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#28237839   2017/02/26 Save this To Up

Systemic AAV8-Mediated Gene Therapy Drives Whole-Body Correction of Myotubular Myopathy in Dogs.

X-linked myotubular myopathy (XLMTM) results from MTM1 gene mutations and myotubularin deficiency. Most XLMTM patients develop severe muscle weakness leading to respiratory failure and death, typically within 2 years of age. Our objective was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of systemic gene therapy in the p.N155K canine model of XLMTM by performing a dose escalation study. A recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 8 (rAAV8) vector expressing canine myotubularin (cMTM1) under the muscle-specific desmin promoter (rAAV8-cMTM1) was administered by simple peripheral venous infusion in XLMTM dogs at 10 weeks of age, when signs of the disease are already present. A comprehensive analysis of survival, limb strength, gait, respiratory function, neurological assessment, histology, vector biodistribution, transgene expression, and immune response was performed over a 9-month study period. Results indicate that systemic gene therapy was well tolerated, prolonged lifespan, and corrected the skeletal musculature throughout the body in a dose-dependent manner, defining an efficacious dose in this large-animal model of the disease. These results support the development of gene therapy clinical trials for XLMTM.

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#27142911   2016/05/04 Save this To Up

[Endometrial stromal sarcoma: morphologic features and detection of JAZF1-SUZ12 and YWHAE FAM22 fusion genes].

To study the morphologic features, immunophenotype and significance of expression of JAZF1-SUZ12 and YWHAE-FAM22 fusion genes in endometrial stromal sarcoma (ESS).

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#26778558   2016/01/18 Save this To Up

Purification of Protein Chaperones and Their Functional Assays with Intermediate Filaments.

Intermediate filament (IF) scaffolds facilitate small heat shock protein (sHSP) function, while IF function is sHSP dependent. sHSPs interact with IFs and the importance of this interaction is to maintain the individuality of the IFs and to modulate interfilament interactions both in networks and in assembly intermediates. Mutations in both sHSPs and their interacting IF proteins phenocopy each other in the human diseases they cause. This establishes a key functional relationship between these two very distinct protein families, and it also evidences the role of this cytoskeleton-chaperone complex in the cellular stress response. In this chapter, we describe the detailed experimental protocols for the preparation of purified IF proteins and sHSPs to facilitate the study in vitro of their functional interactions. In addition, we describe the detailed biochemical procedures to assess the effect of sHSP on the assembly of IFs, the binding to IFs, and the prevention of noncovalent filament-filament interactions using in vitro cosedimentation, electron microscopy, and viscosity assays. These assays are valuable research tools to study and manipulate sHSP-IF complexes in vitro and therefore to determine the structure-function detail of this complex, and how it contributes to cellular, tissue, and organismal homeostasis and the in vivo stress response.

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#26724190   2016/02/22 Save this To Up

Functional characterization of the novel DES mutation p.L136P associated with dilated cardiomyopathy reveals a dominant filament assembly defect.

Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) could be caused by mutations in more than 40 different genes. However, the pathogenic impact of specific mutations is in most cases unknown complicating the genetic counseling of affected families. Therefore, functional studies could contribute to distinguish pathogenic mutations and benign variants. Here, we present a novel heterozygous DES missense variant (c.407C>T; p.L136P) identified by next generation sequencing in a DCM patient. DES encodes the cardiac intermediate filament protein desmin, which has important functions in mechanical stabilization and linkage of the cell structures in cardiomyocytes.

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#26390092   2015/09/22 Save this To Up

Evaluation of Readministration of a Recombinant Adeno-Associated Virus Vector Expressing Acid Alpha-Glucosidase in Pompe Disease: Preclinical to Clinical Planning.

A recombinant serotype 9 adeno-associated virus (rAAV9) vector carrying a transgene that expresses codon-optimized human acid alpha-glucosidase (hGAA, or GAA) driven by a human desmin (DES) promoter (i.e., rAAV9-DES-hGAA) has been generated as a clinical candidate vector for Pompe disease. The rAAV9-DES-hGAA vector is being developed as a treatment for both early- and late-onset Pompe disease, in which patients lack sufficient lysosomal alpha-glucosidase leading to glycogen accumulation. In young patients, the therapy may need to be readministered after a period of time to maintain therapeutic levels of GAA. Administration of AAV-based gene therapies is commonly associated with the production of neutralizing antibodies that may reduce the effectiveness of the vector, especially if readministration is required. Previous studies have demonstrated the ability of rAAV9-DES-hGAA to correct cardiac and skeletal muscle pathology in Gaa(-/-) mice, an animal model of Pompe disease. This article describes the IND-enabling preclinical studies supporting the program for a phase I/II clinical trial in adult patients with Pompe. These studies were designed to evaluate the toxicology, biodistribution, and potential for readministration of rAAV9-DES-hGAA injected intramuscularly into the tibialis anterior muscle using an immune modulation strategy developed for this study. In the proposed clinical study, six adult participants with late-onset Pompe disease will be enrolled. The goal of the immune modulation strategy is to ablate B-cells before the initial exposure of the study agent in one leg and the subsequent exposure of the same vector to the contralateral leg four months after initial dosing. The dosing of the active agent is accompanied by a control injection of excipient dosing in the contralateral leg to allow for blinding and randomization of dosing, which may also strengthen the evidence generated from gene therapy studies in the future. Patients will act as their own controls. Repeated measures, at baseline and during the three months following each dosing will assess the safety, biochemical, and functional impact of the vector.

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#26361145   2015/09/28 Save this To Up

Effects of FoxO1 on podocyte injury in diabetic rats.

This study was designed to investigate the protective effect of forkhead transcription factor O1 (FoxO1) on podocyte injury in rats with diabetic nephropathy.

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#26337721   2015/09/04 Save this To Up

A GRIA2 and PAX8-positive renal solitary fibrous tumor with NAB2-STAT6 gene fusion.

Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a rare neoplasm composed of mesenchymal-derived spindle cells. Although SFT occurs anywhere in the body, they most frequently affects the thoracic region. Here, we reported an extremely rare case of an extrathoracic SFT occurring primarily in the kidney. To our knowledge, little information has been described on the immunohistochemistry (IHC) and genetics of renal SFT.A 41-year old Japanese female came to our hospital for further examination of a left kidney mass detected incidentally with ultrasound. Extensive investigation of the tumor, including physical, laboratory, and image examinations led to a clinical diagnosis of renal cancer (cT1aN0M0), which were in most parts imbedded in the lower polar parenchyma. The patient underwent laparoscopic radical nephrectomy. The mass was diagnosed pathologically as SFT originating from the kidney, but not as renal carcinoma. Microscopically, the tumor was composed of spindle-shape cells distributed variably in dense collagenous stroma and had a focal hemangiopericytomatous staghorn-like vascular pattern. Mitotic figures, atypical structures, necrosis and hemorrhage were not identified. No adjuvant therapies were given postoperatively. The patient has been free of tumor recurrence for 25 months since the surgery. IHC revealed that the tumor diffusely expressed CD34, CD99, Bcl2, PAX8, NAB2, STAT6, and GRIA2. The tumor stained negatively for desmin, S-100, c-Kit, CK-AE1/AE3, CDK4 and MDM2. A NAB2-SATA6 gene fusion was detected in tumor cells by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, direct sequencing, and an in situ proximity ligation brightfield assay. The gene fusion occurred as an 831 bp truncation of exon 2 in NAB2 connected to the beginning of exon 3 in STAT6. We have reported a case of GRIA2 and PAX8-positive SFT occurring primarily in the kidney with such NAB2-STAT6 gene fusion for the first time. Diffuse expression of PAX8 in the tumor might present with a renal origin. Reportedly, benign histology of SFT cannot necessarily predict favorable clinical prognosis. Genetic alterations recently identified in SFT could possibly refer to risk stratification for tumor recurrence. However, malignant preponderance of extrathoracic SFT over thoracic SFT remains unexplained so far. Long-term follow-up after surgery should be performed in the present case.

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#25593322   2015/03/15 Save this To Up

Regulation of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase 2 (SERCA2) activity by phosphodiesterase 3A (PDE3A) in human myocardium: phosphorylation-dependent interaction of PDE3A1 with SERCA2.

Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 3A (PDE3) regulates cAMP-mediated signaling in the heart, and PDE3 inhibitors augment contractility in patients with heart failure. Studies in mice showed that PDE3A, not PDE3B, is the subfamily responsible for these inotropic effects and that murine PDE3A1 associates with sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase 2 (SERCA2), phospholamban (PLB), and AKAP18 in a multiprotein signalosome in human sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated that PDE3A co-localizes in Z-bands of human cardiac myocytes with desmin, SERCA2, PLB, and AKAP18. In human SR fractions, cAMP increased PLB phosphorylation and SERCA2 activity; this was potentiated by PDE3 inhibition but not by PDE4 inhibition. During gel filtration chromatography of solubilized SR membranes, PDE3 activity was recovered in distinct high molecular weight (HMW) and low molecular weight (LMW) peaks. HMW peaks contained PDE3A1 and PDE3A2, whereas LMW peaks contained PDE3A1, PDE3A2, and PDE3A3. Western blotting showed that endogenous HMW PDE3A1 was the principal PKA-phosphorylated isoform. Phosphorylation of endogenous PDE3A by rPKAc increased cAMP-hydrolytic activity, correlated with shift of PDE3A from LMW to HMW peaks, and increased co-immunoprecipitation of SERCA2, cav3, PKA regulatory subunit (PKARII), PP2A, and AKAP18 with PDE3A. In experiments with recombinant proteins, phosphorylation of recombinant human PDE3A isoforms by recombinant PKA catalytic subunit increased co-immunoprecipitation with rSERCA2 and rat rAKAP18 (recombinant AKAP18). Deletion of the recombinant human PDE3A1/PDE3A2 N terminus blocked interactions with recombinant SERCA2. Serine-to-alanine substitutions identified Ser-292/Ser-293, a site unique to human PDE3A1, as the principal site regulating its interaction with SERCA2. These results indicate that phosphorylation of human PDE3A1 at a PKA site in its unique N-terminal extension promotes its incorporation into SERCA2/AKAP18 signalosomes, where it regulates a discrete cAMP pool that controls contractility by modulating phosphorylation-dependent protein-protein interactions, PLB phosphorylation, and SERCA2 activity.

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#25394388   2015/01/24 Save this To Up

The toxic effect of R350P mutant desmin in striated muscle of man and mouse.

Mutations of the human desmin gene on chromosome 2q35 cause autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive and sporadic forms of protein aggregation myopathies and cardiomyopathies. We generated R349P desmin knock-in mice, which harbor the ortholog of the most frequently occurring human desmin missense mutation R350P. These mice develop age-dependent desmin-positive protein aggregation pathology, skeletal muscle weakness, dilated cardiomyopathy, as well as cardiac arrhythmias and conduction defects. For the first time, we report the expression level and subcellular distribution of mutant versus wild-type desmin in our mouse model as well as in skeletal muscle specimens derived from human R350P desminopathies. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the missense-mutant desmin inflicts changes of the subcellular localization and turnover of desmin itself and of direct desmin-binding partners. Our findings unveil a novel principle of pathogenesis, in which not the presence of protein aggregates, but disruption of the extrasarcomeric intermediate filament network leads to increased mechanical vulnerability of muscle fibers. These structural defects elicited at the myofiber level finally impact the entire organ and subsequently cause myopathy and cardiomyopathy.

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#25261584   2015/01/26 Save this To Up

CCN family protein 2 (CCN2) promotes the early differentiation, but inhibits the terminal differentiation of skeletal myoblasts.

Many studies have reported that CCN family protein 2 (also known as connective tissue growth factor) induces fibrotic response in skeletal muscle, thus emphasizing the pathological role of CCN2 in muscle tissues. However, the physiological role of CCN2 in myogenesis is still unknown. This study clarified the CCN2 functions during myogenesis. Recombinant CCN2 (rCCN2) promoted proliferation and MyoD production in C2C12 cells and primary myoblasts, but inhibited myogenin production. In accordance with these findings, the gene expression levels of myosin heavy chain, which is a marker of terminally differentiated myoblasts and desmin, which is the main intermediate filament protein of muscle cells, were decreased by rCCN2 treatment. In vivo analyses with Ccn2-deficient skeletal muscle revealed decreased proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)/MyoD double positive cells and muscle hypoplasia. Consistent with this finding, myogenic marker genes and myotube formation were repressed in Ccn2-deficient myoblasts. The protein production of CCN2 was increased in C2C12 myoblasts treated with tumor necrosis factor-α, which is a pro-inflammatory cytokine, suggesting its role in muscle regeneration after inflammation. These findings indicate that CCN2 promotes proliferation and early differentiation but inhibits the terminal differentiation of myoblasts, thus suggesting that CCN2 plays a physiological role in myogenesis.

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