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#21888900   2011/10/10 Save this To Up

Anti-CENPI autoantibodies in scleroderma patients with features of autoimmune liver diseases.

Anticentromere autoantibodies have been reported to be associated with scleroderma and serve as a marker in different rheumatic diseases in humans. Major centromere autoantigens described so far include constitutive kinetochore proteins such as CENPA, CENPB, CENPC and CENPH and facultative proteins such as CENPE, CENPF and INCENP. We examined the inner kinetochore component CENPI as a new putative centromere autoantigen in scleroderma patients.

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#21756890   2011/08/22 Save this To Up

Anti-centromere antibodies in a large cohort of systemic sclerosis patients: comparison between immunofluorescence, CENP-A and CENP-B ELISA.

Anti-centromere antibodies (ACA) are useful biomarkers in the diagnosis of systemic sclerosis (SSc) where they are found in 20-40% of patients and, albeit with lower prevalence, in patients with other systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases. Historically, ACA were detected by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) on HEp-2 cells and confirmed by immunoassays using recombinant CENP-B. During the last few years, to accommodate high throughput diagnostics, a number of laboratories changed from IIF to ELISA assays. The objective of this study was to compare the detection of ACA by IIF to CENP-A and a CENP-B ELISA in a large cohort of SSc patients.

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#20852589   2010/10/20 Save this To Up

CLASP1, astrin and Kif2b form a molecular switch that regulates kinetochore-microtubule dynamics to promote mitotic progression and fidelity.

Accurate chromosome segregation during mitosis requires precise coordination of various processes, such as chromosome alignment, maturation of proper kinetochore-microtubule (kMT) attachments, correction of erroneous attachments, and silencing of the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC). How these fundamental aspects of mitosis are coordinately and temporally regulated is poorly understood. In this study, we show that the temporal regulation of kMT attachments by CLASP1, astrin and Kif2b is central to mitotic progression and chromosome segregation fidelity. In early mitosis, a Kif2b-CLASP1 complex is recruited to kinetochores to promote chromosome movement, kMT turnover, correction of attachment errors, and maintenance of SAC signalling. However, during metaphase, this complex is replaced by an astrin-CLASP1 complex, which promotes kMT stability, chromosome alignment, and silencing of the SAC. We show that these two complexes are differentially recruited to kinetochores and are mutually exclusive. We also show that other kinetochore proteins, such as Kif18a, affect kMT attachments and chromosome movement through these proteins. Thus, CLASP1-astrin-Kif2b complex act as a central switch at kinetochores that defines mitotic progression and promotes fidelity by temporally regulating kMT attachments.

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#19412974   2009/05/04 Save this To Up

Live-cell imaging reveals sustained centromere binding of CENP-T via CENP-A and CENP-B.

At the centromere, a network of proteins, the kinetochore, assembles in order to grant correct chromatin segregation. In this study the dynamics and molecular interactions of the inner kinetochore protein CENP-T were analyzed employing a variety of fluorescence microscopy techniques in living human cells. Acceptor-bleaching FRET indicates that CENP-T directly associates with CENP-A and CENP-B. CENP-T exchange into centromeres is restricted to the S-phase of the cell cycle as revealed by FRAP, suggesting a coreplicational loading mechanism, as we have recently also demonstrated for CENP-I. These properties make CENP-T one of the basic inner kinetochore proteins with most further proteins binding downstream, suggesting a fundamental role of CENP-T in kinetochore function.

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#17018632   2006/10/04 Save this To Up

Identification of a chemical inhibitor of the oncogenic transcription factor forkhead box M1.

The oncogenic transcription factor forkhead box M1 (FoxM1) is overexpressed in a number of different carcinomas, whereas its expression is turned off in terminally differentiated cells. For this reason, FoxM1 is an attractive target for therapeutic intervention in cancer treatment. As a first step toward realizing this goal, in this study, using a high-throughput, cell-based assay system, we screened for and isolated the antibiotic thiazole compound Siomycin A as an inhibitor of FoxM1. Interestingly, we observed that Siomycin A was able to down-regulate the transcriptional activity as well as the protein and mRNA abundance of FoxM1. Consequently, we found that the downstream target genes of FoxM1, such as Cdc25B, Survivin, and CENPB, were repressed. Also, we observed that consistent with earlier reports of FoxM1 inhibition, Siomycin A was able to reduce anchorage-independent growth of cells in soft agar. Furthermore, we found that Siomycin A was able to induce apoptosis selectively in transformed but not normal cells of the same origin. Taken together, our data suggest that FoxM1 inhibitor Siomycin A could represent a useful starting point for the development of anticancer therapeutics.

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#16580263   2006/07/25 Save this To Up

Anti-endothelial cell antibodies from patients with limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis bind to centromeric protein B (CENP-B).

By using a quantitative immunoblotting technique on protein extracts of human macrovascular and microvascular endothelial cells, we have analyzed the self-reactive repertoires of IgG from 20 patients with limited cutaneous SSc, 40 patients with diffuse SSc and 60 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Serum IgG from 15/20 patients with limited cutaneous SSc and anti-centromere antibodies bound to at least one of the two 75- and 85-kDa protein bands in the different endothelial cell extracts, whereas IgG from healthy controls or patients with diffuse SSc did not. N-terminal sequencing of the 75- and 85-kDa bands identified CENP-B as the sole antigen in both bands. Moreover, IgG from all of the SSc patients who recognized the 75- and/or 85-kDa bands bound to a full-length recombinant CENP-B protein as assessed by ELISA, whereas IgG from other SSc patients did not. The main target of anti-endothelial cell antibodies in patients with limited cutaneous SSc is the nuclear and ubiquitous protein CENP-B.

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#12782584   2003/06/03 Save this To Up

Suppression of centromere dynamics by Taxol in living osteosarcoma cells.

Taxol potently blocks mitosis at the transition from metaphase to anaphase, leading to apoptosis in many types of tumor cells. However, the precise mechanism of action of Taxol is not understood. Here we have tested the hypothesis that a primary mechanism of action of Taxol involves suppression of spindle microtubule dynamics. We have used centromere-binding protein B coupled to green fluorescent protein as a marker for the kinetochores and centromeres of chromosomes and analyzed the effects of low Taxol concentrations on the dynamics of centromeres during metaphase of mitosis in living human osteosarcoma (U2OS) cells by quantitative time-lapse confocal microscopy. In the absence of Taxol, the centromere pairs on attached sister chromatids alternately stretch apart and relax back together approximately 1.2 times/min due to tension on the kinetochores produced by the spindle microtubules (referred to here as centromere dynamics). We found that 50-100 nM Taxol significantly suppressed centromere dynamics. For example, Taxol reduced the mean separation distance between the sister centromeres from 0.73 to 0.65 microm, a distance equivalent to that observed in the complete absence of microtubules. The frequency of transitions between stretching and relaxing was also significantly diminished by Taxol (by 27%-35%). The suppressive effects of Taxol on centromere dynamics were associated with maximal accumulation of cells at mitosis (63%), a >90% block of the metaphase/anaphase transition, and complete inhibition of cell proliferation. The data strongly support the idea that the inhibition of centromere dynamics by Taxol prevents silencing of the mitotic spindle surveillance (checkpoint) mechanism. Because Taxol strongly suppresses microtubule dynamics, the data also indicate that centromere dynamics can be accounted for by microtubule dynamics and may not require significant energetic contributions from microtubule motors. The strict correlation between the degree of suppression of centromere dynamics by Taxol and the degree of mitotic block strongly indicates that the primary mechanism responsible for the mitotic block by Taxol in U2OS cells involves suppression of the polymerization dynamics of kinetochore microtubules.

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#12559609   2003/01/31 Save this To Up

Antibodies to centromere antigens measured by an automated enzyme immunoassay.

Anticentromere antibodies (ACA) are frequently observed in patients with Raynaud's phenomenon and in the CREST syndrome, a subclass of systemic sclerosis. Likewise, ACA are also found in other autoimmune and non-autoimmune diseases. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the clinical utility of the measurement of antibodies to the best characterized centromere antigen (CENP-B) protein by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that uses human recombinant CENP-B antigen and compare it with indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) on HEp-2 cells.

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#11892707   2002/03/14 Save this To Up

Autoantibody detection in scleroderma patients. Diagnostic and analytical performances of a new coupled particle light scattering immunoassay.

We evaluated the diagnostic and analytical performance of the Coupled Particle Light Scattering technology applied to the detection of anti-topoisomerase I (anti-Scl70) and anti-CENP-B autoantibodies.

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#11726497   2001/11/29 Save this To Up

Crystal structure of the CENP-B protein-DNA complex: the DNA-binding domains of CENP-B induce kinks in the CENP-B box DNA.

The human centromere protein B (CENP-B), one of the centromere components, specifically binds a 17 bp sequence (the CENP-B box), which appears in every other alpha-satellite repeat. In the present study, the crystal structure of the complex of the DNA-binding region (129 residues) of CENP-B and the CENP-B box DNA has been determined at 2.5 A resolution. The DNA-binding region forms two helix-turn-helix domains, which are bound to adjacent major grooves of the DNA. The DNA is kinked at the two recognition helix contact sites, and the DNA region between the kinks is straight. Among the major groove protein-bound DNAs, this 'kink-straight-kink' bend contrasts with ordinary 'round bends' (gradual bending between two protein contact sites). The larger kink (43 degrees ) is induced by a novel mechanism, 'phosphate bridging by an arginine-rich helix': the recognition helix with an arginine cluster is inserted perpendicularly into the major groove and bridges the groove through direct interactions with the phosphate groups. The overall bending angle is 59 degrees, which may be important for the centromere-specific chromatin structure.

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