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#26002960   2015/11/01 Save this To Up

Mediator complex cooperatively regulates transcription of retinoic acid target genes with Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 during neuronal differentiation.

The Mediator complex (Mediator) plays key roles in transcription and functions as the nexus for integration of various transcriptional signals. Previously, we screened for Mediator cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)-interacting factors and identified three proteins related to chromatin regulation. One of them, SUZ12 is required for both stability and activity of Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2). PRC2 primarily suppresses gene expression through histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation, resulting in stem cell maintenance and differentiation; perturbation of this process leads to oncogenesis. Recent work showed that Mediator contributes to the embryonic stem cell state through DNA loop formation, which is strongly associated with chromatin architecture; however, it remains unclear how Mediator regulates gene expression in cooperation with chromatin regulators (i.e. writers, readers and remodelers). We found that Mediator CDKs interact directly with the PRC2 subunit EZH2, as well as SUZ12. Known PRC2 target genes were deregulated by Mediator CDK knockdown during neuronal differentiation, and both Mediator and PRC2 complexes co-occupied the promoters of developmental genes regulated by retinoic acid. Our results provide a mechanistic link between Mediator and PRC2 during neuronal differentiation.

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#21330129   2011/04/04 Save this To Up

Function and regulation of the Mediator complex.

Over the past few years, advances in biochemical and genetic studies of the structure and function of the Mediator complex have shed new light on its subunit architecture and its mechanism of action in transcription by RNA polymerase II (pol II). The development of improved methods for reconstitution of recombinant Mediator subassemblies is enabling more in-depth analyses of basic features of the mechanisms by which Mediator interacts with and controls the activity of pol II and the general initiation factors. The discovery and characterization of multiple, functionally distinct forms of Mediator characterized by the presence or absence of the Cdk8 kinase module have led to new insights into how Mediator functions in both Pol II transcription activation and repression. Finally, progress in studies of the mechanisms by which the transcriptional activation domains (ADs) of DNA binding transcription factors target Mediator have brought to light unexpected complexities in the way Mediator participates in signal transduction.

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#21067790   2010/12/21 Save this To Up

The retroviral cyclin of walleye dermal sarcoma virus binds cyclin-dependent kinases 3 and 8.

Walleye dermal sarcoma virus encodes a retroviral cyclin (rv-cyclin) with a cyclin box fold and transcription activation domain (AD). Co-immune precipitation (co-IP) identified an association of rv-cyclin with cyclin-dependent kinase 8 (cdk8). Cdk8 is dependent upon cyclin C and regulates transcription with the Mediator complex, a co-activator of transcription. Mutation of cyclin residues, required for cdk binding, disrupts rv-cyclin-cdk8 co-IP. Mutation or removal of the AD has no effect on cdk8 interaction. Direct rv-cyclin-cdk8 binding is demonstrated by pulldown of active cdk8 and by GST-rv-cyclin binding to recombinant cdk8. Cdk3 is also activated by cyclin C and phosphorylates retinoblastoma protein to initiate entry into the cell division cycle. Co-IP and pulldowns demonstrate direct rv-cyclin binding to cdk3 as well. The rv-cyclin functions as a structural ortholog of cyclin C in spite of its limited amino acid sequence identity with C cyclins or with any known cyclins.

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#19240132   2009/02/25 Save this To Up

The human CDK8 subcomplex is a molecular switch that controls Mediator coactivator function.

The human CDK8 subcomplex (CDK8, cyclin C, Med12, and Med13) negatively regulates transcription in ways not completely defined; past studies suggested CDK8 kinase activity was required for its repressive function. Using a reconstituted transcription system together with recombinant or endogenous CDK8 subcomplexes, we demonstrate that, in fact, Med12 and Med13 are critical for subcomplex-dependent repression, whereas CDK8 kinase activity is not. A hallmark of activated transcription is efficient reinitiation from promoter-bound scaffold complexes that recruit a series of pol II enzymes to the gene. Notably, the CDK8 submodule strongly represses even reinitiation events, suggesting a means to fine tune transcript levels. Structural and biochemical studies confirm the CDK8 submodule binds the Mediator leg/tail domain via the Med13 subunit, and this submodule-Mediator association precludes pol II recruitment. Collectively, these results reveal the CDK8 subcomplex functions as a simple switch that controls the Mediator-pol II interaction to help regulate transcription initiation and reinitiation events. As Mediator is generally required for expression of protein-coding genes, this may reflect a common mechanism by which activated transcription is shut down in human cells.

1240 related Products with: The human CDK8 subcomplex is a molecular switch that controls Mediator coactivator function.

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#19047373   2009/01/19 Save this To Up

The human CDK8 subcomplex is a histone kinase that requires Med12 for activity and can function independently of mediator.

The four proteins CDK8, cyclin C, Med12, and Med13 can associate with Mediator and are presumed to form a stable "CDK8 subcomplex" in cells. We describe here the isolation and enzymatic activity of the 600-kDa CDK8 subcomplex purified directly from human cells and also via recombinant expression in insect cells. Biochemical analysis of the recombinant CDK8 subcomplex identifies predicted (TFIIH and RNA polymerase II C-terminal domain [Pol II CTD]) and novel (histone H3, Med13, and CDK8 itself) substrates for the CDK8 kinase. Notably, these novel substrates appear to be metazoan-specific. Such diverse targets imply strict regulation of CDK8 kinase activity. Along these lines, we observe that Mediator itself enables CDK8 kinase activity on chromatin, and we identify Med12--but not Med13--to be essential for activating the CDK8 kinase. Moreover, mass spectrometry analysis of the endogenous CDK8 subcomplex reveals several associated factors, including GCN1L1 and the TRiC chaperonin, that may help control its biological function. In support of this, electron microscopy analysis suggests TRiC sequesters the CDK8 subcomplex and kinase assays reveal the endogenous CDK8 subcomplex--unlike the recombinant submodule--is unable to phosphorylate the Pol II CTD.

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#17212659   2007/01/10 Save this To Up

A kinase subunit of the human mediator complex, CDK8, positively regulates transcriptional activation.

The human thyroid hormone receptor-associated proteins (TRAP)/Mediator and related complexes mediate transcription through regulatory factors. To further understand the structural and functional diversity of these complexes we established three HeLa cell lines each expressing one of three epitope-tagged human TRAP/Mediator subunits, MED6, MED7, and CDK8 and isolated the complexes in which these subunits were contained by affinity and HPLC-gel filtration chromatography. The largest complexes from each cell line had a molecular mass of 1.5 MDa and possessed almost identical subunit compositions; we designated these complexes TRAP/Mediator-like complex 1 (TMLC1). Two potential subcomplexes were additionally observed: a 1-MDa complex from the CDK8-cell line (TMLC2) and a 600-kDa complex from the MED6-cell line (TMLC3). All three complexes regulated transcription in vitro; TMLC1 and TMLC3 augmented transcriptional activation, whereas TMLC2 repressed it. TMLC1 and TMLC2 phosphorylated RNA polymerase II (Pol II), but TMLC3 did not. Furthermore, TMLC1 predominantly interacted with the general transcription factors TFIIE, TFIIF, and TFIIH, which function during transcription initiation and the transition to elongation. In a final experiment, knockdown of CDK8 using RNA interference prevented transcriptional activation by Gal4-VP16 in a luciferase-assay. This, together with the effect of TMLC1 on transcription in vitro, suggests that CDK8 play positive roles in transcriptional activation.

1956 related Products with: A kinase subunit of the human mediator complex, CDK8, positively regulates transcriptional activation.

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#16874302   2006/08/10 Save this To Up

Recruitment of TFIIH to the HIV LTR is a rate-limiting step in the emergence of HIV from latency.

Latently infected cells rapidly initiate HIV transcription after exposure to signals that induce NF-kappaB. To investigate the role of TFIIH during HIV reactivation in vivo, we developed a population of Jurkat cells containing integrated, but transcriptionally silent, HIV proviruses. Surprisingly, the HIV promoter in unactivated Jurkat T cells is partially occupied and carries Mediator containing the CDK8 repressive module, TFIID and RNAP II that is hypophosphorylated and confined to the promoter region. Significantly, the promoter is devoid of TFIIH. Upon stimulation of the cells by TNF-alpha, NF-kappaB and TFIIH are rapidly recruited to the promoter together with additional Mediator and RNAP II, but CDK8 is lost. Detailed time courses show that the levels of TFIIH at the promoter fluctuate in parallel with NF-kappaB recruitment to the promoter. Similarly, recombinant p65 activates HIV transcription in vitro and stimulates phosphorylation of the RNAP II CTD by the CDK7 kinase module of TFIIH. We conclude that the recruitment and activation of TFIIH represents a rate-limiting step for the emergence of HIV from latency.

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#15808511   2005/04/05 Save this To Up

PARP-1 determines specificity in a retinoid signaling pathway via direct modulation of mediator.

We show that PARP-1 is indispensable to retinoic acid receptor (RAR)-mediated transcription from the RARbeta2 promoter in a highly purified, reconstituted transcription system and that RA-inducible expression of all RARbeta isoforms is abrogated in PARP-1(-/-) cells in vivo. Importantly, PARP-1 activity was independent of its catalytic domain. PARP-1 directly interacts with RAR and Mediator. Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments confirmed the presence of PARP-1 and Mediator on RAR-responsive promoters in vivo. Importantly, Mediator was inactive (Cdk8+) under basal conditions but was activated (Cdk8-) upon induction. However, in PARP-1(-/-) cells, Mediator was retained in its inactive state (Cdk8+) upon induction consistent with the absence of gene expression. PARP-1 became dispensable for ligand-dependent transcription in a chromatin reconstituted transcription assay when Mediator was devoid of the Cdk8 module (CRSP). PARP-1 appears to function as a specificity factor regulating the RA-induced switch of Mediator from the inactive (Cdk8+) to the active (Cdk8-) state in RAR-dependent transcription.

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#15546612   2004/11/19 Save this To Up

Mastermind recruits CycC:CDK8 to phosphorylate the Notch ICD and coordinate activation with turnover.

Notch signaling releases the Notch receptor intracellular domain (ICD), which complexes with CBF1 and Mastermind (MAM) to activate responsive genes. We previously reported that MAM interacts with CBP/p300 and promotes hyperphosphorylation and degradation of the Notch ICD in vivo. Here we show that CycC:CDK8 and CycT1:CDK9/P-TEFb are recruited with Notch and associated coactivators (MAM, SKIP) to the HES1 promoter in signaling cells. MAM interacts directly with CDK8 and can cause it to localize to subnuclear foci. Purified recombinant CycC:CDK8 phosphorylates the Notch ICD within the TAD and PEST domains, and expression of CycC:CDK8 strongly enhances Notch ICD hyperphosphorylation and PEST-dependent degradation by the Fbw7/Sel10 ubiquitin ligase in vivo. Point mutations affecting conserved Ser residues within the ICD PEST motif prevent hyperphosphorylation by CycC:CDK8 and stabilize the ICD in vivo. These findings suggest a role for MAM and CycC:CDK8 in the turnover of the Notch enhancer complex at target genes.

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#15009212   2004/03/10 Save this To Up

Three cyclin-dependent kinases preferentially phosphorylate different parts of the C-terminal domain of the large subunit of RNA polymerase II.

The C-terminal domain (CTD) of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II plays critical roles in the initiation, elongation and processing of primary transcripts. These activities are at least partially regulated by the phosphorylation of the CTD by three cyclin-dependent protein kinases (CDKs), namely CDK7, CDK8 and CDK9. In this study, we systematically compared the phosphorylation of different recombinant CTD substrates by recombinant CDK7/CycH/MAT1, CDK8/CycC and CDK9/CycT1 kinases. We showed that CDK7, CDK8 and CDK9 produce different patterns of phosphorylation of the CTD. CDK7/CycH/MAT1 generates mostly hyperphosphorylated full-length and truncated CTD peptides, while CDK8/CycC and CDK9/CycT1 generate predominantly hypophosphorylated peptides. Total activity towards different parts of the CTD also differs between the three kinases; however, these differences did not correlate with their ability to hyperphosphorylate the substrates. The last 10 repeats of the CTD can act as a suppressor of the activity of the kinases in the context of longer peptides. Our results indicate that the three kinases possess different biochemical properties that could reflect their actions in vivo.

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