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#26679998   2016/02/27 Save this To Up

Selective Inhibition of the Mitochondrial Permeability Transition Pore Protects against Neurodegeneration in Experimental Multiple Sclerosis.

The mitochondrial permeability transition pore is a recognized drug target for neurodegenerative conditions such as multiple sclerosis and for ischemia-reperfusion injury in the brain and heart. The peptidylprolyl isomerase, cyclophilin D (CypD, PPIF), is a positive regulator of the pore, and genetic down-regulation or knock-out improves outcomes in disease models. Current inhibitors of peptidylprolyl isomerases show no selectivity between the tightly conserved cyclophilin paralogs and exhibit significant off-target effects, immunosuppression, and toxicity. We therefore designed and synthesized a new mitochondrially targeted CypD inhibitor, JW47, using a quinolinium cation tethered to cyclosporine. X-ray analysis was used to validate the design concept, and biological evaluation revealed selective cellular inhibition of CypD and the permeability transition pore with reduced cellular toxicity compared with cyclosporine. In an experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis disease model of neurodegeneration in multiple sclerosis, JW47 demonstrated significant protection of axons and improved motor assessments with minimal immunosuppression. These findings suggest that selective CypD inhibition may represent a viable therapeutic strategy for MS and identify quinolinium as a mitochondrial targeting group for in vivo use.

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#25319443   2014/12/08 Save this To Up

α-Synuclein-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in isolated preparation and intact cells: implications in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease.

This study has shown that purified recombinant human α-synuclein (20 μM) causes membrane depolarization and loss of phosphorylation capacity of isolated purified rat brain mitochondria by activating permeability transition pore complex. In intact SHSY5Y (human neuroblastoma cell line) cells, lactacystin (5 μM), a proteasomal inhibitor, causes an accumulation of α-synuclein with concomitant mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death. The effects of lactacystin on intact SHSY5Y cells are, however, prevented by knocking down α-synuclein expression by specific siRNA. Furthermore, in wild-type (non-transfected) SHSY5Y cells, the effects of lactacystin on mitochondrial function and cell viability are also prevented by cyclosporin A (1 μM) which blocks the activity of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore. Likewise, in wild-type SHSY5Y cells, typical mitochondrial poison like antimycin A (50 nM) produces loss of cell viability comparable to that of lactacystin (5 μM). These data, in combination with those from isolated brain mitochondria, strongly suggest that intracellularly accumulated α-synuclein can interact with mitochondria in intact SHSY5Y cells causing dysfunction of the organelle which drives the cell death under our experimental conditions. The results have clear implications in the pathogenesis of sporadic Parkinson's disease. α-Synuclein is shown to cause mitochondrial impairment through interaction with permeability transition pore complex in isolated preparations. Intracellular accumulation of α-synuclein in SHSY5Y cells following proteasomal inhibition leads to mitochondrial impairment and cell death which could be prevented by knocking down α-synuclein gene. The results link mitochondrial dysfunction and α-synuclein accumulation, two key pathogenic mechanisms of Parkinson's disease, in a common damage pathway.

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#24979777   2014/07/23 Save this To Up

An uncoupling channel within the c-subunit ring of the F1FO ATP synthase is the mitochondrial permeability transition pore.

Mitochondria maintain tight regulation of inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM) permeability to sustain ATP production. Stressful events cause cellular calcium (Ca(2+)) dysregulation followed by rapid loss of IMM potential known as permeability transition (PT), which produces osmotic shifts, metabolic dysfunction, and cell death. The molecular identity of the mitochondrial PT pore (mPTP) was previously unknown. We show that the purified reconstituted c-subunit ring of the FO of the F1FO ATP synthase forms a voltage-sensitive channel, the persistent opening of which leads to rapid and uncontrolled depolarization of the IMM in cells. Prolonged high matrix Ca(2+) enlarges the c-subunit ring and unhooks it from cyclophilin D/cyclosporine A binding sites in the ATP synthase F1, providing a mechanism for mPTP opening. In contrast, recombinant F1 beta-subunit applied exogenously to the purified c-subunit enhances the probability of pore closure. Depletion of the c-subunit attenuates Ca(2+)-induced IMM depolarization and inhibits Ca(2+) and reactive oxygen species-induced cell death whereas increasing the expression or single-channel conductance of the c-subunit sensitizes to death. We conclude that a highly regulated c-subunit leak channel is a candidate for the mPTP. Beyond cell death, these findings also imply that increasing the probability of c-subunit channel closure in a healthy cell will enhance IMM coupling and increase cellular metabolic efficiency.

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#20937380   2010/12/14 Save this To Up

Menadione triggers cell death through ROS-dependent mechanisms involving PARP activation without requiring apoptosis.

Low levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) can function as redox-active signaling messengers, whereas high levels of ROS induce cellular damage. Menadione generates ROS through redox cycling, and high concentrations trigger cell death. Previous work suggests that menadione triggers cytochrome c release from mitochondria, whereas other studies implicate the activation of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore as the mediator of cell death. We investigated menadione-induced cell death in genetically modified cells lacking specific death-associated proteins. In cardiomyocytes, oxidant stress was assessed using the redox sensor RoGFP, expressed in the cytosol or the mitochondrial matrix. Menadione elicited rapid oxidation in both compartments, whereas it decreased mitochondrial potential and triggered cytochrome c redistribution to the cytosol. Cell death was attenuated by N-acetylcysteine and exogenous glutathione or by overexpression of cytosolic or mitochondria-targeted catalase. By contrast, no protection was observed in cells overexpressing Cu,Zn-SOD or Mn-SOD. Overexpression of antiapoptotic Bcl-X(L) protected against staurosporine-induced cell death, but it failed to confer protection against menadione. Genetic deletion of Bax and Bak, cytochrome c, cyclophilin D, or caspase-9 conferred no protection against menadione-induced cell death. However, cells lacking PARP-1 showed a significant decrease in menadione-induced cell death. Thus, menadione induces cell death through the generation of oxidant stress in multiple subcellular compartments, yet cytochrome c, Bax/Bak, caspase-9, and cyclophilin D are dispensable for cell death in this model. These studies suggest that multiple redundant cell death pathways are activated by menadione, but that PARP plays an essential role in mediating each of them.

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#19901022   2010/01/11 Save this To Up

Facilitation of mitochondrial outer and inner membrane permeabilization and cell death in oxidative stress by a novel Bcl-2 homology 3 domain protein.

We identified a sequence homologous to the Bcl-2 homology 3 (BH3) domain of Bcl-2 proteins in SOUL. Tissues expressed the protein to different extents. It was predominantly located in the cytoplasm, although a fraction of SOUL was associated with the mitochondria that increased upon oxidative stress. Recombinant SOUL protein facilitated mitochondrial permeability transition and collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and facilitated the release of proapoptotic mitochondrial intermembrane proteins (PMIP) at low calcium and phosphate concentrations in a cyclosporine A-dependent manner in vitro in isolated mitochondria. Suppression of endogenous SOUL by diced small interfering RNA in HeLa cells increased their viability in oxidative stress. Overexpression of SOUL in NIH3T3 cells promoted hydrogen peroxide-induced cell death and stimulated the release of PMIP but did not enhance caspase-3 activation. Despite the release of PMIP, SOUL facilitated predominantly necrotic cell death, as revealed by annexin V and propidium iodide staining. This necrotic death could be the result of SOUL-facilitated collapse of MMP demonstrated by JC-1 fluorescence. Deletion of the putative BH3 domain sequence prevented all of these effects of SOUL. Suppression of cyclophilin D prevented these effects too, indicating that SOUL facilitated mitochondrial permeability transition in vivo. Overexpression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-x(L), which can counteract the mitochondria-permeabilizing effect of BH3 domain proteins, also prevented SOUL-facilitated collapse of MMP and cell death. These data indicate that SOUL can be a novel member of the BH3 domain-only proteins that cannot induce cell death alone but can facilitate both outer and inner mitochondrial membrane permeabilization and predominantly necrotic cell death in oxidative stress.

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#15497503   2004/10/22 Save this To Up

Interaction of the Hsp90 cochaperone cyclophilin 40 with Hsc70.

The high-affinity ligand-binding form of unactivated steroid receptors exists as a multicomponent complex that includes heat shock protein (Hsp)90; one of the immunophilins cyclophilin 40 (CyP40), FKBP51, or FKBP52; and an additional p23 protein component. Assembly of this heterocomplex is mediated by Hsp70 in association with accessory chaperones Hsp40, Hip, and Hop. A conserved structural element incorporating a tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain mediates the interaction of the immunophilins with Hsp90 by accommodating the C-terminal EEVD peptide of the chaperone through a network of electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. TPR cochaperones recognize the EEVD structural motif common to both Hsp90 and Hsp70 through a highly conserved clamp domain. In the present study, we investigated in vitro the molecular interactions between CyP40 and FKBP52 and other stress-related components involved in steroid receptor assembly, namely Hsp70 and Hop. Using a binding protein-retention assay with CyP40 fused to glutathione S-transferase immobilized on glutathione-agarose, we have identified the constitutively expressed form of Hsp70, heat shock cognate (Hsc)70, as an additional target for CyP40. Deletion mapping studies showed the binding determinants to be similar to those for CyP40-Hsp90 interaction. Furthermore, a mutational analysis of CyP40 clamp domain residues confirmed the importance of this motif in CyP40-Hsc70 interaction. Additional residues thought to mediate binding specificity through hydrophobic interactions were also important for Hsc70 recognition. CyP40 was shown to have a preference for Hsp90 over Hsc70. Surprisingly, FKBP52 was unable to compete with CyP40 for Hsc70 binding, suggesting that FKBP52 discriminates between the TPR cochaperone-binding sites in Hsp90 and Hsp70. Hop, which contains multiple units of the TPR motif, was shown to be a direct competitor with CyP40 for Hsc70 binding. Similar to Hop, CyP40 was shown not to influence the adenosine triphosphatase activity of Hsc70. Our results suggest that CyP40 may have a modulating role in Hsc70 as well as Hsp90 cellular function.

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HSP90AB1 & FLNA Protein P HSP90AB1 & GNAI2 Protein HSP90AB1 & IKBKB Protein HSP90AB1 & NFKB1 Protein HSP90AB1 & TRAF2 Protein Cell Strainers 40μm Cell Cyclophilin A Cyclophilin B Cyclophilin C HSP90 Cyclophilin D (flag) Cyclophilin D

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#15450803   2004/09/28 Save this To Up

SPR-based interaction studies with small molecular weight ligands using hAGT fusion proteins.

An immobilization procedure for protein on surface plasmon resonance sensor (SPR) chips is described. The target protein, cyclophilin D, is thereby genetically linked to a mutant of the human DNA repair protein O(6)-alkylguanine-DNA-alkyltransferase (hAGT). The procedure includes the immobilization of an alkylguanine derivative on the surface by amine coupling and contact of the surface with a solution of the fusion protein (TCypD-hAGT). TCypD-hAGT could be immobilized using buffer solutions of purified protein or cell extracts. High densities of covalently linked proteins were achieved by either procedure. Binding experiments performed with the ligand cyclosporin A indicate relative binding activities close to 100%. The K(D) value (12 nM) and the kinetic rate constants k(on) (3 x 10(5)M(-1)s(-1)) and k(off) (4 x 10(-3)s(-1)) are given and compared to values determined for cyclophilin D linked to the surface by amide coupling chemistry. The K(D) value is in excellent agreement with the K(D) value determined in solution by fluorescence titration.

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#10216312   1999/06/30 Save this To Up

Purification, characterization and crystallization in two crystal forms of bovine cyclophilin 40.

The purification and crystallization of two different crystal forms of the two-domain protein bovine cyclophilin 40 is reported. Tetragonal crystals grown in methyl pentanediol belong to space group P4222 with unit-cell parameters a = 94.5, c = 118.3 A. Long thin needles grown from PEG belong to space group C2 with unit-cell parameters a = 125.71, b = 47.3, c = 74.6 A, beta = 93.90 degrees. The N-terminal 170 amino acids have significant homology with the well characterized human cyclophilin A. The C-terminal domain is largely made up of three copies of the tetratricopeptide repeat motif thought to be involved in mediating protein-protein interactions. Cyclophilins are frequently found as domains in larger multidomain proteins. To date, only X-ray structures of single-domain cyclophilins have been reported, and this work provides the first example of the purification and crystallization of a larger protein containing a cyclophilin domain.

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#10047844   1999/04/13 Save this To Up

Cyclophilin-D binding proteins.


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#9659917   1998/07/27 Save this To Up

Point mutations in v-Myb disrupt a cyclophilin-catalyzed negative regulatory mechanism.

The c-Myb protein is controlled by intramolecular interactions, and point mutations can enhance its oncogenic activity. We tested whether conformational changes regulate c-Myb and found that Cyp-40, a widely distributed cyclophilin and peptidyl-prolyl isomerase, could inhibit c-Myb DNA binding activity. Inhibition by Cyp-40 required both its C-terminal protein-interaction domain, which bound specifically to c-Myb, and its N-terminal catalytic domain and was blocked by the competitive inhibitor cyclosporin A. Cyp-40 failed to bind or inhibit the oncogenic derivative v-Myb, which has a mutated Cyp-40 binding site. These results suggest that mutations in v-Myb allow it to evade a negative regulatory mechanism mediated by enzymes such as Cyp-40, and implicate peptidyl-prolyl isomerases in the regulation of transcription, transformation, and differentiation.

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