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#28693734   2017/07/11 Save this To Up

Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry as a new tool for the characterization of intact semi-synthetic glycoproteins.

Improved methods for detailed characterization of complex glycoproteins are required in the growing sector of biopharmaceuticals. Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) coupled to high resolution (HR) time-of-flight mass spectrometric (TOF-MS) detection was examined for the characterization of intact neo-glycoproteins prepared by chemical conjugation of synthetic saccharides to the lysine residues of selected recombinant proteins. The separation performances of three different amide HILIC columns (TSKgel Amide-80, XBridge BEH and AdvanceBio Glycan Mapping) were tested. Water-acetonitrile gradients and volatile eluent additives have been explored. Addition of 0.05% (v/v) trifluoroacetic acid to the mobile phase appeared to be essential for achieving optimum resolution of intact glycoforms and minimal ion suppression effects. Gradient elution conditions were optimized for each protein on every column. HILIC stationary phases were evaluated for the analysis of highly heterogeneous semi-synthetic derivatives of the same protein (ribonuclease A), and in the enhanced characterization of TB10.4 and Ag85B glycoconjugates, selected antigens from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). HILIC-MS results indicated that the HILIC selectivity is predominantly governed by size of the conjugated glycans and number of glycans attached, providing efficient glycoform separation. Moreover, HILIC separation prior to HRMS detection allowed assignment of several product impurities. Additional top-down MS/MS experiments confirmed conjugation at the N-terminus of TB10.4 next to its lysine residue. Overall, the obtained results demonstrate that amide-stationary-phase based HILIC coupled to MS is highly useful for the characterization of intact neo-glycoproteins allowing assessment of the number, identity and relative abundance of glycoforms present in the semi-synthetic products.

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#28661444   2017/06/29 Save this To Up

Glycosylation of Recombinant Antigenic Proteins from Mycobacterium tuberculosis: In Silico Prediction of Protein Epitopes and Ex Vivo Biological Evaluation of New Semi-Synthetic Glycoconjugates.

Tuberculosis is still one of the most deadly infectious diseases worldwide, and the use of conjugated antigens, obtained by combining antigenic oligosaccharides, such as the lipoarabinomannane (LAM), with antigenic proteins from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), has been proposed as a new strategy for developing efficient vaccines. In this work, we investigated the effect of the chemical glycosylation on two recombinant MTB proteins produced in E. coli with an additional seven-amino acid tag (recombinant Ag85B and TB10.4). Different semi-synthetic glycoconjugated derivatives were prepared, starting from mannose and two disaccharide analogs. The glycans were activated at the anomeric position with a thiocyanomethyl group, as required for protein glycosylation by selective reaction with lysines. The glycosylation sites and the ex vivo evaluation of the immunogenic activity of the different neo-glycoproteins were investigated. Glycosylation does not modify the immunological activity of the TB10.4 protein. Similarly, Ag85B maintains its B-cell activity after glycosylation while showing a significant reduction in the T-cell response. The results were correlated with the putative B- and T-cell epitopes, predicted using a combination of in silico systems. In the recombinant TB10.4, the unique lysine is not included in any T-cell epitope. Lys30 of Ag85B, identified as the main glycosylation site, proved to be the most important site involved in the formation of T-cell epitopes, reasonably explaining why its glycosylation strongly influenced the T-cell activity. Furthermore, additional lysines included in different epitopes (Lys103, -123 and -282) are also glycosylated. In contrast, B-cell epitopic lysines of Ag85B were found to be poorly glycosylated and, thus, the antibody interaction of Ag85B was only marginally affected after coupling with mono- or disaccharides.

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#27957856   2016/12/13 Save this To Up

High-throughput Identification of DNA-Encoded IgG Ligands that Distinguish Active and Latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infections.

The circulating antibody repertoire encodes a patient's health status and pathogen exposure history, but identifying antibodies with diagnostic potential usually requires knowledge of the antigen(s). We previously circumvented this problem by screening libraries of bead-displayed small molecules against case and control serum samples to discover "epitope surrogates" (ligands of IgGs enriched in the case sample). Here, we describe an improved version of this technology that employs DNA-encoded libraries and high-throughput FACS-based screening to discover epitope surrogates that differentiate noninfectious/latent (LTB) patients from infectious/active TB (ATB) patients, which is imperative for proper treatment selection and antibiotic stewardship. Normal control/LTB (10 patients each, NCL) and ATB (10 patients) serum pools were screened against a library (5 × 10(6) beads, 448 000 unique compounds) using fluorescent antihuman IgG to label hit compound beads for FACS. Deep sequencing decoded all hit structures and each hit's occurrence frequencies. ATB hits were pruned of NCL hits and prioritized for resynthesis based on occurrence and homology. Several structurally homologous families were identified and 16/21 resynthesized representative hits validated as selective ligands of ATB serum IgGs (p < 0.005). The native secreted TB protein Ag85B (though not the E. coli recombinant form) competed with one of the validated ligands for binding to antibodies, suggesting that it mimics a native Ag85B epitope. The use of DNA-encoded libraries and FACS-based screening in epitope surrogate discovery reveals thousands of potential hit structures. Distilling this list down to several consensus chemical structures yielded a diagnostic panel for ATB composed of thermally stable and economically produced small molecule ligands in place of protein antigens.

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#27941982   2016/12/12 Save this To Up

Overexpression of a Mycobacterium ulcerans Ag85B-EsxH Fusion Protein in Recombinant BCG Improves Experimental Buruli Ulcer Vaccine Efficacy.

Buruli ulcer (BU) vaccine design faces similar challenges to those observed during development of prophylactic tuberculosis treatments. Multiple BU vaccine candidates, based upon Mycobacterium bovis BCG, altered Mycobacterium ulcerans (MU) cells, recombinant MU DNA, or MU protein prime-boosts, have shown promise by conferring transient protection to mice against the pathology of MU challenge. Recently, we have shown that a recombinant BCG vaccine expressing MU-Ag85A (BCG MU-Ag85A) displayed the highest level of protection to date, by significantly extending the survival time of MU challenged mice compared to BCG vaccination alone. Here we describe the generation, immunogenicity testing, and evaluation of protection conferred by a recombinant BCG strain which overexpresses a fusion of two alternative MU antigens, Ag85B and the MU ortholog of tuberculosis TB10.4, EsxH. Vaccination with BCG MU-Ag85B-EsxH induces proliferation of Ag85 specific CD4+ T cells in greater numbers than BCG or BCG MU-Ag85A and produces IFNγ+ splenocytes responsive to whole MU and recombinant antigens. In addition, anti-Ag85A and Ag85B IgG humoral responses are significantly enhanced after administration of the fusion vaccine compared to BCG or BCG MU-Ag85A. Finally, mice challenged with MU following a single subcutaneous vaccination with BCG MU-Ag85B-EsxH display significantly less bacterial burden at 6 and 12 weeks post-infection, reduced histopathological tissue damage, and significantly longer survival times compared to vaccination with either BCG or BCG MU-Ag85A. These results further support the potential of BCG as a foundation for BU vaccine design, whereby discovery and recombinant expression of novel immunogenic antigens could lead to greater anti-MU efficacy using this highly safe and ubiquitous vaccine.

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#27554052   2016/08/24 Save this To Up

IL-21 inhibits IL-17A-producing γδ T-cell response after infection with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin via induction of apoptosis.

Innate γδ T cells expressing Vγ6 produce IL-17A at an early stage following infection with Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG). In this study, we used IL-21 receptor knockout (IL-21R KO) mice and IL-21-producing recombinant BCG mice (rBCG-Ag85B-IL-21) to examine the role of IL-21 in the regulation of IL-17A-producing innate γδ T-cell response following BCG infection. IL-17A-producing Vγ6(+) γδ T cells increased in the peritoneal cavity of IL-21R KO mice more than in wild type mice after BCG infection. In contrast, the number of IL-17A-producing Vγ6(+) γδ T cells was significantly lower after inoculation with rBCG-Ag85B-IL-21 compared with control rBCG-Ag85B. Notably, exogenous IL-21 selectively induced apoptosis of IL-17A-producing Vγ6(+) γδ T cells via Bim. Thus, these results suggest that IL-21 acts as a potent inhibitor of a IL-17A-producing γδ T-cell subset during BCG infection.

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#27551994   2016/08/23 Save this To Up

An easy and sensitive sandwich assay for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Ag85B antigen using quantum dots and gold nanorods.

Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a serious global infectious pathogen causing tuberculosis (TB). The development of an easy and sensitive method for the detection of M. tuberculosis is in urgent need due to complex and low specificity of the current assays. Herein, we present a novel method for M. tuberculosis detection based on a sandwich assay via antigen-antibody interaction using silica-coated quantum dots (SiQDs) and gold nanorods (AuNRs). A genetically engineered recombinant antibody (GBP-50B14 and SiBP-8B3) was bound to surfaces of AuNRs and SiQDs respectively, without any surface modification. The antigen-antibody interaction was revealed using M. tuberculosis-specific secretory antigen, Ag85B. Two biocomplexes showed a quenching effect in the presence of the target antigen through a sandwich assay. The assay response was in the range of 1×10(-3)-1×10(-10)μgmL(-1) (R=0.969) and the limit of detection for Ag85B was 13.0pgmL(-1). The Ag85B was selectively detected using three different proteins (CFP10, and BSA), and further specifically confirmed by the use of spiked samples. Compared with existing methods, a highly sensitive and selective method for Ag85B-expressing M. tuberculosis detection has been developed for better diagnosis of TB.

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#27531823   2016/09/23 Save this To Up

DNA vaccine with discontinuous T-cell epitope insertions into HSP65 scaffold as a potential means to improve immunogenicity of multi-epitope Mycobacterium tuberculosis vaccine.

DNA-based vaccine is a promising candidate for immunization and induction of a T-cell-focused protective immune response against infectious pathogens such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb). To induce multi-functional T response against multi-TB antigens, a multi-epitope DNA vaccine and a 'protein backbone grafting' design method is adopted to graft five discontinuous T-cell epitopes into HSP65 scaffold protein of M. tb for enhancement of epitope processing and immune presentation. A DNA plasmid with five T-cell epitopes derived from ESAT-6, Ag85B, MTB10.4, PPE25 and PE19 proteins of H37Rv strain of M. tb genetically inserted into HSP65 backbone was constructed and designated as pPES. After confirmation of its in vitro expression efficiency, pPES DNA was i.m. injected into C57BL/6 mice with four doses of 50 µg DNA followed by mycobacterial challenge 4 weeks after the final immunization. It was found that pPES DNA injection maintained the ability of HSP65 backbone to induce specific serum IgG. ELISPOT assay demonstrated that pPES epitope-scaffold construct was significantly more potent to induce IFN-γ(+) T response to five T-cell epitope proteins than other DNA constructs (with epitopes alone or with epitope series connected to HSP65), especially in multi-functional-CD4(+) T response. It also enhanced granzyme B(+) CTL and IL-2(+) CD8(+) T response. Furthermore, significantly improved protection against Mycobacterium bovis BCG challenge was achieved by pPES injection compared to other DNA constructs. Taken together, HSP65 scaffold grafting strategy for multi-epitope DNA vaccine represents a successful example of rational protein backbone engineering design and could prove useful in TB vaccine design.

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#27486595   2016/08/03 Save this To Up

A silicon nitride ISFET based immunosensor for Ag85B detection of tuberculosis.

A silicon nitride Ion Sensitive Field Effect Transistor (ISFET) based immunosensor was developed as a low-cost and label-free electrical detection for the detection of antigen 85 complex B (Ag85B). The sensing membrane of the ISFET was modified with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) followed by glutaraldehyde (GA), yielding an aldehyde-terminated surface. This group is available for immobilization of a monoclonal antibody against a recombinant Ag85B protein (anti-Ag85B antibody). The optimal concentration for anti-Ag85B antibody immobilization onto the modified ISFET was 100 μg ml(-1). This optimal condition provided the maximal binding capability and minimal non-specific background signal. The binding event between the recombinant Ag85B antigen and anti-Ag85B antibody on the ISFET surface is presented by monitoring the gate potential change at a constant drain current. The dose response for the recombinant Ag85B protein showed a linear response between 0.12 and 1 μg ml(-1) without significant interference from other recombinant proteins. The analytical imprecision (CV%) and accuracy of this Ag85B protein biosensor were 9.73-10.99% and 95.29%, respectively. In addition, an irrelevant antibody and other recombinant proteins were employed as a negative control to demonstrate the non-specific interaction of the antigen and antibody. The success of this immunosensor system for Ag85B protein detection facilitates the construction of a promising device which can shorten the turnaround time for the diagnosis of tuberculosis compared to a standard culture method. Furthermore, this device could also be applied for real-time growth monitoring of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a mycobacterial culture system.

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#27322481   2016/06/21 Save this To Up

Safety and Immunogenicity of the Recombinant BCG Vaccine AERAS-422 in Healthy BCG-naïve Adults: A Randomized, Active-controlled, First-in-human Phase 1 Trial.

We report a first-in-human trial evaluating safety and immunogenicity of a recombinant BCG, AERAS-422, over-expressing TB antigens Ag85A, Ag85B, and Rv3407 and expressing mutant perfringolysin.

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#27093372   2016/04/30 Save this To Up

Antitumor activity of recombinant Bacille Calmette-Guérin secreting interleukin-15-Ag85B fusion protein against bladder cancer.

Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is used for the treatment of bladder cancer. The recruitment of neutrophlis to the bladder after BCG instillation exerts anti-tumor activity against bladder tumor. We have recently demonstrated that interleukin (IL)-17A produced by γδ T cells played a role in the recruitment of neutrophlis to the bladder after BCG instillation. IL-15 is known to play an important role in neutrophil migration during inflammation. We previously constructed a recombinant BCG strain expressing the fusion protein of IL-15 and Ag85B (BCG-IL-15) for prevention of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Here we compared the efficacy of the BCG-IL-15 in protection against bladder cancer with that of rBCG-Ag85B (BCG). Six-week-old female C57BL/6 mice were inoculated with MB49 bladder tumor cells in the bladder and subsequently intravesically inoculated with BCG or BCG-IL-15. BCG-IL-15 treatment significantly prolonged survival of mice inoculated with bladder cancer cells compared with BCG treatment. Infiltration of neutrophils was significantly elevated in BCGB-IL-15 treated mice accompanied by increased chemokines (MIP-2 and MIP-1α) in the bladder. Thus, BCG-IL-15 exerted additive effect on Infiltration of neutrophils in the bladder. BCG-IL-15 may be a promising drug for non-muscle invasive bladder cancer.

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