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           Search results for: Recombinant Human IL-6 [+His] Proteins    

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Cyclic tensile force-upregulated IL6 increases MMP3 expression by human periodontal ligament cells.

Cyclic tensile force (CTF) modulates physiological responses of periodontal ligament (PDL) cells. PDL cells are mechanosensitive and are able to maintain tissue homeostasis; a process mediated by the expression of particular cytokines including interleukin 6 (IL6). It is unknown whether CTF-induced IL6 regulates the expression of MMPs, enzymes needed for tissue remodeling.

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Mobile platform for rapid sub-picogram-per-milliliter, multiplexed, digital droplet detection of proteins.

Digital droplet assays-in which biological samples are compartmentalized into millions of femtoliter-volume droplets and interrogated individually-have generated enormous enthusiasm for their ability to detect biomarkers with single-molecule sensitivity. These assays have untapped potential for point-of-care diagnostics but are currently mainly confined to laboratory settings, due to the instrumentation necessary to serially generate, control, and measure tens of millions of droplets/compartments. To address this challenge, we developed an optofluidic platform that miniaturizes digital assays into a mobile format by parallelizing their operation. This technology is based on three key innovations: () the integration and parallel operation of a hundred droplet generators onto a single chip that operates >100× faster than a single droplet generator, () the fluorescence detection of droplets at >100× faster than conventional in-flow detection using time domain-encoded mobile phone imaging, and () the integration of on-chip delay lines and sample processing to allow serum-to-answer device operation. To demonstrate the power of this approach, we performed a duplex digital ELISA. We characterized the performance of this assay by first using spiked recombinant proteins in a complex media (FBS) and measured a limit of detection, 0.004 pg/mL (300 aM), a 1,000× improvement over standard ELISA and matching that of the existing laboratory-based gold standard digital ELISA system. We additionally measured endogenous GM-CSF and IL6 in human serum from = 14 human subjects using our mobile duplex assay, and showed excellent agreement with the gold standard system ([Formula: see text]).

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Recombinant fimbriae protein of Porphyromonas gingivalis induces an inflammatory response via the TLR4/NF‑κB signaling pathway in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) is a periodontal pathogen that may accumulate with other organisms in subgingival plaque biofilms and is associated with periodontal disease. P. gingivalis fimbriae (FimA) is a filamentous structure on the surface of bacteria that is closely associated with bacterial adhesion to and colonization of host tissues, and serves an essential role in biofilm formation. The present study aimed to construct P. gingivalis FimA prokaryotic expression plasmids, purify a FimA fusion protein and explore the effect of a recombinant FimA protein on the inflammatory response in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). P. gingivalis FimA prokaryotic expression plasmids were constructed by gene cloning and recombination technology. SDS‑PAGE was used to evaluate the purified recombinant FimA protein. The cell proliferation rate and inflammatory cytokine expression of PBMCs treated with the FimA fusion protein with or without transfection with toll‑like receptor 4 (TLR4) small interfering (si)RNA were detected by CCK‑8 assays and ELISAs, respectively. The expression levels of TLR4, nuclear factor kappa‑light‑chain‑enhancer of activated B cells (NF‑κB) and myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88) in PBMCs were detected by western blot analysis and reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction. A FimA fusion protein with high purity was obtained. FimA fusion protein treatment significantly increased PBMC proliferation and promoted the release of tumor necrosis factor‑α (TNF‑α), interleukin (IL)‑6, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)‑8 and MMP‑9 in PBMCs. TLR4 interference reversed the effects of the FimA fusion protein on PBMC proliferation and inflammatory cytokine release. The expression levels of TLR4, NF‑κB and MyD88 in PBMCs were significantly increased following treatment with the FimA fusion protein, while the expression levels of these genes at the mRNA and protein levels decreased significantly in PBMCs following FimA fusion protein treatment and TLR4 interference. The FimA fusion protein increased PBMC proliferation and promoted the release of the inflammatory cytokines TNF‑α, IL‑6, MMP‑8 and MMP‑9 via the TLR4/NF‑κB signaling pathway. FimA may serve as a promising therapeutic strategy for periodontal disease.

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SOCS4 expressed by recombinant HSV protects against cytokine storm in a mouse model.

Oncolytic viruses are genetically engineered viruses designed for the treatment of solid tumors, and are often coupled with the antitumor immunity of the host. The challenge of using oncolytic herpes simplex virus (oHSV) as an efficacious oncolytic agent is the potential host tissue damage caused by the production of a range of cytokines following intratumoral oHSV injection. An HSV‑suppressor of cytokine signaling 4 (SOCS4) recombinant virus was created to investigate whether it inhibits cytokine storm. Recombinant HSV‑SOCS4 and HSV‑1(F) were used to infect mice, and levels of several representative cytokines, including monocyte chemoattractant protein‑1, interleukin (IL)‑1β, tumor necrosis factor‑α, IL‑6 and interferon γ, in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of infected mice were determined, and immune cells in BALF and spleen were enumerated. Lung damage, virus titers in the lung, body weight and survival rates of infected mice were also determined and compared between the two groups. The cytokine concentration of HSV‑SOCS4‑infected mice was significantly decreased compared with that of HSV‑1(F)‑infected mice in BALF and serum, and a smaller number of cluster of differentiation (CD)11b+ cells of BALF, and CD8+CD62L+ T cells and CD4+CD62L+ T cells of the spleen were also identified in HSV‑SOCS4‑infected mice. HSV‑SOCS4‑infected mice exhibited slight lung damage, a decrease in body weight loss and a 100% survival rate. The results of the present study indicated that SOCS4 protein may be a useful regulator to inhibit cytokine overproduction, and that HSV‑SOCS4 may provide a possible solution to control cytokine storm and its consequences following induction by oncolytic virus treatment.

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Proteomics of Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid Reveals a Lung Oxidative Stress Response in Murine Herpesvirus-68 Infection.

Murine herpesvirus-68 (MHV-68) productively infects mouse lungs, exhibiting a complex pathology characteristic of both acute viral infections and chronic respiratory diseases. We sought to discover proteins differentially expressed in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) from mice infected with MHV-68. Mice were infected intranasally with MHV-68. After nine days, as the lytic phase of infection resolved, differential BAL proteins were identified by two-dimensional (2D) electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Of 23 unique proteins, acute phase proteins, vitamin A transport, and oxidative stress response factors Pdx6 and EC-SOD (Sod3) were enriched. Correspondingly, iNOS2 was induced in lung tissue by seven days post-infection. Oxidative stress was partly a direct result of MHV-68 infection, as reactive oxygen species (ROS) were induced in cultured murine NIH3T3 fibroblasts and human lung A549 cells infected with MHV-68. Finally, mice infected with a recombinant MHV-68 co-expressing inflammatory cytokine murine interleukin 6 (IL6) showed exacerbated oxidative stress and soluble type I collagen characteristic of tissue recovery. Thus, oxidative stress appears to be a salient feature of MHV-68 pathogenesis, in part caused by lytic replication of the virus and IL6. Proteins and small molecules in lung oxidative stress networks therefore may provide new therapeutic targets to ameliorate respiratory virus infections.

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C1q and TNF related protein 1 regulates expression of inflammatory genes in vascular smooth muscle cells.

C1q and TNF related protein 1 (C1QTNF1) is known to be associated with coronary artery diseases. However, the molecular function of C1QTNF1 on the vascular smooth muscles remains to be investigated.

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Bone morphogenetic protein 2 alleviated intervertebral disc degeneration through mediating the degradation of ECM and apoptosis of nucleus pulposus cells via the PI3K/Akt pathway.

The present study aimed to explore the underlying mechanisms of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) in alleviating intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD). A rat puncture IDD model was constructed, and the rats were randomly divided into six groups: Control; IDD (model); IDD+PBS [containing 1010 adeno‑associated virus serotype 2 (AAV)]; and IDD + AAV2‑BMP2 (106, 108 and 1010). IL‑1β was used to treat primary nucleus pulposus (NP) cells to mimic IDD in vitro. The effects of BMP2 in IDD were determined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), hematoxylin and eosin staining and Alcian Blue staining in vivo. The levels of collagen II, aggrecan, transcription factor SOX9 (SOX9) and matrix metalloproteinase 13 (MMP‑13) were examined using western blot analysis and reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT‑qPCR) in NP tissues and cells. The expression of C‑telopeptide of type II collagen (CTX‑II) in the sera or cell supernatants was determined by ELISA. In addition, the levels of phosphorylation of phosphoinositide 3‑kinase (PI3K) and protein kinase B (Akt), and the levels of apoptosis‑associated proteins and apoptosis ratio of NP cells were also determined by western blot analysis and flow cytometry, respectively. LY29400, an inhibitor of PI3K, was used to additionally confirm the signal pathway mechanism of BMP2 treatment in IDD. BMP2 significantly extended the interval between discs and alleviated the fibrous ring rupture and the decrease in the levels of glycoproteins in IDD rats, as determined by MRI and histological staining. Additionally, BMP2 treatment significantly upregulated the levels of collagen II, aggrecan and SOX9, but downregulated the levels of MMP‑13 and CTX‑II in IDD rats and NP cells in a dose‑dependent manner. Concurrently, recombinant human (rh)BMP2 pretreatment also significantly decreased the apoptosis ratio of interleukin (IL)‑1β‑treated NP cells via downregulating the level of cleaved caspase‑3 and upregulating the level of uncleaved poly (adenosine 5'‑diphosphate‑ribose) polymerase. It was demonstrated that rhBMP2 also significantly decreased the inflammatory response in NP tissues and cells, based on levels of IL‑6, TNF‑α and IL‑10. In addition, rhBMP2 inhibited cell apoptosis via upregulating the phosphorylation levels of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, and LY29400 pretreatment inhibited the effects of BMP2 in IL‑1β treated NP cells. BMP2 alleviated IDD via the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway by inhibiting NP cell apoptosis and decreasing the levels of matrix proteins.

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Recombinant NS3 Protein Induced Expression of Immune Modulatory Elements in Hepatic Stellate Cells During Its Fibrotic Activity.

There is a growing body of studies that show the important role of NS3 protein from hepatitis C virus in fibrosis. However, mechanisms of the effects of this protein on immune modulation of stellate cells remain to be investigated. Herein, the effect of NS3 protein on the expression level of suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS)1/3 and interleukin-24 (IL-24)-related genes was investigated in hepatic stellate cell (HSC), LX-2. Recombinant NS3 protein was added to LX-2 HSC culture. Leptin and standard medium treatments were also included in experiments as positive and negative controls, respectively. Total RNA was extracted from each well at 6, 12, and 24 h after NS3 addition. The expression levels of the fibrotic (transforming growth factor beta 1 [TGF-β], alpha-smooth muscle actin [α-SMA], and COL1A1), inflammatory (IL-6 and IL-24), IL-20R, IL-22R, and immunosuppressive genes (SOCS1 and SOCS3) were evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Recombinant NS3 protein induced activated phenotypes of LX-2 with a significant increase in the expression level of α-SMA COL1A1 (p < 0.0001) and TGF-β. Moreover, this exposure led to a meaningful elevation in the expression of IL-6. Furthermore, compared with leptin (control), after the stellate cell treatment with NS3, SOCS1 and SOCS3 gene expression induced at a comparable level. Compared with the control sample, the NS3 protein significantly increased the expression level of IL-24 and its related receptors, IL-20R and IL-22R. This study not only confirmed the previously proved inflammatory and fibrotic effect of this protein but also indicated that high expression levels of SOCS1, SOCS3, and IL-24 have a significant effect on HSC activation. Therefore, these two molecules can be used as a potential therapeutic target candidate.

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Pro-inflammatory effects of extracellular Hsp70 and cigarette smoke in primary airway epithelial cells from COPD patients.

Extracellular Hsp70 (eHsp70) can activate immune cells via Toll-like receptors (TLR) 2 and 4, and induce cytokine synthesis. The aim of this study was to explore inflammation-associated effects of eHsp70 alone and in combination with cigarette smoke extract (CSE) in primary bronchial epithelial cells. We assessed IL-6 and IL-8 concentrations, TLR2, TLR4 and Hsp70 mRNA expressions, and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) activation induced by recombinant human (rh) Hsp70, CSE or their combinations in normal human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBE) obtained commercially, and primary bronchial epithelial cells isolated from non-COPD lung donors (PBEC) or COPD patients (PBEC COPD). Baseline levels of IL-6 and IL-8 were significantly higher in PBEC COPD than in non-COPD PBECs. Upon rhHsp70 stimulation, IL-6 and IL-8 were significantly increased, with the strongest response in COPD-derived PBECs. CSE alone elevated cytokine secretion in all examined cells. rhHsp70 and CSE had antagonistic interactions on IL-8 release in PBECs from COPD patients, while the addition of rhHsp70 further increased CSE-induced IL-6 secretion in NHBE cells. rhHsp70 and CSE alone decreased TLR2 and TLR4 mRNA expression in COPD-derived PBECs. In non-COPD PBECs, combined treatments decreased only TLR2 mRNA expression. Hsp70 mRNA expression, as indicator of intracellular Hsp70, which may have anti-inflammatory effects, was reduced in COPD-derived cells upon exposure to CSE and rhHsp70 alone, but not with their combinations. Contrary to this, in PBECs from lung donors only combined treatments supressed Hsp70 gene expression. CSE activated JNK and p38 MAPKs, while rhHsp70 increased activation of c-Jun kinase in NHBE cells. Collectively, both eHsp70 and CSE induce pro-inflammatory responses in PBECs from non-COPD as well as COPD donors, but in combination antagonistic effects were observed in COPD-derived cells. These effects may be related to the regulation of TLR2/4 and might lead to modulation of inflammation with possible deleterious consequences for COPD patients.

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Inhibition of interleukin-6 trans-signaling prevents inflammation and endothelial barrier disruption in retinal endothelial cells.

Vascular inflammation plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. Recently, Interleukin-6 (IL-6) trans-signaling via soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R) has emerged as a prominent regulator of inflammation in endothelial cells. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that selective inhibition of the IL-6 trans-signaling pathway will attenuate inflammation and subsequent barrier disruption in retinal endothelial cells. Human retinal endothelial cells (HRECs) were exposed to IL-6 and sIL-6R to induce IL-6 trans-signaling and the commercially available compound sgp130Fc (soluble gp-130 fused chimera) was used to selectively inhibit IL-6 trans-signaling. IL-6 trans-signaling activation caused a significant increase in STAT3 phosphorylation, expression of adhesion molecules, ROS production and apoptosis in HRECs whereas a significant decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential and NO production was observed in IL-6 trans-signaling activated cells. These changes were not observed in cells pre-treated with sgp130Fc. IL-6 trans-signaling activation was sufficient to cause barrier disruption in endothelial monolayers and pre-treatment of HRECs with sgp130Fc, maintained endothelial barrier function similar to that of untreated cells. Thus, in conclusion, these results indicate that IL-6 trans-signaling is an important mediator of inflammation, apoptosis and barrier disruptive effects in the retinal endothelial cells and inhibition of the IL-6 trans-signaling pathway using sgp130-Fc attenuates vascular inflammation and endothelial barrier disruption.

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