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#28830629   2017/08/23 Save this To Up

Expression of bone morphogenetic protein receptors in bovine oviductal epithelial cells: Evidence of autocrine BMP signaling.

Members of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) family, including bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), are expressed in the epithelial cells of the mammalian oviduct. These signaling molecules play important roles in development and tissue homeostasis; however, little is known about their function in the mammalian oviduct. In the present study, RT-qPCR was used to analyze the mRNA abundance of BMP type I (BMPR1A, BMPR1B, ACVR1) and type II receptors (BMPR2, ACVR2A, ACVR2B) in the bovine oviduct epithelial cells (BOEC) isolated from ampulla and isthmus at both the follicular (FP) and the luteal (LP) phase of the estrous cycle. Results indicate that mRNAs for all the BMP receptors studied are expressed in the BOEC. Significant mRNA abundance differences were observed for both BMPR1B and ACVR2B when comparing both the ampulla and isthmus regions with the greater abundance at the isthmus. When both FP and LP samples were compared, ACVR2B mRNA showed greater abundance during the LP, with significant differences in the isthmus region. These variations highlight differences between the isthmus and ampulla regions of the oviduct. By means of wound healing assays on BOEC primary cultures, exogenous recombinant human BMP5 induced a significant increase in wound healing at 24h. The observed changes at the mRNA abundance of components of the signaling pathway and the BMP5 effect on oviductal epithelial cells suggest a possible autocrine role for the BMP pathway that could affect epithelial cell functions necessary for normal physiology and reproductive success in BOEC homeostasis.

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#23029472   2012/10/02 Save this To Up

Repulsive guidance molecule (RGM) family proteins exhibit differential binding kinetics for bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs).

Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are members of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily that exert their effects via type I and type II serine threonine kinase receptors and the SMAD intracellular signaling pathway to regulate diverse biologic processes. Recently, we discovered that the repulsive guidance molecule (RGM) family, including RGMA, RGMB, and RGMC/hemojuvelin (HJV), function as co-receptors that enhance cellular responses to BMP ligands. Here, we use surface plasmon resonance to quantitate the binding kinetics of RGM proteins for BMP ligands. We show that among the RGMs, HJV exhibits the highest affinity for BMP6, BMP5, and BMP7 with K(D) 8.1, 17, and 20 nM respectively, versus 28, 33, and 166 nM for RGMB, and 55, 83, and 63 nM for RGMA. Conversely, RGMB exhibits preferential binding to BMP4 and BMP2 with K(D) 2.6 and 5.5 nM respectively, versus 4.5 and 9.4 nM for HJV, and 14 and 22 nM for RGMA, while RGMA exhibits the lowest binding affinity for most BMPs tested. Among the BMP ligands, RGMs exhibit the highest relative affinity for BMP4 and the lowest relative affinity for BMP7, while none of the RGMs bind to BMP9. Thus, RGMs exhibit preferential binding for distinct subsets of BMP ligands. The preferential binding of HJV for BMP6 is consistent with the functional role of HJV and BMP6 in regulating systemic iron homeostasis. Our data may help explain the mechanism by which BMPs exert cell-context specific effects via a limited number of type I and type II receptors.

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#22865667   2012/09/21 Save this To Up

Human serine protease HTRA1 positively regulates osteogenesis of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells and mineralization of differentiating bone-forming cells through the modulation of extracellular matrix protein.

Mammalian high-temperature requirement serine protease A1 (HTRA1) is a secreted member of the trypsin family of serine proteases which can degrade a variety of bone matrix proteins and as such has been implicated in musculoskeletal development. In this study, we have investigated the role of HTRA1 in mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) osteogenesis and suggest a potential mechanism through which it controls matrix mineralization by differentiating bone-forming cells. Osteogenic induction resulted in a significant elevation in the expression and secretion of HTRA1 in MSCs isolated from human bone marrow-derived MSCs (hBMSCs), mouse adipose-derived stromal cells (mASCs), and mouse embryonic stem cells. Recombinant HTRA1 enhanced the osteogenesis of hBMSCs as evidenced by significant changes in several osteogenic markers including integrin-binding sialoprotein (IBSP), bone morphogenetic protein 5 (BMP5), and sclerostin, and promoted matrix mineralization in differentiating bone-forming osteoblasts. These stimulatory effects were not observed with proteolytically inactive HTRA1 and were abolished by small interfering RNA against HTRA1. Moreover, loss of HTRA1 function resulted in enhanced adipogenesis of hBMSCs. HTRA1 Immunofluorescence studies showed colocalization of HTRA1 with IBSP protein in osteogenic mASC spheroid cultures and was confirmed as being a newly identified HTRA1 substrate in cell cultures and in proteolytic enzyme assays. A role for HTRA1 in bone regeneration in vivo was also alluded to in bone fracture repair studies where HTRA1 was found localized predominantly to areas of new bone formation in association with IBSP. These data therefore implicate HTRA1 as having a central role in osteogenesis through modification of proteins within the extracellular matrix.

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#19584291   2009/07/16 Save this To Up

Bone morphogenetic proteins 2 and 5 are down-regulated in adrenocortical carcinoma and modulate adrenal cell proliferation and steroidogenesis.

Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP) have been shown to affect tumorigenesis in a variety of tumors. Quantitative PCR analysis revealed down-regulation of BMP2 and BMP5 in tissue samples from adrenocortical carcinoma and adrenocortical tumor cell lines compared with normal adrenal glands. Integrity of BMP-dependent pathways in these cell lines could be shown by activation of the Smad1/5/8 pathway with subsequent increase of ID protein expression upon incubation with BMP2 or BMP5. On a functional level, BMP treatment resulted in inhibition of cell proliferation and viability in a dose- and time-dependent manner. This growth inhibitory effect was associated with BMP-dependent reduction of AKT phosphorylation under baseline conditions and under insulin-like growth factor costimulation. Furthermore, steroidogenic function, including melanocortin-2 receptor and steroidogenic enzyme expressions, was profoundly reduced. In vitro demethylation treatment and overexpression of GATA6 resulted in reactivation of BMP-dependent pathways with concomitant modulation of steroidogenesis. Taken together, we show that loss of expression of members of the BMP family of ligands is a common finding in adrenocortical tumors and we provide evidence that BMP-dependent pathways are likely to be involved in the modulation of the malignant and functional phenotype of adrenocortical cancer cells.

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#16355411   2006/02/22 Save this To Up

Bone morphogenetic proteins 5 and 6 stimulate osteoclast generation.

Bone regeneration is required for fracture-healing, and different procedures have been used to promote osteogenesis. Recently, BMP-2 has been shown to induce bone formation in vivo and has been tested in clinical trials. A recent in vitro study evaluated the osteogenic activity of 14 BMPs on osteoblastic progenitor cells with an osteogenic hierarchical model in which BMP-2 and BMP-6 may play an important role in inducing osteoblast differentiation. Although the relative osteoinductive activity of each BMP is important, bone regeneration is a process consisting of bone formation and bone resorption. Therefore, it remains unclear which effects BMP-5 and -6 have on the generation of osteoclasts and by which mechanism osteoclastogenesis is stimulated. To compare osteoclastic potency of each BMP, primary murine bone marrow cells were treated with human recombinant BMP-2, BMP-5, or BMP-6 and 1,25-(OH)2 vitamin D3 and stained for the TRAP enzyme. Osteogenic activity of BMP-5 was determined by measuring induction of ALP-activity and proliferation after incubation with primary murine osteoblasts. For elucidating the molecular mechanism, primary bone marrow cells with various concentrations of OPG were added to the TRAP assay and mRNA levels of RANKL and OPG were measured after stimulation with BMP-5. The presented data show that BMP-5 and BMP-6, unlike BMP-2, enhanced the formation of murine TRAP+/MNCs in a biphasic curve. BMP-5 and -6 were less potent in stimulating osteoclastogenesis compared to BMP-2. Concerning the effects of BMP-5 on osteoblasts, there was a dose-dependent increase of ALP activity and proliferation up to a maximum dose of 300 ng/mL. At the mRNA level, BMP-5 increased the RANKL/OPG ratio. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that in contrast to BMP-2, BMP-5 and -6 influences the generation of osteoclasts in a biphasic mode. Both proteins might be very important regulators of bone homeostasis, and therefore, potent candidates for future treatment strategies of bone regeneration.

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#15516325   2004/11/01 Save this To Up

Effect of bone morphogenetic proteins-4, -5 and -6 on DNA synthesis and expression of bone-related proteins in cultured human periodontal ligament cells.

Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) have multiple functions in the development and growth of skeletal and extraskeletal tissues. Therefore, BMPs may regulate the regeneration of periodontal tissue. To investigate this issue, we examined the effects of BMP-4, -5 and -6 on DNA synthesis and the expression of bone-related proteins in cultures of human periodontal ligament (HPL) cells. The expression of bone-related proteins was determined by Real-time polymerase chain reaction and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay in cultures of HPL cells. DNA synthesis was estimated by measuring bromoderoxyuridine incorporation. It was found that BMP-4, -5 and -6 enhanced DNA synthesis dose-dependently. BMP-4 and -5 increased the levels of osteopontin, BMP-2, alkaline phosphatase and core binding factor alpha 1 mRNAs. BMP-6 stimulated the expression of osteopontin, BMP-2, ALPase and osteoprotegerin. These findings show that BMP-4, -5 and -6 have different actions on the expression of bone-related proteins and may play a role in the regeneration of periodontal tissue by promoting cell proliferation and protein expression.

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#12451137   2002/11/26 Save this To Up

Glia induce dendritic growth in cultured sympathetic neurons by modulating the balance between bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and BMP antagonists.

Dendritic growth in cultured sympathetic neurons requires specific trophic interactions. Previous studies have demonstrated that either coculture with glia or exposure to recombinant bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) is both necessary and sufficient to induce dendrite formation. These observations led us to test the hypothesis that BMPs mediate glial-induced dendritic growth. In situ hybridization and immunocytochemical studies indicate that the spatiotemporal expression of BMP5, -6, and -7 in rat superior cervical ganglia (SCG) is consistent with their proposed role in dendritogenesis. In vitro, both SCG glia and neurons were found to express BMP mRNA and protein when grown in the presence or absence of the other cell type. However, addition of ganglionic glia to cultured sympathetic neurons causes a marked increase in BMP proteins coincident with a significant decrease in follistatin and noggin. Functional assays indicate that glial-induced dendritic growth is significantly reduced by BMP7 antibodies and completely inhibited by exogenous noggin and follistatin. These data suggest that glia influence the rapid perinatal expansion of the dendritic arbor in sympathetic neurons by increasing BMP activity via modulation of the balance between BMPs and their antagonists.

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#11817587   2002/01/30 Save this To Up

Bone morphogenetic proteins promote cartilage differentiation and protect engineered artificial cartilage from fibroblast invasion and destruction.

An important role in joint and cartilage homeostasis in adults has been demonstrated recently for morphogenetic factors of the transforming growth factor beta family. Therefore, this study was undertaken to investigate the potential of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) in chondrocyte differentiation using current technologies of tissue engineering.

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#11580864   2003/03/31 Save this To Up

Bone morphogenetic protein-5 (BMP-5) promotes dendritic growth in cultured sympathetic neurons.

BMP-5 is expressed in the nervous system throughout development and into adulthood. However its effects on neural tissues are not well defined. BMP-5 is a member of the 60A subgroup of BMPs, other members of which have been shown to stimulate dendritic growth in central and peripheral neurons. We therefore examined the possibility that BMP-5 similarly enhances dendritic growth in cultured sympathetic neurons.

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#10208739   1999/06/01 Save this To Up

GDF5 coordinates bone and joint formation during digit development.

A functional skeletal system requires the coordinated development of many different tissue types, including cartilage, bones, joints, and tendons. Members of the Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) family of secreted signaling molecules have been implicated as endogenous regulators of skeletal development. This is based on their expression during bone and joint formation, their ability to induce ectopic bone and cartilage, and the skeletal abnormalities present in animals with mutations in BMP family members. One member of this family, Growth/differentiation factor 5 (GDF5), is encoded by the mouse brachypodism locus. Mice with mutations in this gene show reductions in the length of bones in the limbs, altered formation of bones and joints in the sternum, and a reduction in the number of bones in the digits. The expression pattern of Gdf5 during normal development and the phenotypes seen in mice with single or double mutations in Gdf5 and Bmp5 suggested that Gdf5 has multiple functions in skeletogenesis, including roles in joint and cartilage development. To further understand the function of GDF5 in skeletal development, we assayed the response of developing chick and mouse limbs to recombinant GDF5 protein. The results from these assays, coupled with an analysis of the development of brachypodism digits, indicate that GDF5 is necessary and sufficient for both cartilage development and the restriction of joint formation to the appropriate location. Thus, GDF5 function in the digits demonstrates a link between cartilage development and joint development and is an important determinant of the pattern of bones and articulations in the digits.

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