Search results for: Recombinant Human WWOX Proteins
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Pc2-mediated SUMOylation of WWOX is essential for its suppression of DU145 prostate tumorigenesis.Tumor suppressor WW domain-containing oxidoreductase (WWOX) is depleted in various cancer types. Here we report that WWOX is modified by small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) proteins and represses DU145 prostate cancer tumorigenesis in a SUMOylation-dependent manner. Ectopic WWOX was shown to associate with SUMO2/3 or E2 Ubc9. Furthermore, we revealed that WWOX SUMOylation was promoted by E3 ligase polycomb2 (Pc2), and that WWOX associated with Pc2. Meanwhile, anisomycin-induced activator protein-1 (AP-1) activity was markedly diminished by co-expression of SUMO and WWOX. Also, WWOX wild type (WT), but not WWOX SUMO mutant (K176A) markedly reduced both DU145 prostate cancer cell proliferation and xenograft tumorigenesis. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that SUMO modification of WWOX is essential for its suppressive activity for DU145 prostate cancer tumorigenesis.
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Identification of a possible susceptibility locus for UVB-induced skin tanning phenotype in Korean females using genomewide association study.A two-stage genomewide association (GWA) analysis was conducted to investigate the genetic factors influencing ultraviolet (UV)-induced skin pigmentation in Korean females after UV exposure. Previously, a GWA study evaluating ~500 000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 99 Korean females identified eight SNPs that were highly associated with tanning ability. To confirm these associations, we genotyped the SNPs in an independent replication study (112 Korean females). We found that a novel SNP in the intron of the WW domain-containing oxidoreductase (WWOX) gene yielded significant replicated associations with skin tanning ability (P-value = 1.16 × 10(-4) ). To understand the functional consequences of this locus located in the non-coding region, we investigated the role of WWOX in human melanocytes using a recombinant adenovirus expressing a microRNA specific for WWOX. Inhibition of WWOX expression significantly increased the expression and activity of tyrosinase in human melanocytes. Taken together, our results suggest that genetic variants in the intronic region of WWOX could be determinants in the UV-induced tanning ability of Korean females. WWOX represents a new candidate gene to evaluate the molecular basis of the UV-induced tanning ability in individuals.
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Effect of the WWOX gene on the regulation of the cell cycle and apoptosis in human ovarian cancer stem cells.In order to examine new ideas for gene therapy in ovarian cancer, the specific mechanism underlying the effects of the WW domain containing oxidoreductase (WWOX) gene on cell cycle regulation and apoptosis in human ovarian cancer stem cells was investigated. Ovarian cancer stem cells were transfected with a eukaryotic expression vector carrying the WWOX gene in vitro (recombinant plasmid) and cells transfected with the empty plasmid (empty plasmid) or untransfected cells were used as controls. Stably transfected cells were screened and amplified in culture and the WWOX protein was detected by western blot analysis in the three groups of cells. Western blot analysis was performed to detect the expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins cyclin E, cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 2, cyclin D1, CDK4 and apoptosis-related protein Wnt-5α and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), while polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect alterations in the mRNA expression levels of caspase-3. The results demonstrated that the WWOX protein was stably expressed in cells of the recombinant plasmid group, but was not detected in cells of the empty plasmid group and the control group. Cell proliferation at each time point decreased significantly in the recombinant plasmid group compared with the empty plasmid group and the control group. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that the proportion of cells in the G0/G1 phase in the recombinant plasmid group was significantly higher than that of cells in the empty plasmid group and the control group. The rate of apoptosis in the recombinant plasmid group was significantly higher than that of cells in the empty plasmid group and the control group. Western blot analysis demonstrated that the expression levels of cyclin E, CDK2, cyclin D1 and CDK4 in the recombinant plasmid group were significantly lower than those in the empty plasmid group and the control group; however, the expression levels of Wnt-5α and JNK were significantly higher than those in the empty plasmid group and the control group. PCR results demonstrated that the mRNA expression level of caspase-3 in the recombinant plasmid group was significantly higher than that in the empty plasmid group and the control group. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that the WWOX gene can be stably expressed in ovarian cancer stem cells and that it inhibits the proliferation of ovarian cancer stem cells. The WWOX gene can downregulate the expression levels of cell cycle proteins cyclin E-CDK2 and cyclin D1-CDK4, which affects the cell cycle of ovarian cancer stem cells. Furthermore, the WWOX gene can upregulate the mRNA expression levels of Wnt-5α, JNK and caspase-3, thus contributing to apoptosis of ovarian cancer stem cells. The present study demonstrated that the WWOX gene may be an important molecular target for the treatment of ovarian cancer in the future.
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WWOX suppresses prostate cancer cell progression through cyclin D1-mediated cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase.WW domain-containing oxidoreductase (WWOX) has been reported to be a tumor suppressor in multiple cancers, including prostate cancer. WWOX can induce apoptotic responses to inhibit tumor progression, and the other mechanisms of WWOX in tumor suppression have also been reported recently. In this study, we found significant down-regulation of WWOX in prostate cancer specimens and prostate cancer cell lines compared with the normal controls. In addition, an ectopically increased WWOX expression repressed tumor progression both in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, overexpression of WWOX in 22Rv1 cells led to cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase but did not affect sub-G1 in flow cytometry. GFP-WWOX overexpressed 22Rv1 cells were shown to inhibit cell cycle progression into mitosis under nocodazole treatment in flow cytometry, immunoblotting and GFP fluorescence. Further, cyclin D1 but not apoptosis correlated genes were down-regulated by WWOX both in vitro and in vivo. Restoration of cyclin D1 in the WWOX-overexpressed 22Rv1 cells could abolish the WWOX-mediated tumor repression. In addition, WWOX impair c-Jun-mediated cyclin D1 promoter activity. These results suggest that WWOX inhibits prostate cancer progression through negatively regulating cyclin D1 in cell cycle lead to G1 arrest. In summary, our data reveal a novel mechanism of WWOX in tumor suppression.
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Characterizing WW domain interactions of tumor suppressor WWOX reveals its association with multiprotein networks.WW domains are small modules present in regulatory and signaling proteins that mediate specific protein-protein interactions. The WW domain-containing oxidoreductase (WWOX) encodes a 46-kDa tumor suppressor that contains two N-terminal WW domains and a central short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase domain. Based on its ligand recognition motifs, the WW domain family is classified into four groups. The largest one, to which WWOX belongs, recognizes ligands with a PPXY motif. To pursue the functional properties of the WW domains of WWOX, we employed mass spectrometry and phage display experiments to identify putative WWOX-interacting partners. Our analysis revealed that the first WW (WW1) domain of WWOX is the main functional interacting domain. Furthermore, our study uncovered well known and new PPXY-WW1-interacting partners and shed light on novel LPXY-WW1-interacting partners of WWOX. Many of these proteins are components of multiprotein complexes involved in molecular processes, including transcription, RNA processing, tight junction, and metabolism. By utilizing GST pull-down and immunoprecipitation assays, we validated that WWOX is a substrate of the E3 ubiquitin ligase ITCH, which contains two LPXY motifs. We found that ITCH mediates Lys-63-linked polyubiquitination of WWOX, leading to its nuclear localization and increased cell death. Our data suggest that the WW1 domain of WWOX provides a versatile platform that links WWOX with individual proteins associated with physiologically important networks.
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Molecular origin of the binding of WWOX tumor suppressor to ErbB4 receptor tyrosine kinase.The ability of WWOX tumor suppressor to physically associate with the intracellular domain (ICD) of ErbB4 receptor tyrosine kinase is believed to play a central role in downregulating the transcriptional function of the latter. Herein, using various biophysical methods, we show that while the WW1 domain of WWOX binds to PPXY motifs located within the ICD of ErbB4 in a physiologically relevant manner, the WW2 domain does not. Importantly, while the WW1 domain absolutely requires the integrity of the PPXY consensus sequence, nonconsensus residues within and flanking this motif do not appear to be critical for binding. This strongly suggests that the WW1 domain of WWOX is rather promiscuous toward its cellular partners. We also provide evidence that the lack of binding of the WW2 domain of WWOX to PPXY motifs is due to the replacement of a signature tryptophan, lining the hydrophobic ligand binding groove, with tyrosine (Y85). Consistent with this notion, the Y85W substitution within the WW2 domain exquisitely restores its binding to PPXY motifs in a manner akin to the binding of the WW1 domain of WWOX. Of particular significance is the observation that the WW2 domain augments the binding of the WW1 domain to ErbB4, implying that the former serves as a chaperone within the context of the WW1-WW2 tandem module of WWOX in agreement with our findings reported previously. Altogether, our study sheds new light on the molecular basis of an important WW-ligand interaction involved in mediating a plethora of cellular processes.
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The role of the WWOX gene in leukemia and its mechanisms of action.The WW domain-containing oxidoreductase (WWOX) gene which encompasses the common human fragile site FRA16D has been proposed as a putative tumor suppressor gene, and loss of WWOX expression has been found in several types of solid cancer. As the role of WWOX in human leukemia has not yet been fully elucidated, the present study examined the expression of WWOX in patients with different types of leukemia as well as in leukemia-derived cell lines. Based on the data, WWOX mRNA (WWOX) and protein (Wwox) were significantly reduced or absent in the leukemia patients as well as in the cell lines. In addition, a recombinant expression vector, pGC-FU-WWOX, was constructed and transfected WWOX cDNA into Jurkat cells (acute T-lymphoblastic leukemia) and K562 cells (chronic myeloid leukemia in erythroid crisis) which all lack endogenous Wwox. In vitro experiments indicated that restoration of Wwox in Jurkat and K562 cells significantly suppressed proliferation and colony formation. Of note, apoptosis was also induced by Wwox restoration. Furthermore, we traced the mechanisms underlying this process and found that Wwox restoration could trigger the mitochondrial pathway in leukemia. Our data provide evidence that WWOX exerts a role as a tumor suppressor gene in leukemia, possibly by inhibiting proliferation and promoting apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway.
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Overexpression of WW domain-containing oxidoreductase WOX1 preferentially induces apoptosis in human glioblastoma cells harboring mutant p53.Human WWOX gene encoding WW domain-containing oxidoreductase, named WWOX, FOR, or WOX1, has been studied in various types of cancer cells and shown to be a tumor suppressor with pro-apoptotic properties. Mutation or gain-of-function of p53 in glioma cells is associated with resistance to radiation therapy and poor prognosis. In this study, we overexpressed WOX1 to examine the pro-apoptotic activity against human glioblastoma cells harboring mutant p53.
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[Expression of WW domain containing oxidoreductase gene in cholangiocarcinoma and its effect on the biological behavior of cancer cell line RBE].To study the effects of anti-oncogene WWOX on cell growth of cholangiocarcinoma.
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Cloning of WWOX gene and its growth-inhibiting effects on ovarian cancer cells.The growth-inhibiting and apoptosis-inducing effects of WW domain-containing oxidoreductase (WWOX) gene on ovarian cancer cell line A2780 were investigated. The full length cDNA of human WWOX gene was amplified from normal human ovary tissues. The correct cDNA of full length WWOX was subcloned into eukaryocytic expression vector pCMV. After introduction of WWOX gene into cancer cells with liposome, the WWOX mRNA and protein level in the cancer cells were detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunoblotting. The growth activities of cancer cells were detected by Trypan blue staining. The clone formation assay in soft agar was employed to observe the proliferation of the cancer cells. Apoptosis was examined by DNA ladder and acridine orange-ethidium bromide fluorescent staining. The results showed that 72 h after WWOX gene transfection, the WWOX expression was increased significantly (P<0.01). The growth of ovarian cancer cells was decreased by 16.41% to 38.49% (P<0.01). The clone formation abilities were reduced (P<0.01). Some cancer cells presented the characteristic morphological changes of apoptosis with obvious ladder bands on electrophoresis. The apoptosis rate was (20.7+/-6.0)% (P<0.01). It was concluded that over-expression of WWOX gene could induce apoptosis and inhibit the growth of ovarian cancer cells, which might be potentially useful in the gene therapy of ovarian cancers.
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