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           Search results for: Recombinant Human IL-4 [from CHO cells] Proteins    

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Horse cytokine/IgG fusion proteins--mammalian expression of biologically active cytokines and a system to verify antibody specificity to equine cytokines.

Recombinant cytokines are valuable tools for functional studies and candidates for vaccine additives or therapeutic use in various diseases. They can also be used to generate specific antibodies to analyze the roles of different cytokines during immune responses. We generated a mammalian expression system for recombinant cytokines using the equine IgG1 heavy chain constant region as a tag for detection and purification of the expressed cytokine, demonstrated here using equine interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), interleukin-2 (IL-2), interleukin-4 (IL4) and transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1). The resulting IgG1 fusion proteins were composed of the C-terminal heavy chain constant region of the IgG1 (IgGa), and the N-terminal cytokine replacing the immunoglobulin heavy chain variable domain. The fusion proteins were expressed in CHO cells as dimers and their structures had similarity to that of IgG heavy chain antibodies. In contrast to other tags, the IgG1 heavy chain constant region allowed the selection for clones secreting high levels of the recombinant protein by a sensitive ELISA. In addition, the IgG1 heavy chain constant region facilitated identification of stable transfectants by flow cytometry and the secreted recombinant fusion protein by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting. To recover the cytokine from the IgG1 fusion partner, an enterokinase cleavage site was cloned between the cytokine gene and the immunoglobulin heavy chain constant region gene. The purification of the fusion protein by protein G affinity columns, the enterokinase digestion of the cytokine from the IgG1 heavy chain region after or during purification, and the biological activity of the cytokine within the fusion protein or after its isolation was demonstrated in detail for equine IFN-gamma/IgG1 by up-regulation of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II expression on horse lymphocytes. Biological activity could also be confirmed for the IL-2 and IL-4/IgG1 fusion proteins. To test the crossreactivity and specificity of anti-human TGF-beta1, and anti-bovine and anti-canine IFN-gamma antibodies to respective horse cytokines, the four cytokine/IgG1 fusion proteins were successfully used in ELISA, flow cytometry and/or Western blotting. In summary, equine IgG1 fusion proteins provide a source of recombinant proteins with high structural and functional homology to their native counterparts, including a convenient system for selection of stable, high expressing transfectants, and a means for monitoring specificity of antibodies to equine cytokines.

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Immune response in Helicobacter pylori-induced low-grade gastric-mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma.

We have reported previously that heat-shock protein 60 kDa (hsp60) of Helicobacter pylori is an important antigen in the pathogenesis of gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. In order to investigate associations with host immune reactions and hsp60 antigen, CD40 ligand (CD40L) expression and cytokine production were analysed following stimulation with hsp60. To provide a clear antigen-driven immune response, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from patients with low-grade MALT lymphoma and gastritis and those from healthy volunteers were stimulated with recombinant H. pylori hsp60 and H. pylori cell lysate in the presence of cytokines (IL4 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor). mRNA expression was also analysed by a cDNA microarray containing 1100 genes. Expression of CD40L on PBMCs of patients with MALT lymphoma was increased by cytokines or by combination with stimulation with hsp60 antigens. The production of IL4 in PBMC cultures was increased in patients with MALT lymphoma; however, production of IFN-gamma was at low levels. DNA microarray analysis indicated increased levels of HLA-DR and integrin mRNAs. In cases of low-grade MALT lymphoma, adaptive immune responses against hsp60 may be enhanced by host factors, such as antigen presentation and T-cell activation, resulting in B-cell proliferation, which can be demonstrated during chronic H. pylori infection.

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Global and local determinants for the kinetics of interleukin-4/interleukin-4 receptor alpha chain interaction. A biosensor study employing recombinant interleukin-4-binding protein.

An engineered interleukin-4-binding protein (IL4-BP) representing the extracellular domain of the human interleukin-4 (IL-4) receptor alpha chain was expressed in Sf9 cells. The purified IL4-BP was immobilized via a single biotinylated SH group near the carboxyl end to a biosensor matrix and analysed in real time for interaction with IL-4 and IL-4 variants. IL-4 was bound to IL4-BP at a molar ratio of approximately 1:1. The association and dissociation at pH 7.4 and 150 mM NaCl had rate constants of 1.9 +/- 0.3 x 10(7) M-1 s-1 and 2 +/- 1 x 10(-3) s-1, respectively. Glycosylation and engineered amino acid substitutions of IL4-BP did not alter the kinetic constants as shown by a parallel analysis of IL4-BP variants produced in Escherichia coli or Chinese hamster ovary cells. The rate of association was only slightly affected in binding-deficient variants [E9Q]IL-4 and [R88Q]IL-4 and by acidic pH down to values of 4.5, but it was reduced up to fivefold at higher ionic strength. The rate of dissociation was increased 70-fold and 150-fold with the IL-4 variants and fivefold at an acidic pH of 4.5, but it was not affected by high ionic strength. Temperatures between 6 degrees C and 37 degrees C yielded similar rates of IL-4 dissociation and only a marginally reduced rate of IL-4 association at 6 degrees C. These results indicate that the high-affinity binding of IL-4 to its receptor (Kd approximately 100 pM) is mainly the result of an unusually high association rate. The IL-4/IL4-BP interaction appears to be dominated by charge effects. The exceedingly high rate of IL-4/IL4-BP association is augmented by the overall electrostatic potentials of both proteins (electrostatic steering). Localized charges and the formation of ion pairs may control the rate of complex dissociation.

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Activation of gene transcription by IL-4, IL-13 and IFN-gamma through a shared DNA binding motif.

Both interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interleukin-13 (IL-13) induce the transcription factor NF-IL4 (nuclear factor IL-4) which preexists in an inactive form and binds to an IL-4 responsive element (IL-4RE) in the promoter regions of IL-4/IL-13-dependent genes. UV-crosslinking and SDS gel electrophoresis indicate that NF-IL4 consists of at least two DNA-binding components of 50 kDa and 100-130 kDa. The IL-4 responsive element is also recognized by an interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)-induced DNA binding protein for which a Mr of 50 kDa has been determined. A common DNA binding motif for different transcription factors might provide the basis for the frequently observed functional antagonism between IL-4/IL-13 and IFN-gamma. The activation of transcription factors by IL-4/IL-13 and IFN-gamma could be blocked by inhibitors of tyrosine kinases and ser/thr phosphatases but not by a PKC inhibitor, suggesting related signal transduction pathways for these cytokines.

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Human interleukin-13 activates the interleukin-4-dependent transcription factor NF-IL4 sharing a DNA binding motif with an interferon-gamma-induced nuclear binding factor.

The effects of interleukin-13 (IL-13) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) on cellular functions were shown to be quite similar. We provide evidence that in monocytes as well as in T lymphocytes both IL-4 and IL-13 activate the same recently identified transcription factor NF-IL4 which binds to the specific responsive element IL-4RE. In addition, we show that a nuclear factor activated by interferon-gamma also interacts with the IL-4RE. It differs from NF-IL4 in the electrophoretic mobility of the complex with DNA, in its DNA-binding specificity and in the proteins interacting with the DNA sequence. Sensitivity against various enzyme inhibitors suggests that components of the signal transduction pathway are shared by all three cytokines.

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