Search results for: Recombinant Human IL-6 [+His] Proteins
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Protein‑ and growth‑modulatory effects of carcinoma‑associated fibroblasts on breast cancer cells: Role of interleukin‑6.Carcinoma‑associated fibroblasts (CAFs) secrete factors that increase the expression and/or activities of proteins in breast cancer cells and induce resistance to anti‑estrogens, such as fulvestrant. A major factor is interleukin‑6 (IL‑6). This study demonstrated that, across estrogen receptor (ER)α‑positive and ‑negative cell lines, recombinant human IL‑6 (rhIL‑6) mimicked most of the CAF‑conditioned medium (CM)‑induced changes in protein expression patterns; however, in most cases, it failed to recapitulate CAF‑CM‑triggered alterations in ERK1/2 and AKT activities. The ability of rhIL‑6 to induce fulvestrant resistance was dependent upon the culture conditions. In 3D, but not in 2D cultures, rhIL‑6 increased the survival of fulvestrant‑treated cells, although not to the same extent as observed with CAF‑CM. In 2D cultures, rhIL‑6 acted in a pro‑apoptotic manner and decreased the expression of ATP‑binding cassette transporter G2 (ABCG2). The inhibition of the PI3K/AKT pathway had similar effects on apoptosis and ABCG2 expression, linking the failure of rhIL‑6 to induce fulvestrant resistance to its inability to activate the PI3K/AKT pathway. In 3D cultures, both CAF‑CM and rhIL‑6 acted in an anti‑apoptotic manner. These activities are likely independent on the PI3K/AKT pathway and ABCG2. Experiments on ERα‑negative breast cancer cells revealed a growth‑inhibitory effects of both CAF‑CM and rhIL‑6, which coincided with a reduction in the c‑Myc level. These data suggest that IL‑6 plays a role in several effects of CAF‑CM, including alterations in protein expression patterns, fulvestrant resistance in 3D cultures and growth inhibition. By contrast, IL‑6 is unlikely to be responsible for the CAF‑CM‑induced activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway and fulvestrant resistance in 2D cultures.
1474 related Products with: Protein‑ and growth‑modulatory effects of carcinoma‑associated fibroblasts on breast cancer cells: Role of interleukin‑6.Breast cancer tissue arra Breast cancer and matched Monoclonal Anti-Breast Ca Epidermal Growth Factor ( Breast cancer membrane pr Breast cancer and matched Anti-Breast Cancer Resist Breast cancer tissue arra Breast cancer and matched Monoclonal Anti Breast Ca Cancer Samples: Breast C High density (188 cases 2
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Cholest-4,6-Dien-3-One Promote Epithelial-To-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) in Biliary Tree Stem/Progenitor Cell Cultures In Vitro.Human biliary tree stem/progenitor cells (hBTSCs), reside in peribiliary glands, are mainly stimulated by primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and cholangiocarcinoma. In these pathologies, hBTSCs displayed epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), senescence characteristics, and impaired differentiation. Here, we investigated the effects of cholest-4,6-dien-3-one, an oxysterol involved in cholangiopathies, on hBTSCs biology. hBTSCs were isolated from donor organs, cultured in self-renewal control conditions, differentiated in mature cholangiocytes by specifically tailored medium, or exposed for 10 days to concentration of cholest-4,6-dien-3-one (0.14 mM). Viability, proliferation, senescence, genes expression, telomerase activity, interleukin 6 (IL6) secretion, differentiation capacity, and gene expression were analyzed. Although the effect of cholest-4,6-dien-3-one was not detected on hBTSCs viability, we found a significant increase in cell proliferation, senescence, and IL6 secretion. Interestingly, cholest-4.6-dien-3-one impaired differentiation in mature cholangiocytes and, simultaneously, induced the EMT markers, significantly reduced the telomerase activity, and induced gene expression. Moreover, cholest-4,6-dien-3-one enhanced bone morphogenic protein 4 (Bmp-4) and sonic hedgehog (Shh) pathways in hBTSCs. The same pathways activated by human recombinant proteins induced the expression of EMT markers in hBTSCs. In conclusion, we demonstrated that chronic exposition of cholest-4,6-dien-3-one induced cell proliferation, EMT markers, and senescence in hBTSC, and also impaired the differentiation in mature cholangiocytes.
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Cyclic tensile force-upregulated IL6 increases MMP3 expression by human periodontal ligament cells.Cyclic tensile force (CTF) modulates physiological responses of periodontal ligament (PDL) cells. PDL cells are mechanosensitive and are able to maintain tissue homeostasis; a process mediated by the expression of particular cytokines including interleukin 6 (IL6). It is unknown whether CTF-induced IL6 regulates the expression of MMPs, enzymes needed for tissue remodeling.
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Autocrine STAT3 activation in HPV positive cervical cancer through a virus-driven Rac1-NFκB-IL-6 signalling axis.Persistent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the leading cause of cervical cancer. Although the fundamental link between HPV infection and oncogenesis is established, the specific mechanisms of virus-mediated transformation are not fully understood. We previously demonstrated that the HPV encoded E6 protein increases the activity of the proto-oncogenic transcription factor STAT3 in primary human keratinocytes; however, the molecular basis for STAT3 activation in cervical cancer remains unclear. Here, we show that STAT3 phosphorylation in HPV positive cervical cancer cells is mediated primarily via autocrine activation by the pro-inflammatory cytokine Interleukin 6 (IL-6). Antibody-mediated blockade of IL-6 signalling in HPV positive cells inhibits STAT3 phosphorylation, whereas both recombinant IL-6 and conditioned media from HPV positive cells leads to increased STAT3 phosphorylation within HPV negative cervical cancer cells. Interestingly, we demonstrate that activation of the transcription factor NFκB, involving the small GTPase Rac1, is required for IL-6 production and subsequent STAT3 activation. Our data provides new insights into the molecular re-wiring of cancer cells by HPV E6. We reveal that activation of an IL-6 signalling axis drives the autocrine and paracrine phosphorylation of STAT3 within HPV positive cervical cancers cells and that activation of this pathway is essential for cervical cancer cell proliferation and survival. Greater understanding of this pathway provides a potential opportunity for the use of existing clinically approved drugs for the treatment of HPV-mediated cervical cancer.
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Ctenopharyngodon Idella STAT3 alleviates autophagy by up-regulating BCL-2 expression.In mammals, STAT3 (Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) plays an absolutely vital role in response to cytokines and growth factors. In mammals, IL-6/JAK/STAT3 pathway is closely linked to immune response and promotes cell proliferation, survival and metastasis. Some recent studies have already demonstrated that STAT3 regulates autophagy. As a downstream target gene of STAT3, Bcl-2 (B-cell lymphoma 2) not only participates in regulating apoptosis, but also responds to autophagy. STAT3 regulates autophagy through Bcl-2. In general, the generation of autophagy is always accompanied by the change of apoptosis, and the occurrence of apoptosis is often accompanied by the decreased of cell viability. In grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), LPS-induced autophagy is involved in the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. However, only the relationship between autophagy and cytokines was illustrated, in which the signaling pathways were not discussed. In the present study, we found that the autophagy inducer, Tunicamycin (Tm), can induce C.Idella Kidney cells (CIK) autophagy. When the cells were incubated with the recombinant human IL-6 (rIL-6) for a short period of times, the mRNA expression level of C.Idella IL-6R and STAT3 were increased. At the same time, the number of GFP-LC3 puncta and the ratio of LC3-II/LC3-I were both decreased obviously in cells. It indicated that the rIL-6 can significantly alleviate autophagy induced by Tm. We speculated that CiSTAT3 may play a key role in the process. To confirm this hypothesis, we performed a rIL-6 activating CiSTAT3 assay. The result demonstrated that rIL-6 can induce CiSTAT3 to form homologous dimmer. The activated CiSTAT3 regulated the transcription activity of CiBcl-2, finally led to a decrease of autophagy. In addition, when cells were in the state of autophagy, apoptosis was increased and cell viability was decreased. When CiSTAT3 was activated, cell apoptosis weakened and cell viability was increased. The results suggest that CiSTAT3 plays an important role in maintaining the normal physiological process of cells.
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Mobile platform for rapid sub-picogram-per-milliliter, multiplexed, digital droplet detection of proteins.Digital droplet assays-in which biological samples are compartmentalized into millions of femtoliter-volume droplets and interrogated individually-have generated enormous enthusiasm for their ability to detect biomarkers with single-molecule sensitivity. These assays have untapped potential for point-of-care diagnostics but are currently mainly confined to laboratory settings, due to the instrumentation necessary to serially generate, control, and measure tens of millions of droplets/compartments. To address this challenge, we developed an optofluidic platform that miniaturizes digital assays into a mobile format by parallelizing their operation. This technology is based on three key innovations: () the integration and parallel operation of a hundred droplet generators onto a single chip that operates >100× faster than a single droplet generator, () the fluorescence detection of droplets at >100× faster than conventional in-flow detection using time domain-encoded mobile phone imaging, and () the integration of on-chip delay lines and sample processing to allow serum-to-answer device operation. To demonstrate the power of this approach, we performed a duplex digital ELISA. We characterized the performance of this assay by first using spiked recombinant proteins in a complex media (FBS) and measured a limit of detection, 0.004 pg/mL (300 aM), a 1,000× improvement over standard ELISA and matching that of the existing laboratory-based gold standard digital ELISA system. We additionally measured endogenous GM-CSF and IL6 in human serum from = 14 human subjects using our mobile duplex assay, and showed excellent agreement with the gold standard system ([Formula: see text]).
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Opposite effects of Vaccinia and modified Vaccinia Ankara on trained immunity.Vaccines such as Vaccinia or BCG have non-specific effects conferring protection against other diseases than their target infection, which are likely partly mediated through induction of innate immune memory (trained immunity). MVA85A, a recombinant strain of modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA), has been suggested as an alternative vaccine against tuberculosis, but its capacity to induce positive or negative non-specific immune effects has not been studied. This study assesses whether Vaccinia and MVA are able to induce trained innate immunity in monocytes. Human primary monocytes were primed in an in vitro model with Vaccinia or MVA for 1 day, after which the stimulus was washed off and the cells were rechallenged with unrelated microbial ligands after 1 week. Heterologous cytokine responses were assessed and the capacity of MVA to induce epigenetic changes at the level of cytokine genes was investigated using chromatin immunoprecipitation and pharmacological inhibitors. Monocytes trained with Vaccinia showed significantly increased IL-6 and TNF-α production to stimulation with non-related stimuli, compared to non-trained monocytes. In contrast, monocytes primed with MVA showed significant decreased heterologous IL-6 and TNF-α responses, an effect which was abrogated by the addition of a histone methyltransferase inhibitor. No effects on H3K4me3 were observed after priming with MVA. It can be thus concluded that Vaccinia induces trained immunity in vitro, whereas MVA induces innate immune tolerance. This suggests the induction of trained immunity as an immunological mechanism involved in the non-specific effects of Vaccinia vaccination and points to a possible explanation for the lack of effect of MVA85A against tuberculosis.
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Recombinant fimbriae protein of Porphyromonas gingivalis induces an inflammatory response via the TLR4/NF‑κB signaling pathway in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) is a periodontal pathogen that may accumulate with other organisms in subgingival plaque biofilms and is associated with periodontal disease. P. gingivalis fimbriae (FimA) is a filamentous structure on the surface of bacteria that is closely associated with bacterial adhesion to and colonization of host tissues, and serves an essential role in biofilm formation. The present study aimed to construct P. gingivalis FimA prokaryotic expression plasmids, purify a FimA fusion protein and explore the effect of a recombinant FimA protein on the inflammatory response in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). P. gingivalis FimA prokaryotic expression plasmids were constructed by gene cloning and recombination technology. SDS‑PAGE was used to evaluate the purified recombinant FimA protein. The cell proliferation rate and inflammatory cytokine expression of PBMCs treated with the FimA fusion protein with or without transfection with toll‑like receptor 4 (TLR4) small interfering (si)RNA were detected by CCK‑8 assays and ELISAs, respectively. The expression levels of TLR4, nuclear factor kappa‑light‑chain‑enhancer of activated B cells (NF‑κB) and myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88) in PBMCs were detected by western blot analysis and reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction. A FimA fusion protein with high purity was obtained. FimA fusion protein treatment significantly increased PBMC proliferation and promoted the release of tumor necrosis factor‑α (TNF‑α), interleukin (IL)‑6, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)‑8 and MMP‑9 in PBMCs. TLR4 interference reversed the effects of the FimA fusion protein on PBMC proliferation and inflammatory cytokine release. The expression levels of TLR4, NF‑κB and MyD88 in PBMCs were significantly increased following treatment with the FimA fusion protein, while the expression levels of these genes at the mRNA and protein levels decreased significantly in PBMCs following FimA fusion protein treatment and TLR4 interference. The FimA fusion protein increased PBMC proliferation and promoted the release of the inflammatory cytokines TNF‑α, IL‑6, MMP‑8 and MMP‑9 via the TLR4/NF‑κB signaling pathway. FimA may serve as a promising therapeutic strategy for periodontal disease.
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SOCS4 expressed by recombinant HSV protects against cytokine storm in a mouse model.Oncolytic viruses are genetically engineered viruses designed for the treatment of solid tumors, and are often coupled with the antitumor immunity of the host. The challenge of using oncolytic herpes simplex virus (oHSV) as an efficacious oncolytic agent is the potential host tissue damage caused by the production of a range of cytokines following intratumoral oHSV injection. An HSV‑suppressor of cytokine signaling 4 (SOCS4) recombinant virus was created to investigate whether it inhibits cytokine storm. Recombinant HSV‑SOCS4 and HSV‑1(F) were used to infect mice, and levels of several representative cytokines, including monocyte chemoattractant protein‑1, interleukin (IL)‑1β, tumor necrosis factor‑α, IL‑6 and interferon γ, in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of infected mice were determined, and immune cells in BALF and spleen were enumerated. Lung damage, virus titers in the lung, body weight and survival rates of infected mice were also determined and compared between the two groups. The cytokine concentration of HSV‑SOCS4‑infected mice was significantly decreased compared with that of HSV‑1(F)‑infected mice in BALF and serum, and a smaller number of cluster of differentiation (CD)11b+ cells of BALF, and CD8+CD62L+ T cells and CD4+CD62L+ T cells of the spleen were also identified in HSV‑SOCS4‑infected mice. HSV‑SOCS4‑infected mice exhibited slight lung damage, a decrease in body weight loss and a 100% survival rate. The results of the present study indicated that SOCS4 protein may be a useful regulator to inhibit cytokine overproduction, and that HSV‑SOCS4 may provide a possible solution to control cytokine storm and its consequences following induction by oncolytic virus treatment.
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Proteomics of Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid Reveals a Lung Oxidative Stress Response in Murine Herpesvirus-68 Infection.Murine herpesvirus-68 (MHV-68) productively infects mouse lungs, exhibiting a complex pathology characteristic of both acute viral infections and chronic respiratory diseases. We sought to discover proteins differentially expressed in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) from mice infected with MHV-68. Mice were infected intranasally with MHV-68. After nine days, as the lytic phase of infection resolved, differential BAL proteins were identified by two-dimensional (2D) electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Of 23 unique proteins, acute phase proteins, vitamin A transport, and oxidative stress response factors Pdx6 and EC-SOD (Sod3) were enriched. Correspondingly, iNOS2 was induced in lung tissue by seven days post-infection. Oxidative stress was partly a direct result of MHV-68 infection, as reactive oxygen species (ROS) were induced in cultured murine NIH3T3 fibroblasts and human lung A549 cells infected with MHV-68. Finally, mice infected with a recombinant MHV-68 co-expressing inflammatory cytokine murine interleukin 6 (IL6) showed exacerbated oxidative stress and soluble type I collagen characteristic of tissue recovery. Thus, oxidative stress appears to be a salient feature of MHV-68 pathogenesis, in part caused by lytic replication of the virus and IL6. Proteins and small molecules in lung oxidative stress networks therefore may provide new therapeutic targets to ameliorate respiratory virus infections.
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