-negative, these results do not support the notion that the t(2;5) represents a chromosomal aberration common to both ALCL and HD.

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