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           Search results for: Recombinant Human p21 Activated Kinase 4   

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#28515318   2017/05/18 Save this To Up

Molecular mechanism of activation of class IA phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) by membrane-localized HRas.

Class IA PI3Ks are involved in the generation of the key lipid signaling molecule phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3), and inappropriate activation of this pathway is implicated in a multitude of human diseases, including cancer, inflammation, and primary immunodeficiencies. Class IA PI3Ks are activated downstream of the Ras superfamily of GTPases, and Ras-PI3K interaction plays a key role in promoting tumor formation and maintenance in Ras-driven tumors. Investigating the detailed molecular events in the Ras-PI3K interaction has been challenging because it occurs on a membrane surface. Here, using maleimide-functionalized lipid vesicles, we successfully generated membrane-resident HRas and evaluated its effect on PI3K signaling in lipid kinase assays and through analysis with hydrogen-deuterium exchange MS. We screened all class IA PI3K isoforms and found that HRas activates both p110α and p110δ isoforms but does not activate p110β. The p110α and p110δ activation by Ras was synergistic with activation by a soluble phosphopeptide derived from receptor tyrosine kinases. Hydrogen-deuterium exchange MS revealed that membrane-resident HRas, but not soluble HRas, enhances conformational changes associated with membrane binding by increasing membrane recruitment of both p110α and p110δ. Together, these results afford detailed molecular insight into the Ras-PI3K signaling complex, provide a framework for screening Ras inhibitors, and shed light on the isoform specificity of Ras-PI3K interactions in a native membrane context.

1017 related Products with: Molecular mechanism of activation of class IA phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) by membrane-localized HRas.

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#28432261   2017/04/22 Save this To Up

CCM2 and PAK4 act downstream of atrial natriuretic peptide signaling to promote cell spreading.

Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is a cardiac hormone released by the atrium in response to stretching forces. Via its receptor, guanylyl cyclase-A (GC-A), ANP maintains cardiovascular homeostasis by exerting diuretic, natriuretic, and hypotensive effects mediated, in part, by endothelial cells. Both in vivo and in vitro, ANP enhances endothelial barrier function by reducing RhoA activity and reorganizing the actin cytoskeleton. We established mouse endothelial cells that stably express GC-A and used them to analyze the molecular mechanisms responsible for actin reorganization. Stimulation by ANP resulted in phosphorylation of myosin light chain (MLC) and promotion of cell spreading. p21-activated kinase 4 (PAK4) and cerebral cavernous malformations 2 (CCM2), a scaffold protein involved in a cerebrovascular disease, were required for the phosphorylation of MLC and promotion of cell spreading by ANP. Finally, in addition to the GC domain, the kinase homology domain of GC-A was also required for ANP/GC-A signaling. Our results indicate that CCM2 and PAK4 are important downstream mediators of ANP/GC-A signaling involved in cell spreading, an important initial step in the enhancement of endothelial barrier function.

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#28250131   2017/03/02 Save this To Up

Measles Virus Enters Breast and Colon Cancer Cell Lines through a PVRL4-Mediated Macropinocytosis Pathway.

Measles virus (MeV) is a member of the family Paramixoviridae that causes a highly contagious respiratory disease but has emerged as a promising oncolytic platform. Previous studies of MeV entry focused on the identification of cellular receptors. However, the endocytic and trafficking pathways utilized during MeV entry remain poorly described. The contribution of each endocytic pathway has been examined in cells that express the MeV receptors SLAM (signaling lymphocyte-activating molecule) and PVRL4 (poliovirus receptor-like 4) (nectin-4). Recombinant MeVs expressing either firefly luciferase or green fluorescent protein together with a variety of inhibitors were used. The results showed that MeV uptake was dynamin independent in the Vero.hPVRL4, Vero.hSLAM, and PVRL4-positive MCF7 breast cancer cell lines. However, MeV infection was blocked by 5-(N-ethyl-N-propyl)amiloride (EIPA), the hallmark inhibitor of macropinocytosis, as well as inhibitors of actin polymerization. By using phalloidin staining, MeV entry was shown to induce actin rearrangements and the formation of membrane ruffles accompanied by transient elevated fluid uptake. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown of p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1) demonstrated that MeV enters both Vero.hPVRL4 and Vero.hSLAM cells in a PAK1-independent manner using a macropinocytosis-like pathway. In contrast, MeV entry into MCF7 human breast cancer cells relied upon Rac1 and its effector PAK1 through a PVRL4-mediated macropinocytosis pathway. MeV entry into DLD-1 colon and HTB-20 breast cancer cells also appeared to use the same pathway. Overall, these findings provide new insight into the life cycle of MeV, which could lead to therapies that block virus entry or methods that improve the uptake of MeV by cancer cells during oncolytic therapy.IMPORTANCE In the past decades, measles virus (MeV) has emerged as a promising oncolytic platform. Previous studies concerning MeV entry focused mainly on the identification of putative receptors for MeV. Nectin-4 (PVRL4) was recently identified as the epithelial cell receptor for MeV. However, the specific endocytic and trafficking pathways utilized during MeV infections are poorly documented. In this study, we demonstrated that MeV enters host cells via a dynamin-independent and actin-dependent endocytic pathway. Moreover, we show that MeV gains entry into MCF7, DLD-1, and HTB-20 cancer cells through a PVRL4-mediated macropinocytosis pathway and identified the typical cellular GTPase and kinase involved. Our findings provide new insight into the life cycle of MeV, which may lead to the development of therapies that block the entry of the virus into the host cell or alternatively promote the uptake of oncolytic MeV into cancer cells.

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#27600824   2016/09/07 Save this To Up

Leucine-rich repeat kinase-1 regulates osteoclast function by modulating RAC1/Cdc42 Small GTPase phosphorylation and activation.

Leucine-rich repeat kinase-1 (Lrrk1) consists of ankyrin repeats (ANK), leucine-rich repeats (LRR), a GTPase-like domain of Roc (ROC), a COR domain, a serine/threonine kinase domain (KD), and WD40 repeats (WD40). Previous studies have revealed that knockout (KO) of Lrrk1 in mice causes severe osteopetrosis, and a human mutation of Lrrk1 leads to osteosclerotic metaphysial dysplasia. The molecular mechanism by which Lrrk1 regulates osteoclast function is unknown. In this study, we generated a series of Lrrk1 mutants and evaluated their ability to rescue defective bone resorption in Lrrk1-deficient osteoclasts by use of pit formation assays. Overexpression of Lrrk1 or LRR-truncated Lrrk1, but not ANK-truncated Lrrk1, WD40-truncated Lrrk1, Lrrk1-KD, or K651A mutant Lrrk1, rescued bone resorption function of Lrrk1 KO osteoclasts. We next examined whether RAC1/Cdc42 small GTPases are direct substrates of Lrrk1 in osteoclasts. Western blot and pull-down assays revealed that Lrrk1 deficiency in osteoclasts resulted in reduced phosphorylation and activation of RAC1/Cdc42. In vitro kinase assays confirmed that recombinant Lrrk1 phosphorylated RAC1-GST protein, and immunoprecipitation showed that the interaction of Lrrk1 with RAC1 occurred within 10 min after RANKL treatment. Overexpression of constitutively active Q61L RAC1 partially rescued the resorptive function of Lrrk1-deficient osteoclasts. Furthermore, lack of Lrrk1 in osteoclasts led to reduced autophosphorylation of p21 protein-activated kinase-1 at Ser(144), catalyzed by RAC1/Cdc42 binding and activation. Our data indicate that Lrrk1 regulates osteoclast function by directly modulating phosphorylation and activation of small GTPase RAC1/Cdc42 and that its function depends on ANK, ROC, WD40, and kinase domains.

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#27230238   2016/05/27 Save this To Up

RhBMP-2 Activates Hippo Signaling through RASSF1 in Esophageal Cancer Cells.

Despite that recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) has been reported as a stimulatory effecter of cancer cell growth because of its characteristic like morphogen, the biological functions of rhBMP-2 in human esophageal cancer cells are unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether rhBMP-2 has an inhibitory effect on the growth of human esophageal squamous carcinoma cells (ESCC). RhBMP-2 significantly inhibited proliferation of ESCC cells in a dose-dependent manner in the MTT assay. Cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase was induced 24 h after rhBMP2 treatment. RhBMP-2 also reduced cyclin D1, cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 4 and CDK 6 activities, and stimulated p-Smad1/5/8, p53, and p21 levels at 12 h. In contrast, rhBMP-2 diminished poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) protein expression levels and activated cleaved PARP, cleaved caspase-7, and cleaved-caspase 9 levels in ESCC cells. In addition, rhBMP-2 increased MST1, MOB1, and p-YAP protein levels and the RASSF1 binds Mst1 more upon treatment with rhBMP2. The induced p-YAP expression in TE-8 and TE-12 cells by rhBMP-2 was reversed by the RASSF1 knockdown. In vivo study, rhBMP-2 decreased tumor volume following subcutaneous implantation and showed higher radiologic score (less bony destruction) after femoral implantation compared to those in a control group. These results suggest that rhBMP-2 inhibits rather than activates proliferation of human esophageal cancer cells which is mediated through activating the hippo signaling pathway.

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#26841865   2016/03/26 Save this To Up

PAK4 Methylation by SETD6 Promotes the Activation of the Wnt/β-Catenin Pathway.

Lysine methylation of non-histone proteins has emerged as a key regulator of many cellular functions. Although less studied than other post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation and acetylation, the number of known methylated non-histone proteins is rapidly expanding. We have identified the p21-activated kinase 4 (PAK4) as a new substrate for methylation by the protein lysine methyltransferase SETD6. Our data demonstrate that SETD6 methylates PAK4 bothin vitroand at chromatin in cells. Interestingly, depletion of SETD6 in various cellular systems significantly hinders the activation of the Wnt/β-catenin target genes. PAK4 was recently shown to regulate β-catenin signaling, and we show that SETD6 is a key mediator of this pathway. In the presence of SETD6, the physical interaction between PAK4 and β-catenin is dramatically increased, leading to a significant increase in the transcription of β-catenin target genes. Taken together, our results uncover a new regulatory layer of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling cascade and provide new insight into SETD6 biology.

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#25963977   2015/05/30 Save this To Up

Genomic regulation of senescence and innate immunity signaling in the retinal pigment epithelium.

The tumor suppressor p53 is a major regulator of genes important for cell cycle arrest, senescence, apoptosis, and innate immunity, and has recently been implicated in retinal aging. In this study we sought to identify the genetic networks that regulate p53 function in the retina using quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis. First we examined age-associated changes in the activation and expression levels of p53; known p53 target proteins and markers of innate immune system activation in primary retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells that were harvested from young and aged human donors. We observed increased expression of p53, activated caspase-1, CDKN1A, CDKN2A (p16INK4a), TLR4, and IFNα in aged primary RPE cell lines. We used the Hamilton Eye Institute (HEI) retinal dataset ( www.genenetwork.org ) to identify genomic loci that modulate expression of genes in the p53 pathway in recombinant inbred BXD mouse strains using a QTL systems biology-based approach. We identified a significant trans-QTL on chromosome 1 (region 172-177 Mb) that regulates the expression of Cdkn1a. Many of the genes in this QTL locus are involved in innate immune responses, including Fc receptors, interferon-inducible family genes, and formin 2. Importantly, we found an age-related increase in FCGR3A and FMN2 and a decrease in IFI16 levels in RPE cultures. There is a complex multigenic innate immunity locus that controls expression of genes in the p53 pathway in the RPE, which may play an important role in modulating age-related changes in the retina.

1088 related Products with: Genomic regulation of senescence and innate immunity signaling in the retinal pigment epithelium.

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#25903973   2015/07/28 Save this To Up

Accumulation of tissue factor in endothelial cells induces cell apoptosis, mediated through p38 and p53 activation.

We previously reported that high levels of tissue factor (TF) can induce cellular apoptosis in endothelial cells. In this study, TF-mediated mechanisms of induction of apoptosis were explored. Endothelial cells were transfected to express wild-type TF. Additionally, cells were transfected to express Asp253-substituted, or Ala253-substitued TF to enhance or prevent TF release, respectively. Alternatively, cells were pre-incubated with TF-rich and TF-poor microvesicles. Cell proliferation, apoptosis and the expression of cyclin D1, p53, bax and p21 were measured following activation of cells with PAR2-agonist peptide. Greatest levels of cell proliferation and cyclin D1 expression were observed in cells expressing wild-type or Asp253-substituted TF. In contrast, increased cellular apoptosis was observed in cells expressing Ala253-substituted TF, or cells pre-incubated with TF-rich microvesicles. The level of p53 protein, p53-phosphorylation at ser33, p53 nuclear localisation and transcriptional activity, but not p53 mRNA, were increased in cells expressing wild-type and Ala253-substituted TF, or in cells pre-incubated with TF-rich microvesicles. However, the expression of bax and p21 mRNA, and Bax protein were only increased in cells pre-incubated with TF-rich microvesicle and in cells expressing Ala253-substituted TF. Inhibition of the transcriptional activity of p53 using pifithrin-α suppressed the expression of Bax. Finally, siRNA-mediated suppression of p38α, or inhibition using SB202190 significantly reduced the p53 protein levels, p53 nuclear localisation and transcriptional activity, suppressed Bax expression and prevented cellular apoptosis. In conclusion, accumulation of TF within endothelial cells, or sequestered from the surrounding can induce cellular apoptosis through mechanisms mediated by p38, and involves the stabilisation of p53.

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#25794709   2015/03/21 Save this To Up

Methionine adenosyltransferase 2B-GIT1 complex serves as a scaffold to regulate Ras/Raf/MEK1/2 activity in human liver and colon cancer cells.

Methionine adenosyltransferase 2B (MAT2B) encodes for variant proteins V1 and V2 that interact with GIT1 to increase ERK activity and growth in human liver and colon cancer cells. MAT2B or GIT1 overexpression activates MEK. This study explores the mechanism for MEK activation. We examined protein-protein interactions by co-immunoprecipitation and verified by confocal microscopy and pull-down assay using recombinant or in vitro translated proteins. Results were confirmed in an orthotopic liver cancer model. We found that MAT2B and GIT1-mediated MEK1/2 activation was not mediated by PAK1 or Src in HepG2 or RKO cells. Instead, MAT2B and GIT1 interact with B-Raf and c-Raf and enhance recruitment of Raf proteins to MEK1/2. MAT2B-GIT1 activates c-Raf, which is the key mediator for MEK/12 activation, because this still occurred in RKO cells that express constitutively active B-Raf mutant. The mechanism lies with the ability of MAT2B-GIT1 to activate Ras and promote B-Raf/c-Raf heterodimerization. Interestingly, MAT2B but not GIT1 can directly interact with Ras, which increases protein stability. Finally, increased Ras-Raf-MEK signaling occurred in phenotypically more aggressive liver cancers overexpressing MAT2B variants and GIT1. In conclusion, interaction between MAT2B and GIT1 serves as a scaffold and facilitates signaling in multiple steps of the Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK pathway, further emphasizing the importance of MAT2B/GIT1 interaction in cancer growth.

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#25590690   2015/02/21 Save this To Up

PPM1D regulates p21 expression via dephoshporylation at serine 123.

The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 plays a critical role in regulating cell cycle and cell proliferation. We previously cloned the dog p21 gene and found that unlike human p21, dog p21 is expressed as 2 isoforms due to the proline-directed phosphorylation at serine 123 (S123). Here, we identified that PPM1D, also called Wip1 and a Mg(2+)-dependent phosphatase, dephosphorylates dog p21 protein at serine 123. Specifically, we showed that the level of S123-phosphorylated dog p21 is increased by a PPM1D inhibitor in a dose-dependent manner. We also showed that over-expression of PPM1D decreases, whereas knockdown of PPM1D increases, the level of S123-phosphorylated dog p21 regardless of p53. Additionally, in vitro phosphatase assay was performed and showed that phosphorylated S123 in dog p21 is dephosphorylated by recombinant rPPM1D, which contains the catalytic domain of human PPM1D (residue 1-420), but not by the phosphatase dead rPPM1D (D314A). Furthermore, dephosphorylation of S123 by rPPM1D can be abrogated by PPM1D inhibitor or by withdrawal of Mg(2+). Finally, we showed that upon PPM1D inhibition, the level of S123-phosphorylated dog p21 was increased, concomitantly with decreased expression of cyclin A, cyclin B, Rb, and PCNA. Together, our results indicate that PPM1D functions as a phosphatase of dog p21 at serine 123 and plays a role in cell cycle control via p21.

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