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Impaired Autophagic Degradation of Transforming Growth Factor-β-Induced Protein by Macrophages in Lattice Corneal Dystrophy.

Lattice corneal dystrophy (LCD) is related to the denaturation of transforming growth factor-β-induced protein (TGFBIp). Autophagic degradation of the denatured proteins by macrophages is one pathway to remove the denatured proteins. Thus, we investigated the role of autophagy in the degradation of mutant (MU) TGFBIp in macrophages.

2343 related Products with: Impaired Autophagic Degradation of Transforming Growth Factor-β-Induced Protein by Macrophages in Lattice Corneal Dystrophy.

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Spleen-derived lipocalin-2 in the portal vein regulates Kupffer cells activation and attenuates the development of liver fibrosis in mice.

The liver has an immune tolerance against gut-derived products from the portal vein (PV). A disruption of the gut-liver axis leads to liver injury and fibrosis. The spleen is connected to the PV and regulates immune functions. However, possible splenic effects on liver fibrosis development are unclear. Lipocalin-2 (Lcn2) is an antimicrobial protein that regulates macrophage activation. To clarify the role of the spleen in liver fibrosis development, we induced liver fibrosis in mice after splenectomy, and investigated liver fibrosis development. Liver fibrosis resulted in significantly increased splenic Lcn2 levels, but all other measured cytokine levels were unchanged. Splenectomized mice showed enhanced liver fibrosis and inflammation accompanied by significantly decreased Lcn2 levels in PV. Lipopolysaccharide-stimulated primary Kupffer cells, resident liver macrophages, which were treated with recombinant Lcn2 (rLcn2) produced less tumor necrosis factor-α and Ccl2 and the activation of hepatic stellate cells, the effector cells for collagen production in the liver, was suppressed by co-culture with rLcn2-treated Kupffer cells. In addition, the involvement of gut-derived products in splenectomized mice was evaluated by gut sterilization. Interestingly, gut sterilization blocked the effect of splenectomy on liver fibrosis development. In conclusion, spleen deficiency accelerated liver fibrosis development and decreased PV Lcn2 levels. The mechanism of splenic protection against liver fibrosis development may involve the splenic Lcn2, triggered by gut-derived products that enter the liver through the PV, regulates Kupffer cells activated by the gut-liver axis. Thus, the splenic Lcn2 may have an important role in regulating the immune tolerance of the liver in liver fibrosis development.

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The N-butyl alcohol extract from Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. flowers enhances healing potential on rat excisional wounds.

Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. (HRS), a folk medicine named Zhujin in China, possess anti-tumor, antioxidant, antibacterial, low density lipoprotein oxidation prevention and macrophage death prevention effects. The leaves and red flowers of HRS have been traditionally used to treat with furuncle and ulceration.

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Tracking Monocyte Recruitment and Macrophage Accumulation in Atherosclerotic Plaque Progression Using a Novel hCD68GFP/ApoE-/- Reporter Mouse-Brief Report.

To create a model of atherosclerosis using green fluorescent protein (GFP)-targeted monocytes/macrophages, allowing analysis of both endogenous GFP and adoptively transferred GFP myeloid cells in arterial inflammation. APPROACH AND RESULTS: hCD68GFP reporter mice were crossed with ApoE mice. Expression of GFP was localized to macrophages in atherosclerotic plaques and in angiotensin II-induced aortic aneurysms and correlated with galectin 3 and mCD68 expression. Flow cytometry confirmed GFP expression in CD11b/CD64, CD11c/MHC-II, and CD11b/F4/80 myeloid cells. Adoptive transfer of GFP monocytes demonstrated monocyte recruitment to both adventitia and atherosclerotic plaque, throughout the aortic root, within 72 hours. We demonstrated the biological utility of hCD68GFP monocytes by comparing the recruitment of wild-type and CCR2 monocytes to sites of inflammation.

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Parenchyma-stromal interactions induce fibrosis by secreting CCN2 and promote osteoclastogenesis by stimulating RANKL and CD68 through activated TGF-β/BMP4 in ameloblastoma.

Tumor parenchyma-stromal interactions affect the properties of tumors and their dynamics. Our group previously showed that secreted frizzled related protein (sFRP)-2 impairs bone formation and promotes bone invasion in ameloblastoma. However, the effects of the secreted growth factors CCN2, TGF-β, and BMP4 on stromal tissues in ameloblastoma remain unclear.

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Decrease of TET2 expression and increase of 5-hmC levels in myeloid sarcomas.

Myeloid sarcoma is a tumor mass that consists of myeloblasts or immature myeloid cells at an extramedullary site. Pathological diagnosis is very difficult based on morphology if systemic signs of disease are absent. The subtype of myeloid sarcoma is also minimally identifiable in the histological picture.

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Interleukin-1α activation and localization in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human monocytes and macrophages.

Interleukin-1α (IL-1α) is a proinflammatory cytokine belonging to the IL-1 family. It is synthesized as a 33kDa precursor peptide that is cleaved by a calpain-like protease to a 16 kDa propiece and a 17 kDa mature IL-1α peptide. In contrast to its close relative, IL-1β, the role of IL-1α in inflammation is only partly understood.

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Analysis of inflammatory cells and mediators in skin wound biopsies to determine wound age in living subjects in forensic medicine.

In forensic medicine it is important to determine the age of skin wounds in living subjects. The aim of this study was to assess whether analysis of inflammatory cells and inflammatory mediators in skin biopsies of wounds from living subjects could improve wound age determination.

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Brain metastasis of crystal-deficient, CD68-positive alveolar soft part sarcoma: ultrastructural features and differential diagnosis.

We report a case of alveolar soft part sarcoma (ASPS) presenting as an isolated frontal lobe metastasis. The tumor demonstrated little or no immunoreactivity for a broad panel of antibodies yet strong, diffuse immunoreactivity with CD68. On electron microscopy, the characteristic rectangular to rhomboid crystalline inclusions of ASPS were not present. Electron-dense granules resembling peroxisomes were present, sometimes in association with elongated granular structures having a periodic, lattice-like arrangement. Metastatic ASPS was confirmed by demonstration of an ASPSCR1-TFE3 fusion and imaging studies that excluded metastatic Xp11.2 translocation renal cell carcinoma. The primary site was subsequently identified in the lower extremity.

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Human monocytes produce interferon-gamma upon stimulation with LPS.

Representing a crucial T-helper 1 cytokine, IFN-γ acts as an important bridge between innate and adaptive immunity and is involved in many acute and chronic pathologic states, such as autoimmune diseases and solid organ transplant rejection. At present, debate still prevails about the ability of human monocytes to produce IFN-γ. We aimed to investigate whether human monocytes possess the capacity to produce IFN-γ at mRNA and protein level. Using real time PCR, flow cytometric analysis and ELISA, we investigated the capacity of freshly isolated CD14+ monocytes of healthy individuals and kidney transplant recipients to produce IFN-γ after stimulation with IFN-γ and LPS or LPS alone. We observed increased IFN-γ mRNA levels in CD14+ monocytes after stimulation as compared to the unstimulated controls in both populations. In addition, stimulation with IFN-γ and LPS or LPS alone led to a significant increase in the percentage of CD14+ monocytes producing TNF-α and IFN-γ at protein level (p<0.05). A trend towards increased secreted IFN-γ production in supernatants was also observed after LPS stimulation using ELISA. We conclude that human monocytes from healthy individuals and kidney transplant recipients possess the capacity to produce IFN-γ.

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