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#28637869   2017/06/22 Save this To Up

Heat shock proteins stimulate APOBEC-3-mediated cytidine deamination in the hepatitis B virus.

Apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic subunit 3 (APOBEC-3) enzymes are cytidine deaminases that are broadly and constitutively expressed. They are often up-regulated during carcinogenesis and candidate genes for causing the major single-base substitution in cancer-associated DNA mutations. Moreover, APOBEC-3s are involved in host innate immunity against many viruses. However, how APOBEC-3 mutational activity is regulated in normal and pathological conditions remains largely unknown. Heat shock protein levels are often elevated in both carcinogenesis and viral infection and are associated with DNA mutations. Here, using mutational analyses of hepatitis B virus (HBV), we found that Hsp90 stimulates deamination activity of APOBEC-3G (A3G), A3B, and A3C during co-expression in human liver HepG2 cells. Hsp90 directly stimulated A3G deamination activity when the purified proteins were used in in vitro reactions. Hsp40, -60, and -70 also had variable stimulatory effects in the cellular assay, but not in vitro Sequencing analyses further demonstrated that Hsp90 increased both A3G cytosine mutation efficiency on HBV DNA and total HBV mutation frequency. In addition, Hsp90 shifted A3G's cytosine region selection in HBV DNA and increased A3G's 5' nucleoside preference for deoxycytidine (5'-CC). Furthermore, the Hsp90 inhibitor 17-N-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin dose dependently inhibited A3G and A3B mutational activity on HBV viral DNA. Hsp90 knockdown by siRNA or by Hsp90 active-site mutation also decreased A3G activity. These results indicate that heat shock proteins, in particular Hsp90, stimulate APOBEC-3-mediated DNA deamination activity, suggesting a potential physiological role in carcinogenesis and viral innate immunity.

1791 related Products with: Heat shock proteins stimulate APOBEC-3-mediated cytidine deamination in the hepatitis B virus.

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#28536268   2017/05/24 Save this To Up

Endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced degradation of DNAJB12 stimulates BOK accumulation and primes cancer cells for apoptosis.

DNAJB12 (JB12) is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated Hsp40 family protein that recruits Hsp70 to the ER surface to coordinate the function of ER-associated and cytosolic chaperone systems in protein quality control. Hsp70 is stress-inducible, but paradoxically, we report here that JB12 was degraded by the proteasome during severe ER stress. Destabilized JB12 was degraded by ER-associated degradation complexes that contained HERP, Sel1L, and gp78. JB12 was the only ER-associated chaperone that was destabilized by reductive stress. JB12 knockdown by siRNA led to the induction of caspase processing but not the unfolded protein response. ER stress-induced apoptosis is regulated by the highly labile and ER-associated BCL-2 family member BOK, which is controlled at the level of protein stability by ER-associated degradation components. We found that JB12 was required in human hepatoma cell line 7 (Huh-7) liver cancer cells to maintain BOK at low levels, and BOK was detected in complexes with JB12 and gp78. Depletion of JB12 during reductive stress or by shRNA from Huh-7 cells was associated with accumulation of BOK and activation of Caspase 3, 7, and 9. The absence of JB12 sensitized Huh-7 to death caused by proteotoxic agents and the proapoptotic chemotherapeutic LCL-161. In summary, JB12 is a stress-sensitive Hsp40 whose degradation during severe ER stress provides a mechanism to promote BOK accumulation and induction of apoptosis.

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#27570076   2016/09/17 Save this To Up

Soluble Oligomers of PolyQ-Expanded Huntingtin Target a Multiplicity of Key Cellular Factors.

Huntington's disease is one of several neurodegenerative disorders characterized by the aggregation of polyglutamine (polyQ)-expanded mutant protein. How polyQ aggregation leads to cellular dysfunction is not well understood. Here, we analyzed aberrant protein interactions of soluble oligomers and insoluble inclusions of mutant huntingtin using in-cell single molecule fluorescence spectroscopy and quantitative proteomics. We find that the interactome of soluble oligomers is highly complex, with an enrichment of RNA-binding proteins as well as proteins functioning in ribosome biogenesis, translation, transcription, and vesicle transport. The oligomers frequently target proteins containing extended low-complexity sequences, potentially interfering with key cellular pathways. In contrast, the insoluble inclusions are less interactive and associate strongly with protein quality control components, such as Hsp40 chaperones and factors of the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Our results suggest a "multiple hit" model for the pathogenic effects of mutant huntingtin, with soluble forms engaging more extensively in detrimental interactions than insoluble aggregates.

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#27452402   2016/08/04 Save this To Up

Phosphorylation of Cysteine String Protein Triggers a Major Conformational Switch.

Cysteine string protein (CSP) is a member of the DnaJ/Hsp40 chaperone family that localizes to neuronal synaptic vesicles. Impaired CSP function leads to neurodegeneration in humans and model organisms as a result of misfolding of client proteins involved in neurotransmission. Mammalian CSP is phosphorylated in vivo on Ser10, and this modulates its protein interactions and effects on neurotransmitter release. However, there are no data on the structural consequences of CSP phosphorylation to explain these functional effects. We show that Ser10 phosphorylation causes an order-to-disorder transition that disrupts CSP's extreme N-terminal α helix. This triggers the concomitant formation of a hairpin loop stabilized by ionic interactions between phosphoSer10 and the highly conserved J-domain residue, Lys58. These phosphorylation-induced effects result in significant changes to CSP conformation and surface charge distribution. The phospho-switch revealed here provides structural insight into how Ser10 phosphorylation modulates CSP function and also has potential implications for other DnaJ phosphoproteins.

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#26965413   2016/05/10 Save this To Up

Telomerase repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) activity upon recombinant expression and purification of human telomerase in a bacterial system.

Telomerase biogenesis is a highly regulated process that solves the DNA end-replication problem. Recombinant expression has so far been accomplished only within a eukaryotic background. Towards structural and functional analyses, we developed bacterial expression of human telomerase. Positive activity by the telomerase repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) was identified in cell extracts of Escherichia coli expressing a sequence-optimized hTERT gene, the full-length hTR RNA with a self-splicing hepatitis delta virus ribozyme, and the human heat shock complex of Hsp90, Hsp70, p60/Hop, Hsp40, and p23. The Hsp90 inhibitor geldanamycin did not affect post-assembly TRAP activity. By various purification methods, TRAP activity was also obtained upon expression of only hTERT and hTR. hTERT was confirmed by tandem mass spectrometry in a ∼120 kDa SDS-PAGE fragment from a TRAP-positive purification fraction. TRAP activity was also supported by hTR constructs lacking the box H/ACA small nucleolar RNA domain. End-point TRAP indicated expression levels within 3-fold of that from HeLa carcinoma cells, which is several orders of magnitude below detection by the direct assay. These results represent the first report of TRAP activity from a bacterium and provide a facile system for the investigation of assembly factors and anti-cancer therapeutics independently of a eukaryotic setting.

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#26845441   2016/02/05 Save this To Up

The Malarial Exported PFA0660w Is an Hsp40 Co-Chaperone of PfHsp70-x.

Plasmodium falciparum, the human pathogen responsible for the most dangerous malaria infection, survives and develops in mature erythrocytes through the export of proteins needed for remodelling of the host cell. Molecular chaperones of the heat shock protein (Hsp) family are prominent members of the exportome, including a number of Hsp40s and a Hsp70. PFA0660w, a type II Hsp40, has been shown to be exported and possibly form a complex with PfHsp70-x in the infected erythrocyte cytosol. However, the chaperone properties of PFA0660w and its interaction with human and parasite Hsp70s are yet to be investigated. Recombinant PFA0660w was found to exist as a monomer in solution, and was able to significantly stimulate the ATPase activity of PfHsp70-x but not that of a second plasmodial Hsp70 (PfHsp70-1) or a human Hsp70 (HSPA1A), indicating a potential specific functional partnership with PfHsp70-x. Protein binding studies in the presence and absence of ATP suggested that the interaction of PFA0660w with PfHsp70-x most likely represented a co-chaperone/chaperone interaction. Also, PFA0660w alone produced a concentration-dependent suppression of rhodanese aggregation, demonstrating its chaperone properties. Overall, we have provided the first biochemical evidence for the possible role of PFA0660w as a chaperone and as co-chaperone of PfHsp70-x. We propose that these chaperones boost the chaperone power of the infected erythrocyte, enabling successful protein trafficking and folding, and thereby making a fundamental contribution to the pathology of malaria.

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#26286954   2015/08/19 Save this To Up

The joining of the Hsp90 and Hsp70 chaperone cycles yields transient interactions and stable intermediates: insights from mass spectrometry.

The Hsp70/Hsp90 chaperone cycles depend on the coordinated interplay of several co-chaperones including Hsp40, Hop and peptidyl-prolyl isomerases such as FKBP52. Because of the many proteins involved in these interactions it is often difficult to delineate all possible combinations of subunits in the complexes formed. We employed mass spectrometry to monitor the assembly and to determine the favoured pathways within these chaperone cycles. Combining the subunit composition with chemical cross-linking and proteomics allowed us to define interaction interfaces, protein dynamics and new intermediates.

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#26075258   2015/06/15 Save this To Up

The J-domain of heat shock protein 40 can enhance the transduction efficiency of arginine-rich cell-penetrating peptides.

Sense and antisense oligonucleotide pairs encoding cell-penetrating peptides PTD (Tat47-57), DPV3A, E162, pVEC, R11, and TP13 were used to construct two sets of pET22b-CPP-DsRed and pET22b-CPP-J-DsRed vectors for CPP-DsRed and CPP-J-DsRed recombinant proteins expression. PTD-DsRed, DPV3A-DsRed, PTD-J-DsRed, and DPV3A-J-DsRed recombinant proteins were expressed in a soluble form. PTD-J-DsRed and DPV3A-J-DsRed recombinant proteins were able to escape from E. coli host cells into the culture medium. The membrane-penetrating activity of PTD-J-DsRed and DPV3A-J-DsRed recombinant proteins to mammalian cells was more effective than that of PTD-DsRed and DPV3A-DsRed. The route of the cellular membrane translocation of these recombinant proteins is suggested via macropinocytosis followed by an endosomal escape pathway.

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Heat Shock Protein 70 (H Heat Shock Protein 70 (H Recombinant Human PKC the Recombinant Human PKC the Recombinant Human PKC the Heat Shock Protein 20, hu Heat Shock Protein 22, hu Heat Shock Protein 27, hu Heat Shock Protein 65, my Heat Shock Protein 90, hu Heat Shock Protein 70, hu Heat Shock Protein 70, hu

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#25921532   2015/05/09 Save this To Up

Hsp70 forms antiparallel dimers stabilized by post-translational modifications to position clients for transfer to Hsp90.

Protein folding in cells is regulated by networks of chaperones, including the heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) system, which consists of the Hsp40 cochaperone and a nucleotide exchange factor. Hsp40 mediates complex formation between Hsp70 and client proteins prior to interaction with Hsp90. We used mass spectrometry (MS) to monitor assemblies formed between eukaryotic Hsp90/Hsp70/Hsp40, Hop, p23, and a client protein, a fragment of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). We found that Hsp40 promotes interactions between the client and Hsp70, and facilitates dimerization of monomeric Hsp70. This dimerization is antiparallel, stabilized by post-translational modifications (PTMs), and maintained in the stable heterohexameric client-loading complex Hsp902Hsp702HopGR identified here. Addition of p23 to this client-loading complex induces transfer of GR onto Hsp90 and leads to expulsion of Hop and Hsp70. Based on these results, we propose that Hsp70 antiparallel dimerization, stabilized by PTMs, positions the client for transfer from Hsp70 to Hsp90.

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#25701168   2015/04/17 Save this To Up

PFB0595w is a Plasmodium falciparum J protein that co-localizes with PfHsp70-1 and can stimulate its in vitro ATP hydrolysis activity.

Heat shock proteins, many of which function as molecular chaperones, play important roles in the lifecycle and pathogenesis of the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. The P. falciparum heat shock protein 70 (PfHsp70) family of chaperones is potentially regulated by a large complement of J proteins that localize to various intracellular compartments including the infected erythrocyte cytosol. While PfHsp70-1 has been shown to be an abundant cytosolic chaperone, its regulation by J proteins is poorly understood. In this study, we characterized the J protein PFB0595w, a homologue of the well-studied yeast cytosolic J protein, Sis1. PFB0595w, similarly to PfHsp70-1, was localized to the parasite cytosol and its expression was upregulated by heat shock. Additionally, recombinant PFB0595w was shown to be dimeric and to stimulate the in vitro ATPase activity of PfHsp70-1. Overall, the expression, localization and biochemical data for PFB0595w suggest that it may function as a cochaperone of PfHsp70-1, and advances current knowledge on the chaperone machinery of the parasite.

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