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#20156479   2010/04/13 Save this To Up

Identification of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4) isoforms in the Pekin duck.

Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4, CD152) is an inhibitory T cell receptor predominately expressed on activated T cells. The duck CTLA-4 (DuCTLA-4) cDNA and a transcript lacking the predicted transmembrane encoding region (DuCTLA-4DeltaTM) were isolated from splenocytes using RT-PCR. The predicted DuCTLA-4 protein showed an identity of 92%, 49% and 47% with chicken, human and mouse homologues, respectively. Sequence comparison revealed conservation of residues implicated in the B7 ligand binding, disulfide linkages, glycosylation and intracellular signaling. DuCTLA-4 mRNA was predominately expressed in primary and secondary immune organs. DuCTLA-4 and DuCTLA-4DeltaTM transcripts were differentially regulated in PBMCs. Flow cytometric analysis showed constitutive expression of DuCTLA-4 protein on freshly isolated PBMCs and a modest increase upon mitogen stimulation. Our observations suggest that DuCTLA-4 and its isoform DuCTLA-4DeltaTM evolved before the divergence of birds and mammals. Both DuCTLA-4 isoforms have significant structural homology to mammalian CTLA-4 proteins but their individual roles in the regulation of duck immune responses remains to be elucidated.

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#19519590   2009/06/12 Save this To Up

CTLA-4Ig: uses and future directions.

Cytotoxic lymphocyte-associated molecule-4 (CTLA-4, CD152) is a member of the CD28 receptor family. Blocking CD28 interaction with its ligands through the use of CTLA-4Ig might contribute to better control of dysregulated immune response processes. The ligands binding to CTLA-4 are the B7 family members, B7-1 (CD80) and B7-2 (CD86). CTLA-4Ig is now a Food and Drug Administration-approved drug for use treating patients with Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) but its use is explored also in other autoimmune diseases, transplantation as well as allergic diseases. Patents related to CTLA-4 function as well as possible clinical applications are discussed in this paper.

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#19066215   2008/12/17 Save this To Up

Transduction of the cytoplasmic domain of CTLA-4 inhibits TcR-specific activation signals and prevents collagen-induced arthritis.

CTLA-4 (CD152) negatively regulates T cell activation signaling, and the cytoplasmic domain of CTLA-4 (ctCTLA-4) itself has the capacity to inhibit T cell activation in vitro and in vivo. In this study, the inhibitory mechanisms of the cell-permeable recombinant protein Hph-1-ctCTLA-4 on T cell activation and its ability to prevent collagen-induced arthritis were analyzed. Hph-1-ctCTLA-4 prevented human and mouse T cell activation and proliferation by inhibition of T cell receptor-proximal signaling and the arrest of the cell cycle. Furthermore, Hph-1-ctCTLA-4 protected human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) from the human CTL allo-response. The incidence and severity of collagen-induced arthritis were significantly reduced and the erosion of cartilage and bone was effectively prevented by i.v. injection and transdermal administration of Hph-1-ctCTLA-4. Inflammatory cytokine production (IL-1beta, IL-6, TNF-alpha, IL-17A) and collagen-specific antibody levels were significantly reduced, and the numbers of activated T cells and infiltrating granulocytes were substantially decreased. These results demonstrate that systemic or transdermal application of a cell-permeable form of the cytoplasmic domain of CTLA-4 offers an effective therapeutic approach for autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis.

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#17953528   2007/10/23 Save this To Up

Human Soluble CD80 is generated by alternative splicing, and recombinant soluble CD80 binds to CD28 and CD152 influencing T-cell activation.

CD80 is a costimulatory factor mainly expressed on the surface of activated monocytes, B cells and dendritic cells. In this study, we demonstrate that 24% of healthy individuals have soluble forms of CD80, sCD80, in their serum. The concentration of sCD80 ranged from 0 to 1 mg/l. At the mRNA level, we detected a spliced form s1CD80 (771 bp), in unstimulated monocytes and B cells, while another form named s2CD80 (489 bp) was expressed in activated T cells as well as in freshly isolated and activated monocytes. s1CD80 lacks the transmembrane domain, and the IgC-like domain plus the transmembrane domain are spliced out of s2CD80. We also present data demonstrating that recombinant s1CD80 binds to recombinant CD152-Ig and CD28-Ig. It can also bind to T cells, preferentially to activated T cells. Recombinant sCD80 had immunomodulatory effects shown by its inhibition of the mixed lymphocyte reaction and inhibition of T-cell proliferation. sCD80 in human serum adds a new member to the family of soluble receptors, implying a network of soluble costimulatory factors with functional relevance. The inhibitory effect of the recombinant protein on T-cell activation makes it a possible candidate for treatment of diseases associated with hyperactivated T cells.

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#17289805   2007/03/07 Save this To Up

Monovalent antibody scFv fragments selected to modulate T-cell activation by inhibition of CD86-CD28 interaction.

Beside the interaction of the antigen-presenting major histocompatibility complex with the T-cell receptor, a co-stimulatory signal is required for T-cell activation in an immune response. To reduce immune-mediated graft rejection in corneal transplantation, where topical application of drugs in ointments or eye-drops may be possible, we selected single-chain antibody fragments (scFv) with binding affinity to rat CD86 (B7.2) that inhibit the co-stimulatory signal. We produced the IgV-like domain of rat CD86 as a fusion protein in Escherichia coli by refolding from inclusion bodies. This protein was used as a target for phage display selection of scFv from HuCAL-1, a fully artificial human antibody library. Selected binding molecules were shown to specifically bind to rat CD86 and inhibit the interaction of CD86 with CD28 and CTLA4 (CD152) in flow cytometry experiments. In an assay for CD86-dependent co-stimulation, the selected scFv fragment successfully inhibited the proliferation of T-cells induced by CD86-expressing P815 cells.

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#17196128   2007/01/01 Save this To Up

[Changes of immunocytes in livers of chronic hepatitis C patients treated with IFN alpha-2b and ribavirin].

To investigate the immunocytodynamic changes in the livers of chronic hepatitis C patients treated with IFN alpha-2b and ribavirin and to find new bases for an effective immune regulation therapy.

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#16884670   2006/08/03 Save this To Up

Update on immunotherapy for melanoma.

Several experimental immunotherapy approaches and standard therapy with high doses of interleukin (IL)-2 can cause prolonged objective responses in some patients with metastatic melanoma. Experimental immunotherapy approaches in clinical development include 1) cytokines such as IL-7 and IL-21, 2) cytokine-antibody fusion proteins or immunocytokines, 3) whole tumor cell vaccines, 4) genetically modified tumor cells, 5) heat shock protein vaccines, 6) peptide vaccines, 7) dendritic cells pulsed with tumor antigens, 8) tumor antigen-naked DNA vectors, 9) recombinant viral vectors (either alone or in a prime boost schedule), 10) adoptive transfer of cloned tumor antigen-specific T cells, 11) Toll-like receptor ligands, 12) antagonistic antibodies to the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA4, CD152), and 13) activating antibodies to CD40 and CD137 (41-BB). These improved approaches to induce cytotoxic T-cell responses to tumors are based on a more detailed understanding of the immune system activation and regulation. The higher response rates with modern immunotherapy approaches may allow exploration of the molecular mechanisms that make tumor targets sensitive or resistant to immunotherapy.

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#16706373   2006/05/18 Save this To Up

[Evaluation of three in-vitro refolding methods for human-derived anti-CTLA4 scFv expressed in E. coli].

To evaluate the efficiency of three in vitro refolding methods for a humanized single-chain Fv antibody against human CTLA4(CD152) expressed in E. coli, the denatured and purified inclusion bodies (IBS) were refolded by dilution, dialysis and in situ refolding via Immobilized Metal-Ion-Affinity Chromatography (IMAC), respectively. The concentration of refolded scFvs was examined by Bradford method. And the antigen binding activity of the refolded scFvs was analyzed by indirect cell-ELISA. The highest and lowest refolding yields could be obtained by dialysis and in situ refolding via IMAC, respectively. The binding activity of the refolded scFv by dialysis was 1.95-fold higher than that by dilution, 4.13-fold higher than that by in situ refolding via IMAC (GSH/GSSH excluded) and 3.63-fold higher than that by in situ refolding via IMAC (GSH/GSSH included), respectively. In conclusion, a high refolding yield and binding activity of scFv with natural conformation could be obtained by dialysis in the condition of 0. 15 mol/L sodium chloride, 50 mmol/L Tirs-HCl, pH 8. 0 buffer containing 3 mmol/L reduced glutathione and 1 mmol/L oxidized glutathione for 48 hours at 4 degrees C.

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#16243538   2006/04/03 Save this To Up

Expression, purification, and in vitro refolding of a humanized single-chain Fv antibody against human CTLA4 (CD152).

A human-derived single-chain Fv (scFv) antibody fragment specific against human CTLA4 (CD152) was produced at high level in Escherichia coli. The scFv gene was cloned from a phagemid to the expression vector pQE30 with a N-terminal 6His tag fused in-frame, and expressed as a 29 kDa protein in E. coli as inclusion bodies. The inclusion body of scFv was isolated from E. coli lysate, solubilized in 8M urea with 10mM dithiothreitol, and purified by ion-exchange chromatography. Method for in vitro refolding of the scFv was established. The effects of refolding buffer composition, protein concentration and temperature on the refolding yield were investigated. The protein was renatured finally by dialyzing against 3mM GSH, 1mM GSSG, 150 mM NaCl, 1M urea, and 50 mM Tris-Cl (pH 8.0) for 48 h at 4 degrees C, and then dialyzed against phosphate-buffered saline (pH 7.4) to remove remaining denaturant. This refolding protocol generated up to a 70% yield of soluble protein. Soluble scFv was characterized for its specific antigen-binding activity by indirect cellular ELISA. The refolded scFv was functionally active and was able to bind specifically to CTLA4 (CD152). The epitopes recognized by refolded anti-CTLA4 scFv do not coincide with those epitopes recognized by CD80/CD86.

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#15912538   2005/09/21 Save this To Up

CTLA-4 is constitutively expressed on tumor cells and can trigger apoptosis upon ligand interaction.

CTLA-4 (CD152) is a cell surface receptor that behaves as a negative regulator of the proliferation and the effector function of T cells. We have previously shown that CTLA-4 is also expressed on neoplastic lymphoid and myeloid cells, and it can be targeted to induce apoptosis. In our study, we have extended our analysis and have discovered that surface expression of CTLA-4 is detectable by flow cytometry on 30 of 34 (88%) cell lines derived from a variety of human malignant solid tumors including carcinoma, melanoma, neuroblastoma, rhabdomyosarcoma and osteosarcoma (but not in primary osteoblast-like cultures). However, by reverse transcriptase-PCR, CTLA-4 expression was detected in all cell lines. We have also found, by immunohistochemistry, cytoplasmic and surface expression of CTLA-4 in the tumor cells of all 6 osteosarcoma specimens examined and in the tumour cells of all 5 cases (but only weakly or no positivity at all in neighbouring nontumor cells) of ductal breast carcinomas. Treatment of cells from CTLA-4-expressing tumor lines with recombinant forms of the CTLA-4-ligands CD80 and CD86 induced apoptosis associated with sequential activation of caspase-8 and caspase-3. The level of apoptosis was reduced by soluble CTLA-4 and by anti-CTLA-4 scFvs antibodies. The novel finding that CTLA-4 molecule is expressed and functional on human tumor cells opens up the possibility of antitumor therapeutic intervention based on targeting this molecule.

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