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#28637867   2017/06/22 Save this To Up

Full-length cellular β-secretase has a trimeric subunit stoichiometry, and its sulfur-rich transmembrane interaction site modulates cytosolic copper compartmentalization.

The β-secretase (BACE1) initiates processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) into Aβ peptides, which have been implicated as central players in the pathology of Alzheimer disease. BACE1 has been described as a copper-binding protein and its oligomeric state as being monomeric, dimeric, and/or multimeric, but the native cellular stoichiometry has remained elusive. Here, by using single-molecule fluorescence and in vitro cross-linking experiments with photo-activatable unnatural amino acids, we show that full-length BACE1, independently of its subcellular localization, exists as trimers in human cells. We found that trimerization requires the BACE1 transmembrane sequences (TMSs) and cytoplasmic domains, with residues Ala(463) and Cys(466) buried within the trimer interface of the sulfur-rich core of the TMSs. Our 3D model predicts that the sulfur-rich core of the trimeric BACE1 TMS is accessible to metal ions, but copper ions did not trigger trimerization. The results of functional assays of endogenous BACE1 suggest that it has a role in intracellular copper compartmentalization by transferring cytosolic copper to intracellular compartments, while leaving the overall cellular copper concentration unaltered. Adding to existing physiological models, our results provide novel insight into the atypical interactions between copper and BACE1 and into its non-enzymatic activities. In conclusion, therapeutic Alzheimer disease prevention strategies aimed at decreasing BACE1 protein levels should be regarded with caution, because adverse effects in copper homeostasis may occur.

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#28381772   2017/04/06 Save this To Up

Inhibition of β-Secretase Activity by Monoterpenes, Sesquiterpenes, and C13 Norisoprenoids.

Inhibition of β-secretase (BACE1) is currently regarded as the leading treatment strategy for Alzheimer's disease. In the present study, we aimed to screen the in vitro inhibitory activity of 80 types of aroma compounds (monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and C13 norisoprenoids), including plant-based types, at a 200-μM concentration against a recombinant human BACE1. The results showed that the most potent inhibitor of BACE1 was geranyl acetone followed by (+)-camphor, (-)-fenchone, (+)-fenchone, and (-)-camphor with the half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 51.9 ± 3.9, 95.9 ± 11.0, 106.3 ± 14.9, 117.0 ± 18.6, and 134.1 ± 16.4 μM, respectively. Furthermore, the mechanism of inhibition of BACE1 by geranyl acetone was analyzed using Dixon kinetics plus Cornish-Bowden plots, which revealed mixed-type mode. Therefore aroma compounds may be used as potential lead molecules for designing anti-BACE1 agents.

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#27754406   2016/10/18 Save this To Up

The Identification of Biochanin A as a Potent and Selective β-Site App-Cleaving Enzyme 1 (Bace1) Inhibitor.

Beta-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) is the enzyme involved in the abnormal production of the amyloidogenic peptide Aβ, one of the major causes of histological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Thus, BACE1 represents a key target protein in the development of new potential target for the prevention and treatment of AD. In this study, in vitro anti-AD activity of biochanin A, a dietary isoflavone found in legumes and most notably red clover, were evaluated via human recombinant BACE1 inhibition assay, as well as enzyme kinetic and molecular docking predictions. Enzyme-based assays revealed that biochanin A exhibited a non-competitive inhibitory effect on BACE1 with an IC50 value of 28 μM and a Ki of 43 μM. In addition, docking simulation results demonstrated that ASN37, SER35, SER36, TRP76, and ARG128 residues of BACE1 interacted with biochanin A. Moreover, the binding energy of biochanin A was negative (-8.4 kcal/mol), indicating that it might potentiate a strong binding between the compound and the allosteric site of BACE1, resulting in further effective BACE1 inhibition. The present novel findings raise the possibility that biochanin A may be used as a preventative, developed into a therapeutic agent for AD, or both.

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#27294139   2016/06/13 Save this To Up

Deposition of BACE-1 Protein in the Brains of APP/PS1 Double Transgenic Mice.

The main causes of Alzheimer's disease remain elusive. Previous data have implicated the BACE-1 protein as a central player in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. However, many inhibitors of BACE-1 have failed during preclinical and clinical trials for AD treatment. Therefore, uncovering the exact role of BACE-1 in AD may have significant impact on the future development of therapeutic agents. Three- and six-month-old female APP/PS1 double transgenic mice were used to study abnormal accumulation of BACE-1 protein in brains of mice here. Immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry, and western blot were performed to measure the distributing pattern and expression level of BACE-1. We found obvious BACE-1 protein accumulation in 3-month-old APP/PS1 mice, which had increased by the time of 6 months. Coimmunostaining results showed BACE-1 surrounded amyloid plaques in brain sections. The abnormal protein expression might not be attributable to the upregulation of BACE-1 protein, as no significant difference of protein expression was observed between wild-type and APP/PS1 mice. With antibodies against BACE-1 and CD31, we found a high immunoreactive density of BACE-1 protein on the outer layer of brain blood vessels. The aberrant distribution of BACE-1 in APP/PS1 mice suggests BACE-1 may be involved in the microvascular abnormality of AD.

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#26948382   2016/04/11 Save this To Up

A designed recombinant fusion protein for targeted delivery of siRNA to the mouse brain.

RNA interference represents a novel therapeutic approach to modulate several neurodegenerative disease-related genes. However, exogenous delivery of siRNA restricts their transport into different tissues and specifically into the brain mainly due to its large size and the presence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). To overcome these challenges, we developed here a strategy wherein a peptide known to target specific gangliosides was fused to a double-stranded RNA binding protein to deliver siRNA to the brain parenchyma. The designed fusion protein designated as TARBP-BTP consists of a double-stranded RNA-binding domain (dsRBD) of human Trans Activation response element (TAR) RNA Binding Protein (TARBP2) fused to a brain targeting peptide that binds to monosialoganglioside GM1. Conformation-specific binding of TARBP2 domain to siRNA led to the formation of homogenous serum-stable complex with targeting potential. Further, uptake of the complex in Neuro-2a, IMR32 and HepG2 cells analyzed by confocal microscopy and fluorescence activated cell sorting, revealed selective requirement of GM1 for entry. Remarkably, systemic delivery of the fluorescently labeled complex (TARBP-BTP:siRNA) in ΑβPP-PS1 mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD) led to distinctive localization in the cerebral hemisphere. Further, the delivery of siRNA mediated by TARBP-BTP led to significant knockdown of BACE1 in the brain, in both ΑβPP-PS1 mice and wild type C57BL/6. The study establishes the growing importance of fusion proteins in delivering therapeutic siRNA to brain tissues.

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#26840340   2016/02/04 Save this To Up

Identification of Human Islet Amyloid Polypeptide as a BACE2 Substrate.

Pancreatic amyloid formation by islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) is a hallmark pathological feature of type 2 diabetes. IAPP is stored in the secretory granules of pancreatic beta-cells and co-secreted with insulin to maintain glucose homeostasis. IAPP is innocuous under homeostatic conditions but imbalances in production or processing of IAPP may result in homodimer formation leading to the rapid production of cytotoxic oligomers and amyloid fibrils. The consequence is beta-cell dysfunction and the accumulation of proteinaceous plaques in and around pancreatic islets. Beta-site APP-cleaving enzyme 2, BACE2, is an aspartyl protease commonly associated with BACE1, a related homolog responsible for amyloid processing in the brain and strongly implicated in Alzheimer's disease. Herein, we identify two distinct sites of the mature human IAPP sequence that are susceptible to BACE2-mediated proteolytic activity. The result of proteolysis is modulation of human IAPP fibrillation and human IAPP protein degradation. These results suggest a potential therapeutic role for BACE2 in type 2 diabetes-associated hyperamylinaemia.

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#26818210   2016/01/28 Save this To Up

Recombinant pre-miR-29b for Alzheimer´s disease therapeutics.

MicroRNAs are arising as the next generation of diagnostic and therapeutic tools for gene silencing. Studies demonstrated that the miR-29 expression is decreased in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients displaying high levels of human β-secretase (hBACE1). Recent advances toward an effective therapy for AD intend to employ miR-29 to suppress hBACE1 expression and subsequent Amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide. However, delivery of mature miRNA has demonstrated modest efficacy in vitro; therefore, the preparation of highly pure and biologically active pre-miRNA arises as one of the most important challenges in the development of these therapeutic strategies. Recently, we described a new strategy based arginine-affinity chromatography to specifically purify the recombinant pre-miR-29b. Following this strategy, the purified pre-miR-29b was successfully encapsulated into polyplexes that were further delivered in cytoplasm. It was verified that Chitosan/pre-miR-29b and Polyethylenimine/pre-miR-29b systems efficiently delivered pre-miR-29b to N2a695 cells, thus reducing the hBACE1 protein expression (around 78% and 86%, respectively) and Aβ42 levels (approximately 44% and 47%, respectively). Furthermore, pre-miR-29b downregulates the hBACE1 mRNA expression in 80%. Overall, it was demonstrated that the recombinant pre-miR-29b using polyplexes allowed to decrease the hBACE1 and Aβ42 expression levels, improving the currently available methodologies of miRNA-based therapeutics.

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#26779945   2016/03/01 Save this To Up

Application of BACE1 immobilized enzyme reactor for the characterization of multifunctional alkaloids from Corydalis cava (Fumariaceae) as Alzheimer's disease targets.

In our ongoing study focused on Corydalis cava (Fumariaceae), used in folk medicine in the treatment of memory dysfunctions, we have investigated fifteen previously isolated alkaloids for their potential multifunctional activity on Alzheimer's disease (AD) targets. Determination of ß-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) inhibition was carried out using a BACE1-Immobilized Enzyme Reactor (IMER) by validating the assay with a multi-well plate format Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) assay. Seven alkaloids out of fifteen were found to be active, with (-)-corycavamine (3) and (+)-corynoline (5) demonstrating the highest BACE1 inhibition activity, in the micromolar range, in a concentration dependent manner. BACE1-IMER was found to be a valid device for the fast screening of inhibitors and the determination of their potency. In a permeation assay (PAMPA) for the prediction of blood-brain barrier (BBB) penetration, the most active compounds, (-)-corycavamine (3) and (+)-corynoline (5), were found to be able to cross the BBB. Not all compounds showed activity against glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) and casein kinase-1δ (CK-1δ). On the basis of the reported results, we found that some C. cava alkaloids have multifunctional activity against AD targets (prolyl oligopeptidase, cholinesterases and BACE1). Moreover, we tried to elucidate the treatment effectivity (rational use) of its extract in memory dysfunction in folk medicine.

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#26724817   2016/03/16 Save this To Up

Inhibitory evaluation of oligonol on α-glucosidase, protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B, cholinesterase, and β-secretase 1 related to diabetes and Alzheimer's disease.

Oligonol is a low-molecular-weight form of polyphenol that is derived from lychee fruit extract and contains catechin-type monomers and oligomers of proanthocyanidins. This study investigates the anti-diabetic activities of oligonol via α-glucosidase and human recombinant protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) assays, as well as its anti-Alzheimer activities by evaluating the ability of this compound to inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), and β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1). Oligonol exhibited potent concentration-dependent anti-diabetic activities by inhibiting α-glucosidase and PTP1B with IC50 values of 23.14 µg/mL and 1.02 µg/mL, respectively. Moreover, a kinetics study revealed that oligonol inhibited α-glucosidase (K i = 22.36) and PTP1B (K i = 8.51) with characteristics typical of a mixed inhibitor. Oligonol also displayed potent concentration-dependent inhibitory activity against AChE and BChE with IC50 values of 4.34 µg/mL and 2.07 µg/mL, respectively. However, oligonol exhibited only marginal concentration-dependent BACE1 inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 130.45 µg/mL. A kinetics study revealed mixed-type inhibition against AChE (K i = 4.65) and BACE1 (K i = 58.80), and noncompetitive-type inhibition against BChE (K i = 9.80). Furthermore, oligonol exhibited dose-dependent inhibitory activity against peroxynitrite (ONOO(-))-mediated protein tyrosine nitration. These results indicate that oligonol has strong preventative potential in diabetes mellitus and in Alzheimer's disease.

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#26429544   2015/10/02 Save this To Up

[Single chain antibody against β-site of amyloid precursor protein inhibits the generation of β-amyloid peptide].

To construct and express a single chain fragment of variety region (scFv) against β-site of amyloid precursor protein (APP), and evaluate the effect of scFv on α- and β-processing of APP.

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