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Prx II and CKBB proteins interaction under physiologic al and thermal stress conditions in A549 and HeLa cells.

Peroxiredoxins (Prxs) are versatile enzymes that demonstrate various cell functions as peroxidases, protein chaperones, functions of signal modulators and binding partners. It is well established that Prxs can interact with multiple proteins in cells, such as ASK1, Cdk5-p35, JNK, MIF, PDGF, TK R4 and others. In this study, we attempted to evaluate a possible association between ubiquitous Prx II and ATP/ADP buffering enzyme - brain-type creatine kinase (CK BB). Our co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) results from the A549 and HeLa cell lysates with overexpressed HA-Prx II and Flag-CK BB have demonstrated strong association between two proteins under non-stressed conditions. This protein interaction was enhanced by the heat treatment with further HA-Prx II precipitation to the immobilized Flag-CK BB depending on the temperature increase. Temperature induced oligomerization of Prx II may contribute to the formation of Prx II conglomerates, which in turn, can associate with CK BB and increase signal intensities on the blotted membranes. Thus, such association and oligomerization of Prx II could take part in recovery and protection of the CK BB enzyme activity from inactivation during heat-induced stress.

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Serological proteome analysis reveals new specific biases in the IgM and IgG autoantibody repertoires in autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1.

Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 (APS 1) is caused by mutations in the AIRE gene that induce intrathymic T-cell tolerance breakdown, which results in tissue-specific autoimmune diseases.

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Prostate cancer-associated autoantibodies in serum against tumor-associated antigens as potential new biomarkers.

The limitations of the current prostate cancer (PCa) screening tests demands new biomarkers for early diagnosis of PCa. In this study, we aim to investigate serum autoantibody signatures as PCa specific biomarkers. PCa proteins were resolved by 2-DE and then transferred onto polyvinylidene difluoride membrane, which were subsequently incubated with either pooled serum from PCa patients or from normal controls. Mass spectrometry results have identified 18 antigens from 21 different 2-DE spots associated with PCa. Autoantibody response to antigens PRDX2, PRDX6 and ANXA11 in PCa patient's sera was confirmed using recombinant antigens. Further validation with an independent set of PCa patient's sera have shown relatively increased abundance of PRDX6 and ANXA11 antibodies in PCa patients. Formal concept analysis method was applied to assess whether the abundance of these autoantibodies could influence the classification of patients. However, sensitivity of the single antibody to discriminate prostate tumor and healthy controls varies from 70% to 80%, whereas combination of both PRDX6 and ANXA11 antibodies increased sensitivity to 90% for tumors and 100% for healthy controls. Therefore, we hereby report that the detection of these antibodies in PCa patient's serum in combination with the existing non-invasive diagnostic procedures may have significance in PCa diagnosis.

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Peroxiredoxin distribution in the mouse brain with emphasis on neuronal populations affected in neurodegenerative disorders.

Redox changes are observed in neurodegenerative diseases, ranging from increased levels of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species and disturbance of antioxidant systems, to nitro-oxidative damage. By reducing hydrogen peroxide, peroxynitrite, and organic hydroperoxides, peroxiredoxins (Prdxs) represent a major potential protective barrier against nitro-oxidative insults in the brain. While recent works have investigated the putative role of Prdxs in neurodegenerative disorders, less is known about their expression in the healthy brain. Here we used immunohistochemistry to map basal expression of Prdxs throughout C57BL/6 mouse brain. We first confirmed the neuronal localization of Prdx2-5 and the glial expression of Prdx1, Prdx4, and Prdx6. Then we performed an in-depth analysis of neuronal Prdx distribution in the brain. Our results show that Prdx2-5 are widely detected in the different neuronal populations, and especially well expressed in the olfactory bulb, in the cerebral cortex, in pons nuclei, in the red nucleus, in all cranial nerve nuclei, in the cerebellum, and in motor neurons of the spinal cord. In contrast, Prdx expression is very low in the dopaminergic neurons of substantia nigra pars compacta and in the CA1/2 pyramidal cells of hippocampus. This low basal expression may contribute to the vulnerability of these neurons to nitro-oxidative attacks occurring in Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. In addition, we found that Prdx expression levels are unevenly distributed among neurons of a determined region and that distinct regional patterns of expression are observed between isoforms, reinforcing the hypothesis of the nonredundant function of Prdxs.

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Human peroxiredoxin 1 and 2 are not duplicate proteins: the unique presence of CYS83 in Prx1 underscores the structural and functional differences between Prx1 and Prx2.

Human peroxiredoxins 1 and 2, also known as Prx1 and Prx2, are more than 90% homologous in their amino acid sequences. Prx1 and Prx2 are elevated in various cancers and are shown to influence diverse cellular processes. Although their growth regulatory role has traditionally been attributed to the peroxidase activity, the physiological significance of this function is unclear because the proteins are highly susceptible to inactivation by H(2)O(2). A chaperone activity appears to emerge when their peroxidase activity is lost. Structural studies suggest that they may form a homodimer or doughnut-shaped homodecamer. However, little information is available whether human Prx1 and Prx2 are duplicative in structure and function. We noted that Prx1 contains a cysteine (Cys(83)) at the putative dimer-dimer interface, which is absent in Prx2. We studied the role of Cys(83) in regulating the peroxidase and chaperone activities of Prx1, because the redox status of Cys(83) might influence the oligomeric structure and consequently the functions of Prx1. We show that Prx1 is more efficient as a molecular chaperone, whereas Prx2 is better suited as a peroxidase enzyme. Substituting Cys(83) with Ser(83) (Prx1C83S) results in dramatic changes in the structural and functional characteristics of Prx1 in a direction similar to those of Prx2. Here we also report the first crystal structure of human Prx1 and the presence of the Cys(83)-Cys(83) bond at the dimer-dimer interface of decameric Prx1. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that human Prx1 and Prx2 possess unique functions and regulatory mechanisms and that Cys(83) bestows a distinctive identity to Prx1.

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Peroxiredoxin 2 (PRDX2), an antioxidant enzyme, is under-expressed in Down syndrome fetal brains.

Suppression subtractive hybridization performed on Down syndrome (DS) versus control fetal brains revealed differential expression of peroxiredoxin 2 (PRDX2), mapped at 13q12. Peroxiredoxins are antioxidant enzymes involved in protein and lipid protection against oxidative injury and in cellular signalling pathways regulating apoptosis. The under-expression of PRDX2 observed in DS samples was confirmed by real-time PCR (0.73-fold). To test whether decreased expression is associated with enhanced sensitivity of DS neurons to reactive oxygen species, we down-regulated PRDX2 through stable transfections of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells with antisense contructs of the complete PRDX2 coding sequence. In addition, we over-expressed SOD1 and compared the effects of the two genes on cell viability. Cells transfected with either construct showed similar sensitivity to oxidative stress in addition to increased apoptosis under basal conditions and after treatment with oxidative cytotoxic agents. This suggests that the decreased expression of PRDX2 may contribute to the altered redox state in DS at levels comparable to that of the increased expression of SOD1.

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HIV-1 antiviral activity of recombinant natural killer cell enhancing factors, NKEF-A and NKEF-B, members of the peroxiredoxin family.

CD8(+) T-cells are a major source for the production of non-cytolytic factors that inhibit HIV-1 replication. In order to characterize further these factors, we analyzed gene expression profiles of activated CD8(+) T-cells using a human cDNA expression array containing 588 human cDNAs. mRNA for the chemokine I-309 (CCL1), the cytokines granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and interleukin-13, and natural killer cell enhancing factors (NKEF) -A and -B were up-regulated in bulk CD8(+) T-cells from HIV-1 seropositive individuals compared with seronegative individuals. Recombinant NKEF-A and NKEF-B inhibited HIV-1 replication when exogenously added to acutely infected T-cells at an ID(50) (dose inhibiting HIV-1 replication by 50%) of approximately 130 nm (3 microg/ml). Additionally, inhibition against dual-tropic simian immunodeficiency virus and dual-tropic simian-human immunodeficiency virus was found. T-cells transfected with NKEF-A or NKEF-B cDNA were able to inhibit 80-98% HIV-1 replication in vitro. Elevated plasma levels of both NKEF-A and NKEF-B proteins were detected in 23% of HIV-infected non-treated individuals but not in persons treated with highly active antiviral therapy or uninfected persons. These results indicate that the peroxiredoxin family members NKEF-A and NKEF-B are up-regulated in activated CD8(+) T-cells in HIV infection, and suggest that these antioxidant proteins contribute to the antiviral activity of CD8(+) T-cells.

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Primary antibody IL-1RAc Primary antibody Caspase Mouse Anti-Human CD94 (Na Primary antibody Caspase Primary antibody IL-1RAc Recombinant Human Androge killer cell lectin-like r Cell Meter™ Fluorometri  CytoX Violet Cell Proli Cell Meter™ Caspase 9 A family with sequence simi Rabbit Anti-Apoptosis enh

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Recombinant natural killer enhancing factor augments natural killer cytotoxicity.

Natural killer enhancing factor (NKEF) was originally identified and studied because of its ability to enhance NK cytotoxicity in vitro. After cloning the two genes responsible for NKEF proteins, NKEF-A and -B, we found that they belong to a newly described and highly conserved antioxidant gene family. We have now produced recombinant proteins of both genes and used them to test for their ability to promote NK cytotoxicity. Although recombinant NKEF (rNKEF)-A and -B have similar levels of antioxidant function, only the reduced form of rNKEF-A can enhance NK cytotoxicity. These results indicate that both the antioxidant and NK-enhancing functions of rNKEF-A and -B probably involve the cysteine residues of the proteins but are mediated by separate domains of the molecules. We pretreated both effector cells and target cells to investigate which population was influenced by rNKEF-A, and determined that the protein must be present during the cytotoxicity assay to enhance the activity. Despite the similarities between NK cytotoxicity and lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cytotoxicity, rNKEF-A is not effective in augmenting LAK cytotoxicity. Therefore, rNKEFs can be useful tools in not only protecting cells from oxidative damage, but also in selectively promoting NK cytotoxicity against certain tumor cells.

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Antioxidant function of recombinant human natural killer enhancing factor.

Natural killer enhancing factor (NKEF) is a member of a new class of highly conserved antioxidant proteins. Members of this family have been described as thiol-specific antioxidants. In this study, we show that recombinant proteins encoded by the two human NKEF genes (nkef-A and B) possess antioxidant function in the protection of protein and DNA from oxidative damage. The production of separate proteins from each of the genes encoding NKEF is an important step in the elucidation of its function.

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