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Characterization of a novel protein of Leptospira interrogans exhibiting plasminogen, vitronectin and complement binding properties.

Leptospirosis is a severe zoonosis caused by pathogenic species of the genus Leptospira. This work focuses on a hypothetical protein of unknown function, encoded by the gene LIC13259, and predicted to be a surface protein, widely distributed among pathogenic leptospiral strain. The gene was amplified from L. interrogans serovar Copenhageni, strain Fiocruz L1-130, cloned and the protein expressed using Escherichia coli as a host system. Immunofluorescence assay showed that the protein is surface-exposed. The recombinant protein LIC13259 (rLIC13259) has the ability to interact with the extracellular matrix (ECM) laminin, in a dose-dependent manner but saturation was not reach. The rLIC13259 protein is a plasminogen (PLG)-binding protein, generating plasmin, in the presence of urokinase PLG-activator uPA. The recombinant protein is able to mediate the binding to human purified terminal complement route vitronectin, C7, C8 and C9, and to recruit and interact with these components from normal human serum (NHS). These interactions are dose-dependent on NHS increased concentration. The binding of rLIC13259 to C8 and vitronectin was slight and pronounced inhibited in the presence of increasing heparin concentration, respectively, suggesting that the interaction with vitronectin occurs via heparin domain. Most interesting, the interaction of rLIC13259 with C9 protein was capable of preventing C9 polymerization, suggesting that the membrane attack complex (MAC) formation was inhibited. Thus, we tentatively assign the coding sequence (CDS) LIC13259, previously annotated as unknown function, as a novel protein that may play an important role in the host's invasion and immune evasion processes, contributing to the establishment of the leptospiral infection.

2041 related Products with: Characterization of a novel protein of Leptospira interrogans exhibiting plasminogen, vitronectin and complement binding properties.

Rabbit Anti-Rat Androgen Mouse Anti-Human Retinol DNA Binding Protein 7 (DB Proteins and Antibodies H Carboxyfluorescein diacet Recombinant Human Androge Rat monoclonal anti mouse Anti actin binding protei ribosome binding protein  EpiQuik General Protein Proteins and Antibodies H calcium binding protein P

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Schistosoma mansoni venom allergen-like protein 18 (SmVAL18) is a plasminogen-binding protein secreted during the early stages of mammalian-host infection.

Schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by trematodes of the genus Schistosoma which have a complex life cycle characterized by an asexual multiplication phase in the snail intermediate host and a sexual reproduction phase in the mammalian definitive host. The initial steps of the human host infection involve the secretion of proteins contained in the acetabular glands of cercariae that promote parasite adhesion and proteolysis of the skin layers. Herein, we performed a functional analysis of SmVAL18, identified as one of the three SCP/TAPS proteins constituent of cercarial secretions. We evaluated the SmVAL18 binding to immobilized macromolecules of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and to plasma components. Recombinant protein, expressed in E. coli, was found to maintain an ordered secondary structure typical of the SCP/TAPS domain after purification. Expression of native SmVAL18 protein was verified to be restricted to cercariae and 3-h schistosomula stages; furthermore, the protein was observed in the corresponding secretions, confirming that SmVAL18 is secreted during the first 3 h of in vitro culture. rSmVAL18 was able to interact specifically with plasminogen (PLG) and enhance its conversion into plasmin in the presence of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA). Protein homology modelling suggested that the PLG-rSmVAL18 interaction was mediated by lysine residues of the protein. This was supported by in vitro data using the lysine analogue, 6-aminocaproic acid (ACA), which abolished the interaction. Finally, our results showed that both cercariae and 3-h schistosomula, as well as their corresponding secretions, exhibited the capacity to bind PLG and enhance its conversion into plasmin in vitro in the same way as observed for the recombinant protein. In conclusion, our findings show that SmVAL18 is a novel PLG-binding protein secreted during the early stages of the mammalian-host infection.

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anti-Vitamin D binding pr anti-Retinol binding prot Rabbit Anti-SRGN Chondroi NATIVE HUMAN PROLACTIN, P Mouse Anti-Histone H4 Me1 anti-PKC α (Protein kina Polyclonal Antibody Recep zona pellucida binding pr Rabbit Anti-FLAP 5-lipoxy Rabbit Anti-MAL Myelin an anti-pRb (retinoblastoma Rabbit Anti-SRGN Chondroi

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Recombinant nematode anticoagulant protein c2 inhibits cell invasion by decreasing uPA expression in NSCLC cells.

Nematode anticoagulant protein c2 (NAPc2) is an 85-residue polypeptide originally isolated from the hematophagous hookworm, Ancylostoma caninum. Several studies have shown that rNAPc2 inhibits the growth of primary and metastatic tumors in mice independently of its ability to initiate coagulation. We obtained bioactive recombinant rNAPc2 by splicing of the rNAPc2-intein-CBD fusion proteins expressed in E. coli ER2566. In the in vitro assay, rNAPc2 obviously inhibited the invasive ability of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, rNAPc2 suppressed tumor growth in vivo by daily intraperitoneal injection of rNAPc2 in an NSCLC cell xenograft model of nude mice. Respectively, rNAPc2 downregulated the production of urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) (P<0.05) and suppressed nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activity. We also identified that inhibition of NF-κB activity impaired cell invasion and reduced the uPA production in NSCLC cells. Meanwhile, NF-κB was found to directly bind to the uPA promoter in vitro. These results demonstrated that rNAPc2 inhibits cell invasion at least in part through the downregulation of the NF-κB-dependent metastasis-related gene expression in NSCLC. Our results also suggest that uPA, a known metastasis-promoting gene, is indirectly regulated by rNAPc2 through NF-κB activation. These results indicate that rNAPc2 may be a potent agent for the prevention of NSCLC progression.

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Recombinant Human IL-4 [f Recombinant HBsAg adr [fr Macrophage Colony Stimula Recombinant Human IL-6 (I Recombinant Human OPG TNF Octyl â D 1 thioglucopyr Recombinant Human VEGF VE Recombinant Human RAGE AG Recombinant Human HGF [fr Recombinant Canine ApoJ C Recombinant Human PEDF [f Recombinant Human RAGE AG

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Antitumor effect and mechanism of action of a tumor-targeting recombinant human tumor necrosis factor-α fusion protein mediated by urokinase.

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the tumor‑targeting recombinant human tumor necrosis factor (rhTNF)‑α fusion protein mediated by urokinase on Sl80 tumor‑bearing mice, as well as to explore its mechanisms of action. Furthermore, the study aimed to observe the effect of the protein on liver and kidney function. rhTNF‑α fusion protein prokaryotic expression vectors were constructed using genetic engineering techniques, and were introduced into Escherichia coli. Expression of the fusion protein was induced, and it was then separated and purified in order to determine its cytotoxic activity on L929 cells. Kunming mice were randomly divided into four groups after being inoculated with S180 tumor cells. The groups were then injected with saline (control group, group S), or saline with 0.1 µg/ml fusion protein (low dose group, group L), 0.2 µg/ml fusion protein (middle dose group, group M) or 0.3 µg/ml (high dose group, group H). The mice were sacrificed after 12 days and liver [mg/kg; (liver weight/body weight) x 1,000] and kidney [mg/kg; (kidney weight/body weight) x 1,000] indices, tumor weight, the percentage reduction in mean tumor size, and the levels of alanine transaminase (ALT), albumin (ALB), creatinine (Cr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) in each group of mice were determined. In addition, the levels of urokinase‑type plasminogen activator (uPA), the expression of bcl‑2, bax and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and the percentage of apoptotic cells were measured with an enzyme‑linked immunosorbent assay, streptavidin‑biotin complex of immunohistochemistry and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase‑mediated dUTP nick end labeling, respectively. The fusion protein significantly inhibited the growth of S180 tumor cells in vivo in a dose‑dependent manner. With an increase in the dose of fusion protein, ALT, uPA, bcl‑2 and VEGF levels decreased, and ALB levels increased. However, liver and kidney indices and bax expression were not significantly altered. Cr and BUN levels did not change significantly in the low and middle dose groups, but did increase in the high dose group. Compared with the control group, the percentage of apoptotic cells in the high‑dose group was significantly higher. In conclusion, the fusion protein significantly inhibited S180 tumor growth in a mouse model, possibly by reducing the levels of uPA, bcl‑2 and VEGF. There was a mildly toxic effect on the kidneys with the high dose, but a protective effect in the liver.

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RANK Ligand Soluble, Huma Human Tumor Necrosis Fact Human, Complement C1q tum Human Tumor Necrosis Fact ELISA Kit for Tumor Necr Rat Tumor Necrosis Factor TNFRSF1B - Goat polyclona ELISA Kit for Tumor Necro Mouse Tumor Necrosis Fact Human Tumor necrosis fact Tumor necrosis factor (TN Human Tumor Necrosis Fact

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Preparation and antitumor effect of a toxin-linked conjugate targeting vascular endothelial growth factor receptor and urokinase plasminogen activator.

The aberrant signaling activation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) and urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) is a common characteristic of many tumors, including lung cancer. Accordingly, VEGFR and uPA have emerged as attractive targets for tumor. KDR (Flk-1/VEGFR-2), a member of the VEGFR family, has been recognized as an important target for antiangiogenesis in tumor. In this study, a recombinant immunotoxin was produced to specifically target KDR-expressing tumor vascular endothelial cells and uPA-expressing tumor cells and mediate antitumor angiogenesis and antitumor effect. Based on its potent inhibitory effect on protein synthesis, Luffin-beta (Lβ) ribosome-inactivating protein was selected as part of a recombinant fusion protein, a single-chain variable fragment against KDR (KDRscFv)-uPA cleavage site (uPAcs)-Lβ-KDEL (named as KPLK). The KDRscFv-uPAcs-Lβ-KDEL (KPLK) contained a single-chain variable fragment (scFv) against KDR, uPAcs, Lβ, and the retention signal for endoplasmic reticulum proteins KDEL (Lys-Asp-Glu-Leu). The KPLK-expressing vector was expressed in Escherichia coli, and the KPLK protein was isolated with nickel affinity chromatography and gel filtration chromatography. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis test demonstrated KPLK was effectively expressed. Result of in vitro cell viability assay on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) H460 cell line (uPA-positive cell) revealed that KPLK significantly inhibited cell proliferation, induced apoptosis, and accumulated cells in S and G2/M phases, but the normal cell line (human submandibular gland cell) was unaffected. These effects were enhanced when uPA was added to digest KPLK to release Lβ. For in vivo assay of KPLK, subcutaneous xenograft tumor model of nude mice were established with H460 cells. Growth of solid tumors was significantly inhibited in animals treated with KPLK up to 21 days, tumor weights were decreased, and the expression of angiogenesis marker CD31 was downregulated; meanwhile, the apoptosis-related protein casspase-3 was upregulated. These results suggested that the recombinant KPLK may have therapeutic applications on tumors, especially uPA-overexpressing ones.

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Rat monoclonal anti mouse CAR,CAR,Constitutive acti Human Vascular Endothelia Anti-Androgen Receptor pr AZD-3514 Mechanisms: Andr Mouse Vascular Endothelia Androgen Receptor (Phosph Rabbit Anti-Human Androge Androgen Receptor Androgen Receptor (Ab 650 Androgen Receptor Antibod Human Vascular Endothelia

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Human single-chain urokinase is activated by the omptins PgtE of Salmonella enterica and Pla of Yersinia pestis despite mutations of active site residues.

Fibrinolysis is important in cell migration and tightly regulated by specific inhibitors and activators; of the latter, urokinase (uPA) associates with enhancement of cell migration. Active uPA is formed through cleavage of the single-chain uPA (scuPA). The Salmonella enterica strain 14028R cleaved human scuPA at the peptide bond Lys158-Ile159, the site cleaved also by the physiological activator human plasmin. The cleavage led to activation of scuPA, while no cleavage or activation were detected with the mutant strain 14028R lacking the omptin protease PgtE. Complementation and expression studies confirmed the role of PgtE in scuPA activation. Similar cleavage and activation of scuPA were detected with recombinant Escherichia coli expressing the omptin genes pla from Yersinia pestis, ompT and ompP from E. coli, sopA from Shigella flexneri, and leo from Legionella pneumophila. For these omptins the activation of scuPA is the only shared function so far detected. Only poor cleavage and activation of scuPA were seen with YcoA of Y. pestis and YcoB of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis that are considered to be proteolytically inactive omptin variants. Point mutations of active site residues in Pla and PgtE had different effects on the proteolysis of plasminogen and of scuPA, indicating versatility in omptin proteolysis.

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Proteins and Antibodies H Human tissue plasminogen Human tissue plasminogen Single Donor Human Atopic Mouse Anti-F1 protein (YE Disease State Samples: Si Epidermal Growth Factor ( Human Dnak (HSP70) His ta Normal Single Donor Human Mouse Anti-F1 protein (YE Single Donor Human Multip Single Donor Human Preecl

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Activation of human pro-urokinase by unrelated proteases secreted by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Pathogenic bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, interact with and engage the host plasminogen (Plg) activation system, which encompasses the urokinase (uPA)-type Plg activator, and is involved in extracellular proteolysis, including matrilysis and fibrinolysis. We hypothesized that secreted bacterial proteases might contribute to the activation of this major extracellular proteolytic system, thereby participating in bacterial dissemination. We report that LasB, a thermolysin-like metalloprotease secreted by Ps. aeruginosa, converts the human uPA zymogen into its active form (kcat=4.9 s-1, Km=8.9 microM). Accordingly, whereas the extracellular secretome from the LasB-expressing pseudomonal strain PAO1 efficiently activates pro-uPA, the secretome from the isogenic LasB-deficient strain PDO240 is markedly less potent in pro-uPA activation. Still, both secretomes induce some metalloprotease-independent activation of the human zymogen. The latter involves a serine protease, which we identified via both recombinant protein expression in Escherichia coli and purification from pseudomonal cultures as protease IV (PIV; kcat=0.73 s-1, Km=6.2 microM). In contrast, neither secretomes nor the pure proteases activate Plg. Along with this, LasB converts Plg into mini-Plg and angiostatin, whereas, as reported previously, it processes the uPA receptor, inactivates the plasminogen activator inhibitor 1, and activates pro-matrix metalloproteinase 2. PIV does not target these factors at all. To conclude, LasB and PIV, although belonging to different protease families and displaying quite different substrate specificities, both activate the urokinase-type precursor of the Plg activation cascade. Direct pro-uPA activation, as also reported for other bacterial proteases, might be a frequent phenomenon that contributes to bacterial virulence.

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[Biological function of fusion protein ATF-PAI2CD].

To express the fusion protein ATF-PAI2CD (urokinase-type plasminogen activator amino terminal fragment-plasminogen activator inhibitor type 2 with the region inter C and D helices deleted ) gene in E.coli and determine the biological characterization of fusion protein ATF-PAI2CD, the cDNA fragment encoding ATF-PAI2CD was cloned into the expression vector pLY-4 and transformed into E.coli JF1125. After temperature induction, the expression amount of ATF-PAI2CD account for 15% of total bacterial protein. The result was confirmed by Western blot. ATF-PAI2CD protein was isolated and purified by washing and solubilization of inclusion body, renaturation and ion exchange chromatography. The final product displayed a single band with a corresponding molecular weight 62 kD in SDS-PAGE. The purity was over 90%, the protein yield was 50% and the specific activity was 12 000 IU/mg. The PAI activity was measured by chromogenic assay. The purified fusion protein inhibited urokinase-type plasminogen activator as measured by milk-agarose plate assay, and bound to human lung cancer cells via uPA receptor (uPAR), which was confirmed by radio competition experiments. The results indicate that the biological characteristics of ATF-PAI2CD were very similar to those of the wide type PAI-2 (or mutants PAI-2, PAI-2CD) and to pro-uPA in binding to uPAR-bearing cells.

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Mouse Anti-RSV Fusion Pro Mouse IL-2, Fc Fusion Pro Recombinant Human c-jun A Recombinant HIV Type-O gp Mouse Anti-RSV Fusion Pro Recombinant EBV p18 [GST- Recombinant HIV-2 gp36 [M Mouse Anti-RSV Fusion Pro Recombinant Human SUMO2 [ c Jun (1 79) GST Fusion P Mouse Anti-RSV Fusion Pro Recombinant Human c-jun A

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Characterization of hK4 (prostase), a prostate-specific serine protease: activation of the precursor of prostate specific antigen (pro-PSA) and single-chain urokinase-type plasminogen activator and degradation of prostatic acid phosphatase.

hK4 (prostase, KLK4), a recently cloned prostate-specific serine protease and a member of the tissue kallikrein family, is a zymogen composed of 228 amino acid residues including an amino-terminal propiece, Ser-Cys-Ser-Gln-. A chimeric form of hK4 (ch-hK4) was constructed in which the propiece of hK4 was replaced by that of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) to create an activation site susceptible to trypsin-type proteases. ch-hK4 was expressed in Escherichia coli, isolated from inclusion bodies, refolded, and purified with an overall yield of 25%. The zymogen was readily self-activated during the refolding process to generate an active form (21 kDa) of hK4 (rhK4). rhK4 cleaved the chromogenic substrates Val-Leu-Arg-pNA (S-2266), Pro-Phe-Arg-pNA (S-2302), Ile-Glu-Gly-Arg-pNA (S-2222), and Val-Leu-Lys-pNA (S-2251), indicating that rhK4 has a trypsin-type substrate specificity. The rhK4 was inhibited by aprotinin (6 kDa), forming an equimolar 27 kDa complex. rhK4 readily activated both the precursor of PSA (pro-PSA) and single chain urokinase-type plasminogen activator (scuPA, pro-uPA). rhK4 also completely degraded prostatic acid phosphatase but failed to cleave serum albumin, another protein purified from human seminal plasma. These results indicate that hK4 may have a role in the physiologic processing of seminal plasma proteins such as pro-PSA, as well as in the pathogenesis of prostate cancer through its activation of pro-uPA.

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PSAP (Prostate Specific PSAP (Prostate Specific PSAP (Prostate Specific PSA (Prostate Specific A PSA (Prostate Specific A PSA (Prostate Specific A Prostate-Specific Antigen Prostate cancer, hyperpla PSA (Prostate Specific A PSA (Prostate Specific A Human Prostate Specific A Mouse Anti-Prostate Speci

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