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#28655776   2017/06/28 Save this To Up

Protein Sam68 regulates the alternative splicing of survivin DEx3.

Messenger RNA alternative splicing (AS) regulates the expression of a variety of genes involved in both physiological and pathological processes. AS of the anti-apoptotic and proliferation-associated survivin (BIRC5) gene generates six isoforms, which regulate key aspects of cancer initiation and progression. One of the isoforms is survivin DEx3, in which the exclusion of exon 3 generates a unique carboxyl terminus with specific anti-apoptotic functions. This isoform is highly expressed in advanced stages of breast and cervical tumors. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms that regulate survivin DEx3 mRNA AS is clearly important. To this end, we designed a minigene (M), and in combination with a series of deletions and site-directed mutations, we determined that the first 22 bp of exon 3 contain cis-acting elements that enhance the exclusion of exon 3 to generate the survivin DEx3 mRNA isoform. Furthermore, using pulldown assays, we discovered that Sam68 is a possible trans-acting factor that binds to this region and regulates exon 3 splicing. This result was corroborated using a cell line in which the Sam68 binding site in the survivin gene was mutated with the CRISPR/Cas system. This work provides the first clues regarding the regulation of survivin DEx3 mRNA splicing.

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#28554567   2017/05/30 Save this To Up

Purification and characterization of a bioactive alpha-fetoprotein produced by HEK-293 cells.

Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is a biomarker that is used to diagnose hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and can promote malignancy in HCC. AFP is an important target in the treatment of liver cancer. To obtain enough AFP to screen for AFP inhibitors, we expressed and purified AFP in HEK-293 cells. In the present study, we produced AFP in the cells and harvested highly pure rAFP (or recombinant expression AFP in HEK-293 cells). We also analysed the bioactivity of rAFP and found that rAFP promoted growth of the human HCC cells, antagonize paclitaxel inhibition of HCC cell proliferation, suppress expression of active caspase-3, and promote expression of Ras and survivin. This study provides a method to produce significant amounts of AFP for use in biochemical assays and functional studies and to screen AFP inhibitors for use in HCC therapy.

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#28400195   2017/04/12 Save this To Up

EGFR in Tumor-Associated Myeloid Cells Promotes Development of Colorectal Cancer in Mice and Associates With Outcomes of Patients.

Inhibitors of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) are the first-line therapy for patients with metastatic colorectal tumors without RAS mutations. However, EGFR inhibitors are ineffective in these patients, and tumor level of EGFR does not associate with response to therapy. We screened human colorectal tumors for EGFR-positive myeloid cells and investigated their association with patient outcome. We also performed studies in mice to evaluate how EGFR expression in tumor cells and myeloid cells contributes to development of colitis-associated cancer and Apc(Min)-dependent intestinal tumorigenesis.

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#28091910   2017/01/16 Save this To Up

Inhibition of Apoptosis Stages of Human Blood Lymphocytes after Exposure to Carbon Monoxide in the Presence of Recombinant Interleukin-2.

We studied the effect of carbon monoxide (60-, 75-, and 90-min exposure) on the expression of antiapoptotic proteins (survivin and Bcl-2) in human blood lymphocytes in the presence of recombinant IL-2 in an apoptosis-inducing dose (0.1 ng/ml). Incubation of cells in atmosphere with carbon monoxide in the presence of recombinant IL-2 was accompanied by accumulation of Bcl-2 protein with simultaneous decrease of survivin content. It was concluded that carbon monoxide plays a role in the dysregulation of apoptosis of human blood lymphocytes Bcl-2 (i.e. CO inhibits the proapoptotic effect of recombinant IL-2).

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#28067150   2017/01/09 Save this To Up

Low-dose 5-fluorouracil sensitizes HepG2 cells to TRAIL through TRAIL receptor DR5 and survivin-dependent mechanisms.

Tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a promising candidate for cancer treatment due to its highly selective apoptosis-inducing action on tumour cells without harming normal cells. However, because of TRAIL resistance by some cancer cells, combined treatment with sensitizing agents is required to enhance the anticancer potential of TRAIL. In the present study, we investigated the sensitizing effect of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) on TRAIL-induced apoptosis in TRAIL-resistant HepG2 hepatocarcinoma cells. The results show that 5-FU pretreatment could sensitize HepG2 cells to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis. The enhanced induction of cell death by the 5-FU/TRAIL combination was mediated by DR5 up-regulation and survivin down-regulation. Furthermore, this combination treatment significantly inhibited the growth of human xenografts in vivo. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that the combination of a sensitizing agent and TRAIL may be a novel and effective therapeutic regimen for treating human hepatocellular carcinoma.

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#28041789   2017/01/02 Save this To Up

RELM-β promotes human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell proliferation via FAK-stimulated surviving.

Resistin-like molecule-β (RELM-β), focal adhesion kinase (FAK), and survivin may be involved in the proliferation of cultured human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (HPAMSCs), which is involved in pulmonary hypertension. HPAMSCs were treated with human recombinant RELM-β (rhRELM-β). siRNAs against FAK and survivin were transfected into cultured HPASMCs. Expression of FAK and survivin were examined by RT-PCR and western blot. Immunofluorescence was used to localize FAK. Flow cytometry was used to examine cell cycle distribution and cell death. Compared to the control group, all rhRELM-β-treated groups demonstrated significant increases in the expression of FAK and survivin (P<0.05). rhRELM-β significantly increased the proportion of HPASMCs in the S phase and decreased the proportion in G0/G1. FAK siRNA down-regulated survivin expression while survivin siRNA did not affect FAK expression. FAK siRNA effectively inhibited FAK and survivin expression in RELM-β-treated HPASMCs and partially suppressed cell proliferation. RELM-β promoted HPASMC proliferation and upregulated FAK and survivin expression. In conclusion, results suggested that FAK is upstream of survivin in the signaling pathway mediating cell proliferation. FAK seems to be important in RELM-β-induced HPASMC proliferation, partially by upregulating survivin expression.

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#27865841   2016/11/20 Save this To Up

Survivin does not influence the anti-apoptotic action of XIAP on caspase-9.

Survivin inhibits apoptosis in numerous tumor cell lines and has emerged as promising target for cancer therapy. The anti-apoptotic effect of survivin was attributed to a direct interaction with XIAP (X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis) and to an indirect effect, where survivin antagonizes the anti-XIAP action of Smac. The direct interaction is thought to lead to synergistic inhibition of caspase-9 and, at the same time, to enhanced stability of XIAP by reducing its auto-ubiquitination. Using recombinant proteins, we have investigated the influence of survivin on the inhibition of caspase-9 by XIAP in vitro. With a fluorescence-based assay for the apoptosome-stimulated activity of caspase-9, we show that survivin has no effect on the inhibition of caspase-9 by XIAP, neither in the presence nor in the absence of Smac. Employing analytical size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and analytical ultracentrifugation, we show that survivin does not physically interact with XIAP. We confirm in vitro that XIAP ubiquitinates itself in the presence of the appropriate recombinant enzymes and Mg(2+)-ATP and could show that survivin neither influences the kinetics nor the extent of XIAP's self-ubiquitination. Our results call for a revision of the current view of how survivin interferes with the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis.

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#27668537   2016/09/26 Save this To Up

A recombinant protein TmSm(T34A) can inhibit proliferation and proapoptosis to breast cancer stem cells(BCSCs) by down-regulating the expression of Cyclin D1.

Cancer stem cells (CSCs), a small fraction of cancer cells lines proved with stem cell characteristics, were regarded as "bad seeds" related to recurrence, metastasis and chemotherapy resistance of breast carcinoma in recent years. So inhibiting the growth or inducing the differentiation and apoptosis of CSCs were considered as one of the effective pathways to fight against breast cancer. Based on the recombinant protein TmSm(T34A) that was designed and prepared in our previous experiments for targeting survivin, an inhibitor of apoptosis protein(IAP), in this study, we explored the effects of TmSm(T34A) on BCSCs obtained by enriching in serum-free suspension, sorting and characterizing of MCF-7/ADM. The results showed that TmSm(T34A) could not only inhibit the proliferation and growth of BCSCs by decreasing CD44(+)CD24(-) proportion and down-regulating the expression of Cyclin D1 significantly, but also induce BCSCs apoptosis evidently. Furthermore, in BCSCs xenograft nude mice administrated TmSm(T34A), the tumor growth was slower than that of the control obviously. Thus it can be seen TmSm(T34A) would be a promising potential protein for treatment of breast cancer by effecting on BCSCs.

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#26733475   2016/01/25 Save this To Up

Synthesis and evaluation of a radioiodinated 4,6-diaryl-3-cyano-2-pyridinone derivative as a survivin targeting SPECT probe for tumor imaging.

Survivin is overexpressed in most of the cancerous tissues but not in terminally differentiated normal tissues, making it an attractive target for diagnosis and therapy of various types of cancers. In this study, we aimed to develop 4,6-diaryl-3-cyano-2-pyridinone (DCP) derivatives, as novel cancer imaging probes that target survivin. Chloro and iodo analogs of DCP (CDCP and IDCP, respectively) were successfully synthesized by using a previously unreported carbon monoxide-free procedure. IDCP exhibited a slightly higher binding affinity for recombinant human survivin (Kd=34 nM) than that of CDCP (Kd=44 nM). Fluorescence staining indicated that both CDCP and IDCP showed high signals in MDA-MB-231 cells with high levels of survivin expression. Significantly low fluorescent signals were observed in MCF-10A cells, which showed low levels of survivin expression. [(125)I]IDCP was synthesized for the application of IDCP to single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging. Quantitative in vitro binding of [(125)I]IDCP in cell cultures showed results consistent to those observed after fluorescent staining. In vivo biodistribution studies in tumor-bearing mice demonstrated that the tumor uptake of [(125)I]IDCP increased gradually with time and was 0.65% injected dose per gram (% ID/g) at 180 min. The maximum tumor/blood and tumor/muscle ratio at 60 min were 0.87 and 2.27, respectively, indicating inadequate [(125)I]IDCP accumulation in tumors necessary for in vivo imaging. Although further structural modifications are necessary to improve pharmacokinetic properties of IDCP, this study demonstrates the feasibility of using the DCP backbone as a scaffold for the development of survivin-targeting tumor imaging probes.

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#26659304   2016/02/03 Save this To Up

Survivin Autoantibodies Are Not Elevated in Lung Cancer When Assayed Controlling for Specificity and Smoking Status.

The high mortality rate in lung cancer is largely attributable to late diagnosis. Case-control studies suggest that autoantibodies to the survivin protein are potential biomarkers for early diagnosis. We tested the hypothesis that sandwich ELISA can detect autoantibodies to survivin before radiologic diagnosis in patients with early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Because previous studies assayed survivin autoantibodies with the direct antigen-coating ELISA (DAC-ELISA), we first compared that assay with the sandwich ELISA. Based on the more robust results from the sandwich ELISA, we used it to measure survivin autoantibodies in the serum of 100 individuals from a well-controlled population study [the Dutch-Belgian Lung Cancer Screening Trial (NELSON) trial] composed of current and former smokers (50 patients with NSCLC, both before and after diagnosis, and 50 matched, smoking-habit control subjects), and another 50 healthy nonsmoking control subjects. We found no difference in specific autoantibodies to survivin in NSCLC patients, although nonspecific median optical densities were 24% higher (P < 0.001) in both NSCLC patients and smokers, than in healthy nonsmokers. Finally, we confirmed the ELISA results with Western blot analysis of recombinant and endogenous survivin (HEK-293), which showed no anti-survivin reactivity in patient sera. We conclude that specific anti-survivin autoantibody reactivity is most likely not present in sera before or after diagnosis. Autoantibody studies benefit from a comparison to a well-controlled population, stratified for smoking habit.

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