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#28934419   2017/09/21 Save this To Up

Characterizing antigenic determinants in Helicobacter pylori CagA capable of detecting serum antibodies in children.

Helicobacter pylori can persistently colonize the mucosa of the human stomach, resulting in gastric disorders. Endoscopic biopsy for rapid urease test and histopathologic examination are considered as the most accurate diagnostic methods for H. pylori infection. Serological methods are recommended for children because of invasiveness of the diagnosis mentioned above. Here, the cytotoxin-associated gene A protein (Cag A), as an immunodominant antigen, was subdivided to determine which regions harbor antigenicity for humans. CagA was divided into 17 overlapping fragments of ∼400 bp, which were used for the analysis of antigenic determinants. The partial proteins were subjected to immunoblot analysis using pooled serum samples from children with gastric symptoms. A partial recombinant CagA protein containing epitope regions (683-749 amino acids), which were identified in this study, was produced and used for the detection of anti-CagA antibodies and further investigated its serodiagnostic value for determination of H. pylori infection in children. The serum IgG reactivities from children with gastric symptoms were significantly three times more than that of serum samples from children with non-gastric symptoms (P < 0.005). Moreover, the serum IgG reactivities from children showing strong urease activity of gastric biopsies were significantly higher than those with moderate and weak urease activities (P < 0.05). Hence, the partial CagA is a candidate antigen for diagnosis of H. pylori infection.

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#28931412   2017/09/21 Save this To Up

Molecular characterization of the duck enteritis virus US10 protein.

There is little information regarding the duck enteritis virus (DEV) US10 gene and its molecular characterization.

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Rabbit Anti-SARS Virus Nu Recombinant Dengue Virus Anti-SARS Spike Protein I Recombinant Human Papillo Recombinant Human Papillo Mouse Anti-Rubella Virus Anti-Infectious Pancreati Anti-Infectious Pancreati Anti-Infectious Pancreati Rabbit Anti-SARS Virus Sp Rabbit Anti-SARS Virus E Rabbit Anti-SARS Virus Sp

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#28928627   2017/09/20 Save this To Up

A novel truncation mutation in CRYBB1 associated with autosomal dominant congenital cataract with nystagmus.

To identify the potential candidate genes for a large Chinese family with autosomal dominant congenital cataract (ADCC) and nystagmus, and investigate the possible molecular mechanism underlying the role of the candidate genes in cataractogenesis.

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#28927721   2017/09/20 Save this To Up

Agonistic effects of diverse xenobiotics on the constitutive androstane receptor as detected in a recombinant yeast-cell assay.

The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) is a nuclear receptor and transcription factor regulating proteins involved in xenobiotic metabolism. Agonist activation of the CAR can trigger metabolic activation and toxification as well as detoxification and clearance; accordingly, xenobiotic substances acting as CAR ligands may pose a threat to human and animal health. We used yeast cells transduced with the human CAR and the response pathway to measure the CAR-agonistic activities of 549 synthetic or natural compounds: 216 of the tested compounds exhibited CAR-agonistic effects. Eighty-four percent of CAR-activating compounds were aromatic compounds, and >65% of these active compounds were aromatic hydrocarbons, bisphenols, monoalkyl phenols, phthalates, styrene dimers, diphenyl ethers, organochlorines, and organophosphates. The ten most potent compounds were 4-tert-octylphenol (4tOP; reference substance), 4-nonylphenol, diethylstilbestrol, benzyl n-butyl phthalate, 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2,4,4-trimethylchroman, o,p'-DDT, methoxychlor, di-n-propyl phthalate, hexestrol, and octachlorostyrene. The activities of these nine non-reference compounds exceeded 10% of the 4tOP activity. Analysis of para-monoalkyl phenols suggests that branching of the alkyl group and chlorination at the ortho position raises potency. This study provides critical information for identifying the potential of CAR-mediated toxic hazards and for understanding the relevant mechanism.

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#28924146   2017/09/19 Save this To Up

APOLs with low pH dependence can kill all African trypanosomes.

The primate-specific serum protein apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1) is the only secreted member of a family of cell death promoting proteins (1-4) . APOL1 kills the bloodstream parasite Trypanosoma brucei brucei, but not the human sleeping sickness agents T.b. rhodesiense and T.b. gambiense (3) . We considered the possibility that intracellular members of the APOL1 family, against which extracellular trypanosomes could not have evolved resistance, could kill pathogenic T. brucei subspecies. Here we show that recombinant APOL3 (rAPOL3) kills all African trypanosomes, including T.b. rhodesiense, T.b. gambiense and the animal pathogens Trypanosoma evansi, Trypanosoma congolense and Trypanosoma vivax. However, rAPOL3 did not kill more distant trypanosomes such as Trypanosoma theileri or Trypanosoma cruzi. This trypanolytic potential was partially shared by rAPOL1 from Papio papio (rPpAPOL1). The differential killing ability of rAPOL3 and rAPOL1 was associated with a distinct dependence on acidic pH for activity. Due both to its instability and toxicity when injected into mice, rAPOL3 cannot be used for the treatment of infection, but an experimental rPpAPOL1 mutant inspired by APOL3 exhibited enhanced trypanolytic activity in vitro and the ability to completely inhibit T.b. gambiense infection in mice. We conclude that pH dependence influences the trypanolytic potential of rAPOLs.Recombinant proteins based on APOL1 and APOL3 can kill pathogenic Trypanosoma brucei subspecies, including a variant (rPpMUT) that is effective against T.b. gambiense infection in mice, suggesting that it may serve as a therapy against sleeping sickness.

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Allergens, Phospholipase Allyl 2-(Acetylamino)-2-d Allyl 2-(Acetylamino)-2-d N-[4-(1-Allyl-3-butyl-2,6 10-Allyl-2-chloro-phenoth 1-Allyl-3,7-dimethyl-8-ph Cancer Apoptosis Phospho- High density larynx and p Larynx and pharynx cancer Larynx and pharynx cancer Larynx and pharynx cancer Syringe pump can be contr

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#28921438   2017/09/18 Save this To Up

Purification Methods for Recombinant Factor VIII Expressed in Human Liver SK-Hep Cells.

Coagulation factor VIII is one of the largest proteins attempted to be expressed in recombinant form. A very complex and labile protein which has a very short half-live and need a fast and efficient purification chain. Here, we describe a simple purification sequence using multimodal Capto MMC, affinity FVIII select and ion exchange SP-Fastflow chromatography steps without subjecting the target molecule to mechanical and temperature stress, separating impurities from rFVIII using net charge, hydrophobicity, and affinity of the molecules.

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#28921434   2017/09/18 Save this To Up

Bioreactor-Based Production of Glycoproteins in Plant Cell Suspension Cultures.

Recombinant glycoproteins such as monoclonal antibodies have a major impact on modern healthcare systems, e.g., as the active pharmaceutical ingredients in anticancer drugs. A specific glycan profile is often necessary to achieve certain desirable activities, such as the effector functions of an antibody, receptor binding or a sufficient serum half-life. However, many expression systems produce glycan profiles that differ substantially from the preferred form (usually the form found in humans) or produce a diverse array of glycans with a range of in vivo activities, thus necessitating laborious and costly separation and purification processes. In contrast, protein glycosylation in plant cells is much more homogeneous than other systems, with only one or two dominant forms. Additionally, these glycan profiles tend to remain stable when the process and cultivation conditions are changed, making plant cells an ideal expression system to produce recombinant glycoproteins with uniform glycan profiles in a consistent manner. This chapter describes a protocol that uses fermentations using plant cell cultures to produce glycosylated proteins using two different types of bioreactors, a classical autoclavable STR 3-L and a wave reactor.

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#28921428   2017/09/18 Save this To Up

Production of Recombinant Factor VIII in Human Cell Lines.

Human cell lines can produce recombinant proteins much more similar to their natural counterpart, compared to other mammalian cell lines, reducing potential immunogenic reactions. Recombinant proteins produced in nonhuman cells can have in its structure glycan epitopes, such as Galα1,3-Gal (alpha-Gal) and N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) residues, that are antigenic to humans and can potentially affect the efficacy of the recombinant product. Therefore, the production of recombinant factor VIII (rFVIII) in human cell lines is a new approach to avoid nonhuman glycosylation. Here, we describe a protocol to produce rFVIII in the human cell line SK-HEP, using a lentiviral vector to produce high quantities of the recombinant protein.

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#28921427   2017/09/18 Save this To Up

Human Cells as Platform to Produce Gamma-Carboxylated Proteins.

The gamma-carboxylated proteins belong to a family of proteins that depend on vitamin K for normal biosynthesis. The major representative gamma-carboxylated proteins are the coagulation system proteins, for example, factor VII, factor IX, factor X, prothrombin, and proteins C, S, and Z. These molecules have harbored posttranslational modifications, such as glycosylation and gamma-carboxylation, and for this reason they need to be produced in mammalian cell lines. Human cells lines have emerged as the most promising alternative to the production of gamma-carboxylated proteins. In this chapter, the methods to generate human cells as a platform to produce gamma-carboxylated proteins, for example the coagulation factors VII and IX, are presented. From the cell line modification up to the vitamin K adaptation of the produced cells is described in the protocols presented in this chapter.

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#28921424   2017/09/18 Save this To Up

Platforms for Recombinant Therapeutic Glycoprotein Production.

The majority of FDA-approved biology-derived products are recombinant glycoproteins. These proteins have been used for the treatment of several diseases, with numerous products currently approved for clinical use. The choice of the expression system is a key step toward a successful functional protein production, since glycosylation influences yield, pharmacokinetics, biological activity, and immunogenicity. This chapter covers the general aspects of therapeutic recombinant glycoproteins and the platforms that are being employed for their production.

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