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           Search results for: Recombinant Human BRAK CXCL14 Proteins    

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#23099322   2012/11/16 Save this To Up

Fasudil suppresses fibrosarcoma growth by stimulating secretion of the chemokine CXCL14/BRAK.

We previously reported that chemokine CXCL14/BRAK (BRAK) has antitumor activity in several carcinoma cells indicating that BRAK secretion suppresses carcinoma cells. Ras-homologous small GTPase (RhoA) and Rho-associated coiled-coil-containing protein kinase (ROCK) are important regulators of secretory processes, and activation of the RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway stimulates tumor invasion and metastasis. We investigated the effects of fasudil, a specific ROCK inhibitor, on BRAK secretion and tumor progression in mesenchymal fibrosarcoma cells (MC57). We demonstrated the antitumor activity of secreted BRAK using MC57 transplantation of BRAK in overexpressed transgenic mice. Further, to eliminate the influence of change in the mRNA expression of endogenous BRAK, we produced stable MC57 cell lines expressing BRAK (MC57-BRAK) or mock vector (MC57-MOCK). Fasudil significantly increased BRAK secretion by MC57-BRAK cells in a dose-dependent manner. To determine the effect of fasudil on tumor growth, MC57-BRAK and MC57-MOCK cells were transplanted into wild-type mice. Fasudil treatment suppressed tumor growth only in mice that had received MC57-BRAK cell transplants. These results indicate that fasudil inhibits fibrosarcoma growth by stimulating BRAK secretion and suggests that fasudil therapy might have clinical efficacy.

1604 related Products with: Fasudil suppresses fibrosarcoma growth by stimulating secretion of the chemokine CXCL14/BRAK.

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#20333465   2010/11/03 Save this To Up

Chemokine CXCL14/BRAK transgenic mice suppress growth of carcinoma cell transplants. [corrected]

We reported previously that the forced expression of the chemokine BRAK, also called CXCL14 in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cells decreased the rate of tumor formation and size of tumor xenografts compared with mock-vector treated cells in athymic nude mice or in severe combined immunodeficiency mice. This suppression occurred even though the growth rates of these cells were the same under in vitro culture conditions, suggesting that a high expression level of the gene in tumor cells is important for the suppression of tumor establishment in vivo. The aim of this study was to determine whether CXCL14/BRAK transgenic mice show resistance to tumor cell xenografts or not. CXCL14/BRAK cDNA was introduced into male C57BL/6 J pronuclei, and 10 founder transgenic mice (Tg) were obtained. Two lines of mice expressed over 10 times higher CXCL14/BRAK protein levels (14 and 11 ng/ml plasma, respectively) than normal blood level (0.9 ng/ml plasma), without apparent abnormality. The sizes of Lewis lung carcinoma and B16 melanoma cell xenografts in Tg mice were significantly smaller than those in control wild-type mice, indicating that CXCL14/BRAK, first found as a suppressor of tumor progression of HNSCC, also suppresses the progression of a carcinoma of other tissue origin. Immunohistochemical studies showed that invasion of blood vessels into tumors was suppressed in tumor xenografts of CXCL14/BRAK Tg mice. These results indicate that CXCL14/BRAK suppressed tumor cell xenografts by functioning paracrine or endocrine fashion and that CXCL14/BRAK is a very promising molecular target for tumor suppression without side effects.

2765 related Products with: Chemokine CXCL14/BRAK transgenic mice suppress growth of carcinoma cell transplants. [corrected]

RABBIT ANTI HUMAN SDF-1 A Anti C Reactive Protein A Epidermal Growth Factor ( Epidermal Growth Factor ( TCGF (Natural T Cell Grow CELLKINES PLATELET DERIVE CELLKINES PLATELET DERIVE Human Beta-cell Attractin Recombinant Human BRAK (C Recombinant Human BRAK (C Recombinant Human BRAK CX Leptin ELISA Kit, Rat Lep

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#20067447   2010/04/13 Save this To Up

Expression of tumour-suppressing chemokine BRAK/CXCL14 reduces cell migration rate of HSC-3 tongue carcinoma cells and stimulates attachment to collagen and formation of elongated focal adhesions in vitro.

BRAK/CXCL14 (breast- and kidney-expressed chemokine/CXC chemokine ligand 14) is a chemokine that is expressed in many normal cells and tissues but is absent from or expressed at very low levels in transformed cells and cancerous tissues, including HNSCC (head and neck squamous cell carcinoma). We reported previously that the forced expression of BRAK/CXCL14 in HNSCC (HSC-3 BRAK) cells decreased the rate of tumour formation and size of tumour xenografts compared with mock-vector-introduced (HSC-3 Mock) cells in athymic nude mice, even though the growth rates of these cells were the same under in vitro culture conditions, suggesting that high-level expression of the gene is important for the suppression of tumour establishment in vivo. For the first step to study the mechanisms of BRAK-dependent tumour suppression, we compared characteristics between HSC-3 BRAK and HSC-3 Mock cells under in vitro culture conditions. The cell migration rate was lower in HSC-3 BRAK cells than in HSC-3 Mock cells. Also, HSC-3 BRAK cells showed more rapid adhesion than HSC-3 Mock cells when cultured on type I collagen-coated dishes but not on fibronectin or laminin 1-coated ones. This adhesion was mediated by alpha2beta1 integrin. Immunofluorescent analysis of the cells cultured on type I collagen showed that HSC-3 BRAK cells formed much more elongated focal adhesions co-localized with paxillin and actin stress fibres than did HSC-3 Mock cells. Treatment of parental HSC-3 cells with recombinant BRAK stimulated the activation of Rap1, which is a ras family small GTPase, and formation of elongated focal adhesions, indicating that the difference in cell character observed between HSC-3 Mock and HSC-3 BRAK was not due to selection of clones of different character but due to expression of BRAK in the cells. The characteristic morphology of focal adhesions in HSC-3 BRAK cells was perturbed by the introduction of an expression vector of the Rap-binding domain of the Ral guanine nucleotide dissociation stimulator, a target of Rap1, into HSC-3 BRAK cells, suggesting that Rap1 regulated the formation of the morphology of the focal adhesions. These data indicate that the expression of BRAK stimulated the formation of elongated focal adhesions of the HSC-3 cells in an autocrine or paracrine fashion, in which stimulation may be responsible for the reduced migration of the cells.

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#16987528   2006/10/18 Save this To Up

Structural determinants involved in the regulation of CXCL14/BRAK expression by the 26 S proteasome.

The chemokine CXCL14/BRAK participates in immune surveillance by recruiting dendritic cells. CXCL14 gene expression is altered in a number of cancers, but protein expression levels have not been investigated. Here we report that CXCL14 protein can be expressed in primary epithelial cells; however, in several immortalized and cancer cell lines this protein is targeted for polyubiquitylation and proteasomal degradation. We determined the NMR structure of CXCL14 to identify motifs controlling its expression. CXCL14 adopts the canonical chemokine tertiary fold but contains a unique five amino acid insertion (41VSRYR45) relative to other CXC chemokines. Deletion or substitution of key residues within this insertion prevented proteasomal degradation. Furthermore, we defined a 15 amino acid fragment of CXCL14 that is sufficient to induce proteasomal degradation. This study elucidates a post-translational mechanism for the loss of CXCL14 in cancer and a novel mode of chemokine regulation.

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#15843547   2005/04/21 Save this To Up

Loss of new chemokine CXCL14 in tumor tissue is associated with low infiltration by dendritic cells (DC), while restoration of human CXCL14 expression in tumor cells causes attraction of DC both in vitro and in vivo.

Breast and kidney-expressed chemokine (BRAK) CXCL14 is a new CXC chemokine with unknown function and receptor selectivity. The majority of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and some cervical squamous cell carcinoma do not express CXCL14 mRNA, as opposed to constitutive expression by normal oral squamous epithelium. In this study, we demonstrate that the loss of CXCL14 in HNSCC cells and at HNSCC primary tumor sites was correlated with low or no attraction of dendritic cell (DC) in vitro, and decreased infiltration of HNSCC mass by DC at the tumor site in vivo. Next, we found that recombinant human CXCL14 and CXCL14-positive HNSCC cell lines induced DC attraction in vitro, whereas CXCL14-negative HNSCC cells did not chemoattract DC. Transduction of CXCL14-negative HNSCC cell lines with the human CXCL14 gene resulted in stimulation of DC attraction in vitro and increased tumor infiltration by DC in vivo in chimeric animal models. Furthermore, evaluating the biologic effect of CXCL14 on DC, we demonstrated that the addition of recombinant human CXCL14 to DC cultures resulted in up-regulation of the expression of DC maturation markers, as well as enhanced proliferation of allogeneic T cells in MLR. Activation of DC with recombinant human CXCL14 was accompanied by up-regulation of NF-kappaB activity. These data suggest that CXCL14 is a potent chemoattractant and activator of DC and might be involved in DC homing in vivo.

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#15548693   2004/11/19 Save this To Up

BRAK/CXCL14 is a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis and a chemotactic factor for immature dendritic cells.

BRAK/CXCL14 is a CXC chemokine constitutively expressed at the mRNA level in certain normal tissues but absent from many established tumor cell lines and human cancers. Although multiple investigators cloned BRAK, little is known regarding the physiologic function of BRAK or the reason for decreased expression in cancer. To understand the possible significance associated with loss of BRAK mRNA in tumors, we examined the pattern of BRAK protein expression in normal and tumor specimens from patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the tongue and used recombinant BRAK (rBRAK) to investigate potential biological functions. Using a peptide-specific antiserum, abundant expression of BRAK protein was found in suprabasal layers of normal tongue mucosa but consistently was absent in tongue SCC. Consistent with previous in situ mRNA studies, BRAK protein also was expressed strongly by stromal cells adjacent to tumors. In the rat corneal micropocket assay, BRAK was a potent inhibitor of in vivo angiogenesis stimulated by multiple angiogenic factors, including interleukin 8, basic fibroblast growth factor, and vascular endothelial growth factor. In vitro, rBRAK blocked endothelial cell chemotaxis at concentrations as low as 1 nmol/L, suggesting this was a major mechanism for angiogenesis inhibition. Although only low affinity receptors for BRAK could be found on endothelial cells, human immature monocyte-derived dendritic cells (iDCs) bound rBRAK with high affinity (i.e., K(d), approximately 2 nmol/L). Furthermore, rBRAK was chemotactic for iDCs at concentrations ranging from 1 to 10 nmol/L. Our findings support a hypothesis that loss of BRAK expression from tumors may facilitate neovascularization and possibly contributes to immunologic escape.

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