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Conformational heterogeneity in the Hsp70 chaperone-substrate ensemble identified from analysis of NMR-detected titration data.

The Hsp70 chaperone system plays a critical role in cellular homeostasis by binding to client protein molecules. We have recently shown by methyl-TROSY NMR methods that the Escherichia coli Hsp70, DnaK, can form multiple bound complexes with a small client protein, hTRF1. In an effort to characterize the interactions further we report here the results of an NMR-based titration study of hTRF1 and DnaK, where both molecular components are monitored simultaneously, leading to a binding model. A central finding is the formation of a previously undetected 3:1 hTRF1-DnaK complex, suggesting that under heat shock conditions, DnaK might be able to protect cytosolic proteins whose net concentrations would exceed that of the chaperone. Moreover, these results provide new insight into the heterogeneous ensemble of complexes formed by DnaK chaperones and further emphasize the unique role of NMR spectroscopy in obtaining information about individual events in a complex binding scheme by exploiting a large number of probes that report uniquely on distinct binding processes.

2219 related Products with: Conformational heterogeneity in the Hsp70 chaperone-substrate ensemble identified from analysis of NMR-detected titration data.

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Influence of Escherichia coli chaperone DnaK on protein immunogenicity.

The production of anti-drug antibodies can impact significantly upon the safety and efficacy of biotherapeutics. It is known that various factors, including aggregation and the presence of process-related impurities, can modify and augment the immunogenic potential of proteins. The purpose of the investigations reported here was to characterize in mice the influence of aggregation and host cell protein impurities on the immunogenicity of a humanized single-chain antibody variable fragment (scFv), and mouse albumin. Host cell protein impurities within an scFv preparation purified from Escherichia coli displayed adjuvant-like activity for responses to the scFv in BALB/c strain mice. The 70 000 MW E. coli chaperone protein DnaK was identified as a key contaminant of scFv by mass spectrometric analysis. Preparations of scFv lacking detectable DnaK were spiked with recombinant E. coli DnaK to mimic the process-related impurity. Mice were immunized with monomeric and aggregated preparations, with and without 0·1% DnaK by mass. Aggregation alone enhanced IgM and IgG2a antibody responses, but had no significant effect on total IgG or IgG1 responses. The addition of DnaK further enhanced IgG and IgG2a antibody responses, but only in the presence of aggregated protein. DnaK was shown to be associated with the aggregated scFv by Western blot analysis. Experiments with mouse albumin showed an overall increase in immunogenicity with protein aggregation alone, and the presence of DnaK increased the vigour of the IgG2a antibody response further. Collectively these data reveal that DnaK has the potential to modify and enhance immunogenicity when associated with aggregated protein.

2216 related Products with: Influence of Escherichia coli chaperone DnaK on protein immunogenicity.

Recombinant E. coli HSP70 Recombinant E. coli HSP70 Recombinant E. coli HSP70 Recombinant E. coli HSP70 Recombinant E. coli HSP70 Recombinant E. coli HSP70 Recombinant E. coli HSP70 Recombinant E. coli HSP70 Recombinant E. coli HSP70 Recombinant E. coli HSP70 Recombinant E. coli HSP70 Recombinant E. coli HSP70

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Structural and functional studies of the Leishmania braziliensis mitochondrial Hsp70: Similarities and dissimilarities to human orthologues.

Heat shock protein 70 kDa (Hsp70) is a conserved molecular chaperone family involved in several functions related to protein homeostasis. In eukaryotes, Hsp70 homologues are found in all cell compartments. The mitochondrial Hsp70 isoform (mtHsp70) is involved in import of mitochondrial matrix proteins as well as their folding and maturation. Moreover, mtHsp70 has the propensity to self-aggregate, and it depends on the action of the co-chaperone Hsp70-escort protein 1 (Hep1) to be produced functional. Here, we analyze the solution structure and function of mtHsp70 of Leishmania braziliensis (LbmtHsp70). This recombinant protein was obtained folded, in the monomeric state and it has an elongated shape. We observed that LbmtHsp70 suffers thermal aggregation that depends on the protein concentration and is composed of domains with different thermal stabilities. LbmtHsp70 interacted with adenosine nucleotides with a thermodynamic signature different from those reported for human orthologues and interacted, driven by both enthalpy and entropy, with L. braziliensis Hep1 (LbHep1) with a nanomolar dissociation constant. Moreover, LbHep1 stimulated the LbmtHsp70 ATPase activity. Since little is known about mitochondrial Hsp70, particularly in protozoa, we believe that our data are of interest for understanding protozoan Hsp70 machinery.

1305 related Products with: Structural and functional studies of the Leishmania braziliensis mitochondrial Hsp70: Similarities and dissimilarities to human orthologues.

Rabbit Anti-Human Androge Rabbit Anti-Human Androge Rabbit Anti-Human Androge Goat Anti-Human Androgen CAR,CAR,Constitutive acti Total Human tPA Functiona Human Dnak (HSP70) His ta Recombinant Human Androge Androgen Receptor (Phosph Androgen Receptor (Phosph Mouse Anti-Human HSP70 An Rabbit Anti-Human HSP70 A

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Geranylgeranylacetone selectively binds to the HSP70 of Helicobacter pylori and alters its coccoid morphology.

Geranylgeranylacetone (GGA) is used to treat patients suffering from peptic ulcers and gastritis. We examined the effect of GGA on Helicobacter pylori, which is a causative factor of gastrointestinal diseases. Previously, we have reported that GGA binds specifically to the molecular chaperone HSP70. In this paper, we report that GGA bounds to H. pylori HSP70 (product of the DnaK gene) with 26-times higher affinity than to human HSP70, and induced large conformational changes as observed from surface plasmon resonance and circular dichroism. Binding of GGA suppressed the activity of the H. pylori chaperone. GGA also altered several characteristics of H. pylori cells. GGA-treated cells elicited enhanced interleukin-8 production by gastric cancer cell lines and potentiated susceptibility to complement as compared to untreated cells. GGA also caused morphological alterations in H. pylori as reflected in fewer coccoid-like cells, suggesting that GGA converts H. pylori to an actively dividing, spiral state (vegetative form) from a non-growing, coccoid state. This morphological conversion by GGA resulted in accelerated growth of H. pylori. These results suggest a model in which GGA sensitizes H. pylori to antibiotic treatment by converting the cells to an actively growing state.

2990 related Products with: Geranylgeranylacetone selectively binds to the HSP70 of Helicobacter pylori and alters its coccoid morphology.

Helicobacter pylori antib Helicobacter pylori antib Infection diseases: Heli Helicobacter Pylori (H. P Infection diseases: Heli Human Helicobacter pylori Human Helicobacter pylori FDA Standard Frozen Tissu FDA Standard Frozen Tissu FDA Standard Frozen Tissu FDA Standard Frozen Tissu Human Dnak (HSP70) His ta

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Induction of boosted immune response in mice by leptospiral surface proteins expressed in fusion with DnaK.

Leptospirosis is an important global disease of human and veterinary concern. Caused by pathogenic Leptospira, the illness was recently classified as an emerging infectious disease. Currently available veterinarian vaccines do not induce long-term protection against infection and do not provide cross-protective immunity. Several studies have suggested the use of DnaK as an antigen in vaccine formulation, due to an exceptional degree of immunogenicity. We focused on four surface proteins: rLIC10368 (Lsa21), rLIC10494, rLIC12690 (Lp95), and rLIC12730, previously shown to be involved in host-pathogen interactions. Our goal was to evaluate the immunogenicity of the proteins genetically fused with DnaK in animal model. The chosen genes were amplified by PCR methodology and cloned into pAE, an E. coli vector. The recombinant proteins were expressed alone or in fusion with DnaK at the N-terminus. Our results demonstrate that leptospiral proteins fused with DnaK have elicited an enhanced immune response in mice when compared to the effect promoted by the individual proteins. The boosted immune effect was demonstrated by the production of total IgG, lymphocyte proliferation, and significant amounts of IL-10 in supernatant of splenocyte cell cultures. We believe that this approach could be employed in vaccines to enhance presentation of antigens of Leptospira to professional immune cells.

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C-terminal amino acids are essential for human heat shock protein 70 dimerization.

The human inducible heat shock protein 70 (hHsp70), which is involved in several major pathologies, including neurodegenerative disorders and cancer, is a key molecular chaperone and contributes to the proper protein folding and maintenance of a large number of protein structures. Despite its role in disease, the current structural knowledge of hHsp70 is almost exclusively based on its Escherichia coli homolog, DnaK, even though these two proteins only share ~50 % amino acid identity. For the first time, we describe a complete heterologous production and purification strategy that allowed us to obtain a large amount of soluble, full-length, and non-tagged hHsp70. The protein displayed both an ATPase and a refolding activity when combined to the human Hsp40. Multi-angle light scattering and bio-layer interferometry analyses demonstrated the ability of hHsp70 to homodimerize. The role of the C-terminal part of hHsp70 was identified and confirmed by a study of a truncated version of hHsp70 that could neither dimerize nor present refolding activity.

2873 related Products with: C-terminal amino acids are essential for human heat shock protein 70 dimerization.

Heat Shock Protein 70, hu Heat Shock Protein 70, hu Heat Shock Protein 70, hu Human Dnak (HSP70) His ta Heat Shock 70kDa Protein Heat Shock Protein 70 (H Heat Shock Protein 70 (H Heat Shock Protein 20, hu Heat Shock Protein 22, hu Heat Shock Protein 27, hu Heat Shock Protein 90, hu Proteins and Antibodies H

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Uncovering the basis of ATP hydrolysis activity in purified human p53 protein: a reinvestigation.

p53 is one of the most well studied tumor suppressor proteins and regarded as the guardian of the genome. The protein mediates cell-cycle arrest, apoptosis in response to myriads of cellular stresses including DNA damage via its transcriptional as well as non-transcriptional roles. ATP binding/hydrolysis by p53 had been implicated in its DNA binding functions. However, till date, no ATP binding/hydrolysis domains have been mapped in p53. In the current study, we have reinvestigated the ATP hydrolysis activity associated with recombinant human p53 protein expressed and purified from E.coli. We confirmed the source of ATPase activity using various deletion constructs of p53 and an In-gel ATPase assay followed by LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of the activity band. The activity was associated with Hsp70 homologue in E.coli, DnaK, a known interactor of p53. We clarify that wildtype human p53, expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3) strain, carries no ATPase activity.

2518 related Products with: Uncovering the basis of ATP hydrolysis activity in purified human p53 protein: a reinvestigation.

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Effect of the DnaK chaperone on the conformational quality of JCV VP1 virus-like particles produced in Escherichia coli.

Protein nanoparticles such as virus-like particles (VLPs) can be obtained by recombinant protein production of viral capsid proteins and spontaneous self-assembling in cell factories. Contrarily to infective viral particles, VLPs lack infective viral genome while retaining important viral properties like cellular tropism and intracellular delivery of internalized molecules. These properties make VLPs promising and fully biocompatible nanovehicles for drug delivery. VLPs of human JC virus (hJCV) VP1 capsid protein produced in Escherichia coli elicit variable hemagglutination properties when incubated at different NaCl concentrations and pH conditions, being optimal at 200 mM NaCl and at pH range between 5.8 and 7.5. In addition, the presence or absence of chaperone DnaK in E. coli cells influence the solubility of recombinant VP1 and the conformational quality of this protein in the VLPs. The hemagglutination ability of hJCV VP1 VLPs contained in E. coli cell extracts can be modulated by buffer composition in the hemagglutination assay. It has been also determined that the production of recombinant hJCV VP1 in E. coli is favored by the absence of chaperone DnaK as observed by Western Blot analysis in different E. coli genetic backgrounds, indicating a proteolysis targeting role for DnaK. However, solubility is highly compromised in a DnaK(-) E. coli strain suggesting an important role of this chaperone in reduction of protein aggregates. Finally, hemagglutination efficiency of recombinant VP1 is directly related to the presence of DnaK in the producing cells.

2865 related Products with: Effect of the DnaK chaperone on the conformational quality of JCV VP1 virus-like particles produced in Escherichia coli.

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Using ¹⁵N-ammonium to characterise and map potassium binding sites in proteins by NMR spectroscopy.

A variety of enzymes are activated by the binding of potassium ions. The potassium binding sites of these enzymes are very specific, but ammonium ions can often replace potassium ions in vitro because of their similar ionic radii. In these cases, ammonium can be used as a proxy for potassium to characterise potassium binding sites in enzymes: the (1) H,(15) N spin-pair of enzyme-bound (15) NH4 (+) can be probed by (15) N-edited heteronuclear NMR experiments. Here, we demonstrate the use of NMR spectroscopy to characterise binding of ammonium ions to two different enzymes: human histone deacetylase 8 (HDAC8), which is activated allosterically by potassium, and the bacterial Hsp70 homologue DnaK, for which potassium is an integral part of the active site. Ammonium activates both enzymes in a similar way to potassium, thus supporting this non-invasive approach. Furthermore, we present an approach to map the observed binding site onto the structure of HDAC8. Our method for mapping the binding site is general and does not require chemical shift assignment of the enzyme resonances.

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Intraperitoneal immunization of recombinant HSP70 (DnaK) of Salmonella Typhi induces a predominant Th2 response and protective immunity in mice against lethal Salmonella infection.

Heat shock proteins serve as important antigens in defense against infectious diseases. Members of HSP70 family, particularly microbial HSP70s have acquired special significance in immunity. In the present study, we evaluated the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of HSP70 of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi against lethal infection by Salmonella in mice with or without adjuvants. The HSP70 gene was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 and purified by affinity chromatography. Immunization of mice with HSP70 either alone or in combination with complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) resulted in a significant increase in antibody titers as compared to control. Antibody isotyping revealed that HSP70 immunization induces both IgG1 and IgG2a antibodies to a significant extent but a higher IgG1/IgG2a ratio indicates a predominant Th2 response. There was a significant increase in lymphocyte proliferation, and levels of both Th2 and Th1 cytokines in cells isolated from immunized mice as compared to control. Immunization of mice with recombinant HSP70 either alone or in combination with CFA conferred 70-90% protection against lethal infections by Salmonella Typhi Ty2 or Salmonella Typhimurium. However, passive immunization with anti-HSP70 sera induced only partial protection in the immunized mice.

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Mouse Anti Salmonella typ Recombinant E. coli HSP70 Recombinant E. coli HSP70 Recombinant E. coli HSP70 Rabbit Anti-Salmonella ty Rabbit Anti-Salmonella ty Rabbit Anti-Salmonella ty Rabbit Anti-Salmonella ty Rabbit Anti-Salmonella ty Rabbit Anti-Salmonella ty Rabbit Anti-Salmonella ty Rabbit Anti-Salmonella ty

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