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Mitigation of T-cell dependent immunogenicity by reengineering factor VIIa analogue.

Vatreptacog alfa (VA), a recombinant activated human factor VII (rFVIIa) variant with 3 amino acid substitutions, was developed to provide increased procoagulant activity in hemophilia patients with inhibitors to factor VIII or factor IX. In phase 3 clinical trials, changes introduced during the bioengineering of VA resulted in the development of undesired anti-drug antibodies in some patients, leading to the termination of a potentially promising therapeutic protein product. Here, we use preclinical biomarkers associated with clinical immunogenicity to validate our deimmunization strategy applied to this bioengineered rFVIIa analog. The reengineered rFVIIa analog variants retained increased intrinsic thrombin generation activity but did not elicit T-cell responses in peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated from 50 HLA typed subjects representing the human population. Our algorithm, rational immunogenicity determination, offers a broadly applicable deimmunizing strategy for bioengineered proteins.

1529 related Products with: Mitigation of T-cell dependent immunogenicity by reengineering factor VIIa analogue.

Human Stem Cell Factor SC Human Stromal Cell-Derive BAFF (B cell activating f Recombinant Human Factor BAFF(B cell activating fa BAFF (B cell activating f Human Factor VIIa 0.1mg CELLKINES PLATELET DERIVE Macrophage Colony Stimula Human Stromal Cell-Derive Recombinant Human Factor Human Factor VIIa gla dom

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[Population pharmacokinetics of two recombinant human coagulation factor Ⅷ preparations in patients with hemophilia A].

To compare the differences in population pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters between two recombinant coagulation factor Ⅷ (FⅧ) preparations, Kogenate FS and Advate, in patients with hemophilia A, and to provide the theoretical basis of precise individualized treatment for those patients. Patients with moderate or severe hemophilia A who had at least one injection of Kogenate FS or Advate at 41 international hemophilia centers were enrolled as subjects from the WAPPS-Hemo project since January 2015 to December 2017. The half-lives of the two drugs and the time of FⅧ activity reaching 2% (TAT 2%) were calculated, and the differences of PK between the two drugs among different age and dose subgroups were further analyzed. ①The mean age of patients in the Kogenate FS (=117) and Advate groups (=120) were (27.6±17.7) and (23.4±16.2) years old, respectively. All patients in the two groups were males. ②The administration doses in the Kogenate FS and Advate groups were (31.5±13.1) IU/kg and (38.17±14.83) IU/kg, respectively; the half-lives of the two drugs were (12.3±3.5) h and (10.8±2.9) h, respectively; and the TAT 2% were (65.2±21.7) h and (57.0±17.9) h, respectively. ③In the Kogenate FS group, the drug half-lives in patients aged ≥12 and <12 years old were (12.7±3.7) h and (11.1±2.5) h, respectively; the TAT 2% were (68.6±22.9) h and (55.8±14.6) h, respectively. In the Advate group, the drug half-lives in patients aged ≥12 and <12 years old were (11.4±3.1) h and (9.4±1.8) h, respectively; and the TAT 2% were (61.1±18.0) h and (45.2±11.3) h, respectively. ④In the Kogenate FS group, the drug half-lives in <20 IU/kg, (20-29) IU/kg, (30-39) IU/kg and ≥40 IU/kg groups were (13.3±4.0) h, (12.3±3.6) h, (12.2±3.5) h and (11.6±2.6) h, respectively; and the TAT 2% were (61.5±21.4) h, (63.9±22.4) h, (67.0±24.3) h and (68.0±19.5) h, respectively. In the Advate group, the drug half-lives in <20 IU/kg, (20-29) IU/kg, (30-39) IU/kg and <40 IU/kg groups were (11.5±3.8) h, (11.4±3.7) h, (11.0±2.9) h and (10.4±2.3) h, respectively; and the TAT 2% were (50.8±19.2) h, (56.7±21.0) h, (58.2±18.8) h and (58.1±15.8) h, respectively. The PK parameters of Kogenate FS are superior to those of Advate among different age and dose subgroups.

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[Congenital hemophilia: a new treatment paradigm].

Hemophilia is the most common congenital coagulation disorder, characterized by a tendency to bleed severely. Treatment is based on the replacement of defective FVIII or FIX. Following the introduction of recombinant FVIII and FIX, the treatment paradigm of the disease is shifting from episodic to prophylactic treatment with regular the infusion of factor concentrates. Since 2000, several new recombinant FVIII and FIX products with longer half-life have been developed by pegylation protein modification and other technologies, resulting in improved quality of life for patients with hemophilia. Recently, therapeutics with novel hemostatic mechanisms have been developed to overcome several unmet needs. FVIII (a), mimicking bispecific antibody recognizing FIX (a) /FX, has been approved in Japan. The product has several advantages, including a much longer half-life spanning 30 days, subcutaneous injectability, and effectiveness irrespective of the presence of FVIII inhibitor. The paradigm of hemophilia treatment is now shifting towards intact joint function and higher activity.

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Direct comparison of two extended-half-life recombinant FVIII products: a randomized, crossover pharmacokinetic study in patients with severe hemophilia A.

BAY 94-9027 is an extended-half-life, recombinant factor VIII (rFVIII) product conjugated with a 60-kDa branched polyethylene glycol (PEG) molecule indicated for use in previously treated patients (aged ≥ 12 years) with hemophilia A. This randomized, open-label, two-way crossover study compared the pharmacokinetics (PK) of BAY 94-9027 and rFVIII Fc fusion protein (rFVIIIFc) in patients with hemophilia A. Patients aged 18-65 years with FVIII < 1% and ≥ 150 exposure days to FVIII were randomized to receive intravenous single-dose BAY 94-9027 60 IU/kg followed by rFVIIIFc 60 IU/kg or vice versa, with ≥ 7-day wash-out between doses. FVIII activity was measured by one-stage assay. PK parameters, including area under the curve from time 0 to the last data point (AUC, primary parameter), half-life, and clearance were calculated. Eighteen patients were randomized and treated. No adverse events were observed. In the analysis set excluding one outlier, geometric mean (coefficient of variation [%CV, 95% confidence interval {CI}]) AUC was significantly higher for BAY 94-9027 versus rFVIIIFc (2940 [37.8, 2440-3550] IU h/dL versus 2360 [31.8, 2010-2770] IU h/dL, p = 0.0001). A population PK model was developed to simulate time to reach FVIII threshold levels; median time to 1 IU/dL was approximately 13 h longer for BAY 94-9027 versus rFVIIIFc after a single infusion of 60 IU/kg. In conclusion, BAY 94-9027 had a superior PK profile versus rFVIIIFc. ClinicalTrials.gov : NCT03364998.

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[Emicizumab, a bispecific antibody mimicking factor VIII: a novel alternative therapy for hemophilia A with inhibitors].

Regular prophylaxis using factor (F) VIII products to prevent bleeding in patients with hemophilia A (PWHAs) results in markedly suppressed onset of arthropathy and greatly contributes to improved quality of life. However, some issues remain with the use of clotting factor replacement therapy. The need for multiple intravenous infusions is associated with substantial mental and physical burden, and the inhibitor development results in difficulty of hemostatic management. To overcome these unmet needs, a recombinant humanized anti-FIXa/FX bispecific antibody mimicking FVIIIa function (emicizumab) was created. In phase 1/2 clinical studies, Japanese patients with PWHAs were treated with once-weekly subcutaneous administration of emicizumab. The annual bleeding rates were markedly reduced, irrespective of inhibitor use. A phase 3 global study for PWHA with inhibitor demonstrated a statistically significant efficacy, whereas thrombotic microangiopathy and thromboembolism were reported in 5 patients treated with emicizumab concomitantly with multiple infusions of activated prothrombin complex concentrates. In Japan, emicizumab (HEMLIBRA) was approved for treatment of PWHAs with inhibitor on March 2018. In conclusion, emicizumab has promising features. Its subcutaneous bioavailability and long half-life (T1/2; approximately 30 days) enable effective bleeding prophylactic treatment at inhibitor status. Additional studies are warranted to establish clinical data on its safety and to define suitable assays for hemostatic monitoring.

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Clinical Pharmacology Review of Plasma-derived and Recombinant Protein Products: CBER Experience and Perspectives on Model-Informed Drug Development.

Clinical pharmacology studies are one of the major types of regulatory data submitted for review of therapeutic proteins regulated by the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER).

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The scavenger receptor SCARA5 is an endocytic receptor for von Willebrand factor expressed by littoral cells in the human spleen.

Scavenger receptors play a significant role in clearing aged proteins from the plasma, including the large glycoprotein coagulation factors von Willebrand factor (VWF) and factor VIII (FVIII). A large genome-wide association study meta-analysis has identified genetic variants in the gene SCARA5, which encodes the class A scavenger receptor SCARA5, as being associated with plasma levels of VWF and FVIII.

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Recombinant Von Willebrand factor concentrate in 2A Von Willebrand disease: comparison to plasma-derived Von Willebrand factor concentrate therapy.

: Type 2A sub-type of Von Willebrand disease (VWD) is characterized by the loss of high molecular weight multimers. Several plasma-derived Von Willebrand factor concentrates (PD-VWFC) are available for treatment and recently a recombinant VWF concentrate (rVWFC) has been approved for use in VWD for adults in the United States. We describe a patient with Type 2A VWD who had persistent refractory epistaxis despite treatment with PD-VWFC. We describe differences in VWF multimeric composition and Factor VIII (FVIII) levels after plasma-derived and rVWF concentrates. Despite similar VWF levels, VWF multimeric composition after PD-VWFC remained abnormal while it corrected with rVWFC. Post-PD-VWFC, high levels of FVIII were seen, which were not observed after rVWFC. Recombinant VWFC may offer some advantages over PD-VWFC. This finding needs to be confirmed in larger studies.

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[Acquired hemophilia A requiring plasma exchange and mechanical ventilation].

A 56-year-old man who sustained a right waist injury 1 month ago, reported to our department complaining of pain in the right waist and femur for 1 day. In a computed tomography examination, hematoma of the right iliopsoas muscle was revealed, and arterial embolization was immediately performed but was not effective. Laboratory findings showed hemoglobin levels as 5.4 g/dl, platelet of 20.2×10/µl, prothrombine time of 13.1 s, partial thromboplastin time (APTT) of 81.1 s, and a convex upward curve of the APTT cross-mixing test. The activity of the coagulation factor VIII was <1.0%, but its amount was 120%, and the level of factor VIII inhibitor was 130 Bethesda Unit/ml. Disseminated intravascular coagulation was not noted. Under the diagnosis of acquired hemophilia A, treatment with prednisolone and recombinant activated factor VII was initiated. However, APTT remained prolonged, and intubation and mechanical ventilation were required because of right hemothorax. After steroid pulse therapy and plasma exchange, APTT returned to its normal range, and the inhibitor disappeared. Thus, we finally succeeded in extubation. This case indicated that intensive care may be necessary in the early phase treatment for acquired hemophilia A.

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Peptides identified on monocyte-derived dendritic cells: a marker for clinical immunogenicity to FVIII products.

The immunogenicity of protein therapeutics is an important safety and efficacy concern during drug development and regulation. Strategies to identify individuals and subpopulations at risk for an undesirable immune response represent an important unmet need. The major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-associated peptide proteomics (MAPPs) assay directly identifies the presence of peptides derived from a specific protein therapeutic on a donor's MHC class II (MHC-II) proteins. We applied this technique to address several questions related to the use of factor VIII (FVIII) replacement therapy in the treatment of hemophilia A (HA). Although >12 FVIII therapeutics are marketed, most fall into 3 categories: (i) human plasma-derived FVIII (pdFVIII), (ii) full-length (FL)-recombinant FVIII (rFVIII; FL-rFVIII), and (iii) B-domain-deleted rFVIII. Here, we investigated whether there are differences between the FVIII peptides found on the MHC-II proteins of the same individual when incubated with these 3 classes. Based on several observational studies and a prospective, randomized, clinical trial showing that the originally approved rFVIII products may be more immunogenic than the pdFVIII products containing von Willebrand factor (VWF) in molar excess, it has been hypothesized that the pdFVIII molecules yield/present fewer peptides (ie, potential T-cell epitopes). We have experimentally tested this hypothesis and found that dendritic cells from HA patients and healthy donors present fewer FVIII peptides when administered pdFVIII vs FL-rFVIII, despite both containing the same molar VWF excess. Our results support the hypothesis that synthesis of pdFVIII under physiological conditions could result in reduced heterogeneity and/or subtle differences in structure/conformation which, in turn, may result in reduced FVIII proteolytic processing relative to FL-rFVIII.

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