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#28667172   2017/07/01 Save this To Up

A haplotype variant of the human chromogranin A gene (CHGA) promoter increases CHGA expression and the risk for cardiometabolic disorders.

The acidic glycoprotein chromogranin A (CHGA) is co-stored/co-secreted with catecholamines and crucial for secretory vesicle biogenesis in neuronal/neuroendocrine cells. CHGA is dysregulated in several cardiovascular diseases, but the underlying mechanisms are not well established. Here, we sought to identify common polymorphisms in the CHGA promoter and to explore the mechanistic basis of their plausible contribution to regulating CHGA protein levels in circulation. Resequencing of the CHGA promoter in an Indian population (n = 769) yielded nine single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs): G-1106A, A-1018T, T-1014C, T-988G, G-513A, G-462A, T-415C, C-89A, and C-57T. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis indicated strong LD among SNPs at the -1014, -988, -462, and -89 bp positions and between the -1018 and -57 bp positions. Haplotype analysis predicted five major promoter haplotypes that displayed differential promoter activities in neuronal cells; specifically, haplotype 2 (containing variant T alleles at -1018 and -57 bp) exhibited the highest promoter activity. Systematic computational and experimental analyses revealed that transcription factor c-Rel has a role in activating the CHGA promoter haplotype 2 under basal and pathophysiological conditions (viz. inflammation and hypoxia). Consistent with the higher in vitro CHGA promoter activity of haplotype 2, individuals carrying this haplotype had higher plasma CHGA levels, plasma glucose levels, diastolic blood pressure, and body mass index. In conclusion, these results suggest a functional role of the CHGA promoter haplotype 2 (occurring in a large proportion of the world population) in enhancing CHGA expression in haplotype 2 carriers who may be at higher risk for cardiovascular/metabolic disorders.

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#28011710   2016/12/24 Save this To Up

Identification of novel loci affecting circulating chromogranins and related peptides.

Chromogranins are pro-hormone secretory proteins released from neuroendocrine cells, with effects on control of blood pressure. We conducted a genome-wide association study for plasma catestatin, the catecholamine release inhibitory peptide derived from chromogranin A (CHGA), and other CHGA- or chromogranin B (CHGB)-related peptides, in 545 US and 1252 Australian subjects. This identified loci on chromosomes 4q35 and 5q34 affecting catestatin concentration (P = 3.40 × 10-30 for rs4253311 and 1.85 × 10-19 for rs2731672, respectively). Genes in these regions include the proteolytic enzymes kallikrein (KLKB1) and Factor XII (F12). In chromaffin cells, CHGA and KLKB1 proteins co-localized in catecholamine storage granules. In vitro, kallikrein cleaved recombinant human CHGA to catestatin, verified by mass spectrometry. The peptide identified from this digestion (CHGA360-373) selectively inhibited nicotinic cholinergic stimulated catecholamine release from chromaffin cells. A proteolytic cascade involving kallikrein and Factor XII cleaves chromogranins to active compounds both in vivo and in vitro.

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#23674521   2013/08/23 Save this To Up

MicroRNA-22 and promoter motif polymorphisms at the Chga locus in genetic hypertension: functional and therapeutic implications for gene expression and the pathogenesis of hypertension.

Hypertension is a common hereditary syndrome with unclear pathogenesis. Chromogranin A (Chga), which catalyzes formation and cargo storage of regulated secretory granules in neuroendocrine cells, contributes to blood pressure homeostasis centrally and peripherally. Elevated Chga occurs in spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) adrenal glands and plasma, but central expression is unexplored. In this report, we measured SHR and Wistar-Kyoto rat (control) Chga expression in central and peripheral nervous systems, and found Chga protein to be decreased in the SHR brainstem, yet increased in the adrenal and the plasma. By re-sequencing, we systematically identified five promoter, two coding and one 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) polymorphism at the SHR (versus WKY or BN) Chga locus. Using HXB/BXH recombinant inbred (RI) strain linkage and correlations, we demonstrated genetic determination of Chga expression in SHR, including a cis-quantitative trait loci (QTLs) (i.e. at the Chga locus), and such expression influenced biochemical determinants of blood pressure, including a cascade of catecholamine biosynthetic enzymes, catecholamines themselves and steroids. Luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that the 3'-UTR polymorphism (which disrupts a microRNA miR-22 motif) and promoter polymorphisms altered gene expression consistent with the decline in SHR central Chga expression. Coding region polymorphisms did not account for changes in Chga expression or function. Thus, we hypothesized that the 3'-UTR and promoter mutations lead to dysregulation (diminution) of Chga in brainstem cardiovascular control nuclei, ultimately contributing to the pathogenesis of hypertension in SHR. Accordingly, we demonstrated that in vivo administration of miR-22 antagomir to SHR causes substantial (∼18 mmHg) reductions in blood pressure, opening a novel therapeutic avenue for hypertension.

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#18549247   2008/07/01 Save this To Up

The trans-Golgi proteins SCLIP and SCG10 interact with chromogranin A to regulate neuroendocrine secretion.

Secretion of proteins and peptides from eukaryotic cells takes place by both constitutive and regulated pathways. Regulated secretion may involve interplay of proteins that are currently unknown. Recent studies suggest an important role of chromogranin A (CHGA) in the regulated secretory pathway in neuroendocrine cells, but the mechanism by which CHGA enters the regulated pathway, or even triggers the formation of the pathway, remains unclear. In this study, we used a transcriptome/proteome-wide approach, to discover binding partners for CHGA, by employing a phage display cDNA library method. Several proteins within or adjacent to the secretory pathway were initially detected as binding partners of recombinant human CHGA. We then focused on the trans-Golgi protein SCLIP (STMN3) and its stathmin paralog SCG10 (STMN2) for functional study. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments confirmed the interaction of each of these two proteins with CHGA in vitro. SCLIP and SCG10 were colocalized to the Golgi apparatus of chromaffin cells in vivo and shared localization with CHGA as it transited the Golgi. Downregulation of either SCLIP or SCG10 by synthetic siRNAs virtually abolished chromaffin cell secretion of a transfected CHGA-EAP chimera (expressing CHGA fused to an enzymatic reporter, and trafficked to the regulated pathway). SCLIP siRNA also decreased the level of secretion of endogenous CHGA and SCG2, as well as transfected human growth hormone, while SCG10 siRNA decreased the level of regulated secretion of endogenous CHGB. Moreover, a dominant negative mutant of SCG10 (Cys 22,Cys 24-->Ala 22,Ala 24) significantly blocked secretion of the transfected CHGA-EAP chimera. A decrease in the buoyant density of chromaffin granules was observed after downregulation of SCG10 by siRNA, suggesting participation of these stathmins in granule formation or maturation. We conclude that SCLIP and SCG10 interact with CHGA, share partial colocalization in the Golgi apparatus, and may be necessary for typical transmitter storage and release from chromaffin cells.

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#17991725   2008/01/22 Save this To Up

Proteolytic cleavage of human chromogranin a containing naturally occurring catestatin variants: differential processing at catestatin region by plasmin.

The plasma level of chromogranin A (CgA) is elevated in genetic hypertension. Conversely, the plasma level of the CgA peptide catestatin is diminished in individuals with established hypertension and those with a genetic risk of this disease. Resequencing of the human CHGA gene identified three naturally occurring variants of catestatin (Gly364Ser, Pro370Leu, and Arg374Gln) that exhibit different potencies in inhibiting catecholamine secretion. Here, we have examined whether there is any differential processing of the three CHGA variants to catestatin by the endoproteolytic enzyme plasmin. Plasmin digestion of the purified CgA proteins generated a stable biologically active 14-amino acid peptide (human CgA(360-373)) from the wild-type, Gly364Ser, and Arg374Gln proteins despite the disruption of the dibasic site (Arg(373)Arg(374)) in the Arg374Gln variant. Unexpectedly, the action of plasmin in generating the catestatin peptide from the Pro370Leu protein was less efficient. The efficiency of cleavage at the dibasic Arg(373) downward arrowArg(374) site in synthetic human CgA(360-380) was 3- to 4-fold less in Pro370Leu CgA, compared with the wild type. Circular dichroism of the synthetic CgA(352-372) suggested a difference in the amount of alpha-helix and beta-sheet between the wild-type and Pro370Leu CgA peptides. Because the Pro(370) residue is in the P4 position, the local secondary structure in the vicinity of the cleavage site may enforce the specificity or accessibility to plasmin. The less efficient proteolytic processing of the Pro370Leu protein by plasmin, coupled with the strong association of this variant with ethnicity, suggests that the Pro370Leu CHGA gene variant may contribute to the differential prevalence of cardiovascular disease across ethnic groups.

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#16445995   2006/02/28 Save this To Up

Interactions of chromogranin A-derived vasostatins and monolayers of phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine.

Vasostatin-I (CgA1-76) is a naturally occurring and biologically active N-terminal peptide derived from chromogranin A (CgA), produced and secreted at high concentrations by neuroendocrine tissues and also from a range of neuroendocrine tumors. This study aims to examine the hypothesis that in the absence of classical protein receptors CgA1-76 may, like its two derived peptides CgA1-40 and CgA47-66, perturb the lipid microenvironment of other membrane receptors, as a basis for the largely inhibitory activities of these CgA peptides. The nature of the interactions between phospholipids and vasostatin-derived fragments was studied in the Langmuir film balance apparatus at 37 degrees C. The synthetic peptides CgA1-40 and CgA47-66 and a recombinant fragment (VS-I) containing vasostatin-I (Ser-Thr-Ala-CgA1-78) were compared for their effects on monolayers of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine from pig brain and defined species of phosphatidylserine. Marked differences in surface pressure-area isotherms and phase-transition plateaus were apparent with the three classes of phospholipids on VS-I, CgA1-40 and CgA47-66 in physiological buffer or pure water. The results indicate that VS-I and CgA47-66 at 5-10 nM concentrations may engage in electrostatic as well as hydrophobic interactions with membrane-relevant phospholipids at physiological conditions, VS-I in particular enhancing the fluidity of saturated species of phosphatidylserine.

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#16340245   2005/12/23 Save this To Up

The prognostic significance of circulating neuroendocrine markers chromogranin a, pro-gastrin-releasing peptide and neuron-specific enolase in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer.

Chromogranin A (CGA), Pro-gastrin-releasing peptide (ProGRP) and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) are known as immunohistochemical tissue markers closely associated with neuroendocrine differentiation in non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). The aim of the present study was to assess the value of serum levels of these markers in predicting response to chemotherapy and survival of patients with unresectable NSCLC.

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#15542860   2005/02/07 Save this To Up

Role of H+-ATPase-mediated acidification in sorting and release of the regulated secretory protein chromogranin A: evidence for a vesiculogenic function.

The constitutive and regulated secretory pathways represent the classical routes for secretion of proteins from neuroendocrine cells. Selective aggregation of secretory granule constituents in an acidic, bivalent cation-rich environment is considered to be a prerequisite for sorting to the regulated secretory pathway. The effect of selective vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) inhibitor bafilomycin A1 on the pH gradient along the secretory pathway was used here to study the role of acidification on the trafficking of the regulated secretory protein chromogranin A (CgA) in PC12 cells. Sorting of CgA was assessed by three-dimensional deconvolution microscopy, subcellular fractionation, and secretagogue-stimulated release, examining a series of full-length or truncated domains of human CgA (CgA-(1-115), CgA-(233-439)) fused to either green fluorescent protein or to a novel form of secreted embryonic alkaline phosphatase (EAP). We show that a full-length CgA/EAP chimera is sorted to chromaffin granules for exocytosis. Inhibition of V-ATPase by bafilomycin A1 markedly reduced the secretagogue-stimulated release of CgA-EAP by perturbing sorting of the chimera (at the trans-Golgi network or immature secretory granule) rather than the late steps of exocytosis. The effect of bafilomycin A1 on CgA secretion depends on a sorting determinant located within the amino terminus (CgA-(1-115)) but not the C-terminal region of the granin. Moreover, examination of chromaffin granule abundance in PC12 cells exposed to bafilomycin A1 reveals a substantial decrease in the number of dense-core vesicles. We propose that a V-ATPase-mediated pH gradient in the secretory pathway is an important factor for the formation of dense-core granules by regulating the ability of CgA to form aggregates, a crucial step that may underlie the granulogenic function of the protein.

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#15474532   2004/10/11 Save this To Up

Influence of vasostatins, the chromogranin A-derived peptides, on the working heart of the eel (Anguilla anguilla): negative inotropy and mechanism of action.

We have studied the effects of exogenous human recombinant Vasostatin-1 (VS-1), Vasostatin-2 (VS-2) and the human Chromogranin A (CGA) 7-57 synthetic peptides on the mechanical performance of the isolated and perfused working eel (Anguilla anguilla) heart. Under basal conditions, the three peptides decreased stroke volume (SV) and stroke work (SW), thus exerting negative inotropism. The VS-1-mediated negative inotropism was abolished by exposure to inhibitors of either Gi/o protein (pertussis toxin; PTx) or M1 muscarinic receptors (Pirenzepine) or calcium (Lantanum and Diltiazem) and potassium (Ba2+, 4-aminopyridine, tetraethylammonium, glibenclamide) channels, while it required an intact endocardial endothelium (EE). Using NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) as an inhibitor of nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS), and hemoglobin as a NO scavenger, we demonstrated the obligatory role of NO signaling in mediating the vasostatin response. Pretreatment with either a specific inhibitor of soluble guanylate cyclase (GC) 1H-(1,2,4)oxadiazolo-(4,3-a)quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ), or the inhibitor of the cGMP-activated protein kinase (PKG) KT5823, abolished the VS-1-mediated inotropism, indicating the cGMP-PKG component as a crucial target of NO signaling. Of note, VS-1 was effective in counteracting the adrenergic (Isoproterenol and Phenylephrine)-mediated positive inotropism. These findings provide the first evidence that vasostatins exert cardiotropic action in fish, thus suggesting their long evolutionary history as well as their species-specific mechanisms of action.

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#15358782   2004/11/25 Save this To Up

A dynamic pool of calcium in catecholamine storage vesicles. Exploration in living cells by a novel vesicle-targeted chromogranin A-aequorin chimeric photoprotein.

Chromaffin vesicles contain very high concentration of Ca2+ (approximately 20-40 mM total), compared with approximately 100 nM in the cytosol. Aequorin, a jellyfish photoprotein with Ca(2+)-dependent luminescence, measures [Ca2+] in specific subcellular compartments wherein proteins with organelle-specific trafficking domains are fused in-frame to aequorin. Because of the presence of vesicular trafficking domain within CgA we engineered sorting of an expressed human CgA-Aequorin fusion protein (hCgA-Aeq) into the vesicle compartment as confirmed by sucrose density gradients and confocal immunofluorescent co-localization studies. hCgA-Aeq and cytoplasmic aequorin (Cyto-Aeq) luminescence displayed linear functions of [Ca2+] in vitro, over >5 log10 orders of magnitude (r > 0.99), and down to at least 10(-7) M sensitivity. Calibrating the pH dependence of hCgA-Aeq luminescence allowed estimation of [Ca2+]ves at granule interior pH (approximately 5.5). In the cytoplasm, Cyto-Aeq accurately determined [Ca2+]cyto under both basal ([Ca2+]cyto = 130 +/- 35 nM) and exocytosis-stimulated conditions, confirmed by an independent reference technique (Indo-1 fluorescence). The hCgA-Aeq chimera determined vesicular free [Ca2+]ves = 1.4 +/- 0.3 microM under basal conditions indicating that >99% of granule total Ca2+ is in a "bound" state. The basal free [Ca2+]ves/[Ca2+]cyto ratio was thus approximately 10.8-fold, indicating active, dynamic Ca2+ uptake from cytosol into the granules. Stimulation of exocytotic secretion revealed prompt, dynamic increases in both [Ca2+](ves) and [Ca2+]cyto, and an exponential relation between the two (y = 0.99 x e(1.53x), r = 0.99), reflecting a persistent [Ca2+]ves/[Ca2+]cyto gradient, even during sharp increments of both values. Studies with inhibitors of Ca2+ translocation (Ca(2+)-ATPase), Na+/Ca(+)-exchange, Na+/H(+)-exchange, and vesicle acidification (H(+)-translocating ATPase), documented a role for these four ion transporter classes in accumulation of Ca2+ inside the vesicles.

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