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FAM3B/PANDER inhibits cell death and increases prostate tumor growth by modulating the expression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-Xcell survival genes.

FAM3B/PANDER is a novel cytokine-like protein that induces apoptosis in insulin-secreting beta-cells. Since in silico data revealed that FAM3B can be expressed in prostate tumors, we evaluated the putative role of this cytokine in prostate tumor progression.

1962 related Products with: FAM3B/PANDER inhibits cell death and increases prostate tumor growth by modulating the expression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-Xcell survival genes.

BCL XL Rabbit Anti-Human Androge Anti Bcl XL Monoclonal An Anti Bcl XL Monoclonal An Anti Bcl XL Monoclonal An Anti-Bcl-XL Monoclonal An Anti Bcl XL Monoclonal An ABT-263 Mechanisms: Bcl-2 17β-Acetoxy-2α-bromo-5 5α-N-Acetyl-2'H-androst- 5α-N-Acetyl-2'H-androst- 3-O-Acetyl 5,14-Androstad

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Attenuated lipotoxicity and apoptosis is linked to exogenous and endogenous augmenter of liver regeneration by different pathways.

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) covers a spectrum from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and cirrhosis. Free fatty acids (FFA) induce steatosis and lipo-toxicity and correlate with severity of NAFLD. In this study we aimed to investigate the role of exogenous and endogenous ALR (augmenter of liver regeneration) for FFA induced ER (endoplasmatic reticulum) -stress and lipoapoptosis. Primary human hepatocytes or hepatoma cells either treated with recombinant human ALR (rhALR, 15kDa) or expressing short form ALR (sfALR, 15kDa) were incubated with palmitic acid (PA) and analyzed for lipo-toxicity, -apoptosis, activation of ER-stress response pathways, triacylglycerides (TAG), mRNA and protein expression of lipid metabolizing genes. Both, exogenous rhALR and cytosolic sfALR reduced PA induced caspase 3 activity and Bax protein expression and therefore lipotoxicity. Endogenous sfALR but not rhALR treatment lowered TAG levels, diminished activation of ER-stress mediators C-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), X-box binding protein-1 (XBP1) and proapoptotic transcription factor C/EBP-homologous protein (CHOP), and reduced death receptor 5 protein expression. Cellular ALR exerts its lipid lowering and anti-apoptotic actions by enhancing FABP1, which binds toxic FFA, increasing mitochondrial β-oxidation by elevating the mitochondrial FFA transporter CPT1α, and decreasing ELOVL6, which delivers toxic FFA metabolites. We found reduced hepatic mRNA levels of ALR in a high fat diet mouse model, and of ALR and FOXA2, a transcription factor inducing ALR expression, in human steatotic as well as NASH liver samples, which may explain increased lipid deposition and reduced β-oxidation in NASH patients. Present study shows that exogenous and endogenous ALR reduce PA induced lipoapoptosis. Furthermore, cytosolic sfALR changes mRNA and protein expression of genes regulating lipid metabolism, reduces ER-stress finally impeding progression of NASH.

1120 related Products with: Attenuated lipotoxicity and apoptosis is linked to exogenous and endogenous augmenter of liver regeneration by different pathways.

Carnitine O palmitoyltran Shiga Toxin 1 antibody, M Shiga Toxin 2 antibody, M Cholera toxin antibody, M Clostridium botulinum D T Clostridum difficile toxi Clostridum difficile toxi Clostridum difficile toxi Clostridum difficile toxi Clostridum difficile toxi Clostridum difficile toxi Clostridum difficile toxi

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A Small-Molecule Inhibitor of Bax and Bak Oligomerization Prevents Genotoxic Cell Death and Promotes Neuroprotection.

Aberrant apoptosis can lead to acute or chronic degenerative diseases. Mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP) triggered by the oligomerization of the Bcl-2 family proteins Bax/Bak is an irreversible step leading to execution of apoptosis. Here, we describe the discovery of small-molecule inhibitors of Bax/Bak oligomerization that prevent MOMP. We demonstrate that these molecules disrupt multiple, but not all, interactions between Bax dimer interfaces thereby interfering with the formation of higher-order oligomers in the MOM, but not recruitment of Bax to the MOM. Small-molecule inhibition of Bax/Bak oligomerization allowed cells to evade apoptotic stimuli and rescued neurons from death after excitotoxicity, demonstrating that oligomerization of Bax is essential for MOMP. Our discovery of small-molecule Bax/Bak inhibitors provides novel tools for the investigation of the mechanisms leading to MOMP and will ultimately facilitate development of compounds inhibiting Bax/Bak in acute and chronic degenerative diseases.

1285 related Products with: A Small-Molecule Inhibitor of Bax and Bak Oligomerization Prevents Genotoxic Cell Death and Promotes Neuroprotection.

Androgen Receptor (Phosph Androgen Receptor (Phosph Rabbit Anti-Human Androge Rabbit Anti-Human Androge Androgen Receptor (Ab 650 AZD-3514 Mechanisms: Andr 17β-Acetoxy-2α-bromo-5 (5α,16β)-N-Acetyl-16-[2 (5α,16β)-N-Acetyl-16-ac 5α-N-Acetyl-2'H-androst- 5α-N-Acetyl-2'H-androst- 3-O-Acetyl 5,14-Androstad

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Protective role and related mechanism of Gnaq in neural cells damaged by oxidative stress.

Gnaq is a member of G protein family and is rich in brain tissue. It has attracted the attention of many researchers in melanoma due to its high ratio of mutation. We have previously reported that the expression level of Gnaq in the mouse forebrain cortex was significantly decreased with age. Oxidative stress (OS) is the main cause leading to brain aging and related diseases. The roles and mechanisms of Gnaq in antioxidation in the brain have not been fully explored. In the present study, gene recombinant technique and lentivirus transfection technique were used to generate a Gnaq-overexpression cell model (Gnaq-SY5Y) coupled with H2O2 to build an OS model. The viability of cells, concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS), apoptosis-related proteins (Bcl-2 and Bax), and signal pathways (NF-κB and Erk1/2) were compared between model cells and control cells. Results showed that the antioxidative ability of Gnaq-SY5Y cells was significantly improved. Concomitantly, the ROS level in Gnaq-SY5Y cells was significantly decreased whether the cells were subject to or not to H2O2 treatment. Anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 was up-regulated and apoptosis-promoting protein Bax was down-regulated in Gnaq-SY5Y cells after treatment with H2O2. NF-κB and phosphorylated Erk1/2 (p-Erk1/2) was significantly down-regulated in Gnaq-SY5Y cells. H2O2 treatment decreased Gnaq expression but increased NF-κB and p-Erk1/2 expressions in Gnaq-SY5Y cells. It is therefore concluded that Gnaq plays a pivotal role in antioxidation in neural cells. A possible mechanism for this would be that the overexpressed Gnaq inhibits the cellular damaging effect mediated by NF-κB and Erk1/2 signal pathways.

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Anti beta3 AR Human, Poly BYL-719 Mechanisms: PI3K- anti HSV (II) gB IgG1 (mo anti HCMV IE pp65 IgG1 (m anti HCMV gB IgG1 (monocl Epidermal Growth Factor ( Epidermal Growth Factor ( OXI TEK (Oxidative Stress Macrophage Colony Stimula Macrophage Colony Stimula GLP 1 ELISA Kit, Rat Gluc GLP 2 ELISA Kit, Rat Prog

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p16enhances the transcriptional and the apoptotic functions of p53 through DNA-dependent interaction.

p16and p53 are two important tumor suppressor proteins that play essential roles during cell proliferation and aging through regulating the expression of several genes. Here, we report that p16and p53 co-regulate a plethora of transcripts. Furthermore, both proteins colocalize in the nucleus of human primary skin fibroblasts and breast luminal cells, and form a heteromer whose level increases in response to genotoxic stress as well as aging of human fibroblasts and various mouse organs. CDK4 is also present in this heteromeric complex, which is formed only in the presence of DNA both in vitro using pure recombinant proteins and in vivo. We have also shown that p16enhances the binding efficiency of p53 to its cognate sequence presents in the CDKN1A promoter in vitro, and both proteins are present at the promoters of CDKN1A and BAX in vivo. Importantly, the fourth ankyrin repeat of p16and the C-terminal domain of p53 were necessary for the physical association between these two proteins. The physiologic importance of this association was revealed by the inability of cancer-associated p16mutants to interact with p53 and to transactivate the expression of its major targets CDKN1A and BAX in the p16-defective U2OS cells expressing either wild-type or mutated p16. Furthermore, the association between p16and p53 was capital for their nuclear colocalization, the X-ray-dependent induction of p21 and Bax proteins as well as the induction of apoptosis in various types of cells. Together, these results show DNA-dependent physical interaction between p16and p53.

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Single Strand DNA Ligase, Single Strand DNA Ligase, Pfu DNA Polymerase protei BACTERIOLOGY BACTEROIDES TCP-1 theta antibody Sour Recombinant Thermostable Recombinant Thermostable Recombinant Thermostable Recombinant Human PKC the Recombinant Human PKC the Recombinant Human PKC the Thermostable TDG Enzyme &

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The membrane activity of BOK involves formation of large, stable toroidal pores and is promoted by cBID.

The BCL-2 family members are key regulators of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway, which is defined by permeabilization of the mitochondrial outer membrane by members of the BAX-like subfamily. BOK is classified as a BAX-like protein; however, its (patho-)physiological role remains largely unclear. We therefore assessed the membrane permeabilization potential of C-terminally truncated recombinant BOK, BOK. We show that BOKcan permeabilize liposomes mimicking the composition of mitochondrial outer membrane, but not of endoplasmic reticulum, forming large and stable pores over time. Importantly, pore formation was enhanced by the presence of cBID and refractory to the addition of antiapoptotic BCL-X. However, isolated mitochondria from BaxBakcells were resistant to BOK-induced cytochrome c release, even in the presence of cBID. Taken together, we show that BOKcan permeabilize liposomes, and cooperate with cBID, but its role in directly mediating mitochondrial permeabilization is unclear and may underlie a yet to be determined negative regulation.

1694 related Products with: The membrane activity of BOK involves formation of large, stable toroidal pores and is promoted by cBID.

Mouse Anti-Lipoprotein Li Isocitrate Dehydrogenase Ofloxacin CAS Number [824 Pfu DNA Polymerase protei B-Phycoerythrin antibody 2-Amino Benzimidazole Su 2-Amino Benzimidazole Su EZH2 KMT6 antibody Isoty Interleukin-34 IL34 (N-t Interleukin-34 IL34 anti CRC3 CD3 (bispecific) Cl 2,3 dinor 6 keto Prostag

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The X-linked juvenile retinoschisis protein retinoschisin is a novel regulator of mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling and apoptosis in the retina.

X-linked juvenile retinoschisis (XLRS) is a hereditary retinal dystrophy in young males, caused by mutations in the RS1 gene. The function of the encoded protein, termed retinoschisin, and the molecular mechanisms underlying XLRS pathogenesis are still unresolved, although a direct interaction partner of the secreted retinoschisin, the retinal Na/K-ATPase, was recently identified. Earlier gene expression studies in retinoschisin-deficient (Rs1h) mice provided a first indication of pathological up-regulation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signalling in disease pathogenesis. To further investigate the role for retinoschisin in MAP kinase regulation, we exposed Y-79 cells and murine Rs1hretinae to recombinant retinoschisin and the XLRS-associated mutant RS1-C59S. Although normal retinoschisin stably bound to retinal cells, RS1-C59S exhibited a strongly reduced binding affinity. Simultaneously, exposure to normal retinoschisin significantly reduced phosphorylation of C-RAF and MAP kinases ERK1/2 in Y-79 cells and murine Rs1hretinae. Expression of MAP kinase target genes C-FOS and EGR1 was also down-regulated in both model systems. Finally, retinoschisin treatment decreased pro-apoptotic BAX-2 transcript levels in Y-79 cells and Rs1hretinae. Upon retinoschisin treatment, these cells showed increased resistance against apoptosis, reflected by decreased caspase-3 activity (in Y-79 cells) and increased photoreceptor survival (in Rs1hretinal explants). RS1-C59S did not influence C-RAF or ERK1/2 activation, C-FOS or EGR1 expression, or apoptosis. Our data imply that retinoschisin is a novel regulator of MAP kinase signalling and exerts an anti-apoptotic effect on retinal cells. We therefore discuss that disturbances of MAP kinase signalling by retinoschisin deficiency could be an initial step in XLRS pathogenesis.

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steroidogenic acute regul Apoptosis Phospho-Specifi Rabbit Anti-APIP Apaf1 In Rabbit Anti-APIP Apaf1 In Rabbit Anti-APIP Apaf1 In Rabbit Anti-APIP Apaf1 In Rabbit Anti-APIP Apaf1 In Rabbit Anti-APIP Apaf1 In Rabbit Anti-APIP Apaf1 In Rabbit Anti-APIP Apaf1 In Rabbit Anti-APIP Apaf1 In Rabbit Anti-APIP Apaf1 In

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The anti-tumor effects of the recombinant toxin protein rLj-RGD3 from Lampetra japonica on pancreatic carcinoma Panc-1 cells in nude mice.

Recombinant Lampetra japonica RGD peptide (rLj-RGD3) is a soluble toxin protein with three RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) motifs and a molecular weight of 13.5kDa. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects and mechanisms of rLj-RGD3 on tumor growth and survival in pancreatic carcinoma Panc-1 cell-bearing mice. A Panc-1 human pancreatic carcinoma-bearing nude mouse model was successfully generated, and the animals were treated with different doses of rLj-RGD3 for 3 weeks. The volume and weight of the subcutaneous tumors, the survival of the nude mice, histopathological changes, the intratumoral MVD, the number of apoptotic Panc-1 cells, and apoptosis-related proteins and gene expressions were determined. rLj-RGD3 significantly decreased the tumor volumes and weights, and the maximum tumor volume and weight IR values were 53.2% (p<0.001) and 55.9% (p<0.001), respectively. The life expectancy of Panc-1-bearing nude mice treated with rLj-RGD3 was increased by 56.3% (p<0.001). Meanwhile, rLj-RGD3 promoted the expression of Bax, caspase-3, and caspase-9 and inhibited Bcl-2 and VEGF expression. In addition, rLj-RGD3 did not change FAK, PI3K and Akt expression, but p-FAK, p-PI3K and p-Akt, levels were down-regulated. These results show that rLj-RGD3 induced potent anti-tumor activity in vivo and suppressed the growth of transplanted Panc-1 cells in a nude mouse model, implying that rLj-RGD3 may serve as a potent clinical therapeutic agent for human pancreatic carcinoma.

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Anti C Reactive Protein A Recombinant Human PKC the Recombinant Human PKC the Anti-Infectious Pancreati Anti-Infectious Pancreati Anti-Infectious Pancreati FIV Core Ag, recombinant anti GSK3 Beta IgG2a (mon anti HIV 2 gp36 IgG1 (mon anti HIV 1 p55 17 IgG1 (m anti HIV 1 p17 IgG1 (mono anti HCV NS4 IgG2a (monoc

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The regulation of high insulin levels on ovary apoptosis in early pregnant mice.

Studies have shown that metabolic syndrome is associated with reproductive problems. Women with metabolic syndrome, characterized by hyperinsulinemia, have common ovarian dysfunction, but the mechanism remains elusive. The aim of this research is to explore the effects of high levels of insulin on ovary function during early pregnancy. Mice in the high insulin-exposed group were given a subcutaneous injection of human recombinant insulin. After insulin treatment, changes in various hormones were tested using ELISA kits which showed hormones secreted by the ovary were significantly altered in the insulin group. TUNEL staining showed less TUNEL-positive cells in the insulin group. A significant decrease in Bax and an increase in Bcl2 in the ovary were found in the insulin group by immunohistochemical studies. Western blotting showed the expressions of apoptosis related proteins in the ovaries from the insulin group were obviously altered. In addition, expression of p-Akt proteins in the ovaries from the insulin group was significantly upregulated. Moreover, the Akt inhibitor LY294002 reversed the anti-apoptotic effects of high insulin in the ovary tissues in early pregnancy mice. All of these results showed that insulin impaired ovarian function during early pregnancy and ovarian apoptosis is imbalanced under the role of insulin. The PI3K/AKT signalling pathway might participate in this process.

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Apoptosis antibody array Apoptosis Phospho-Specifi Cancer Apoptosis Phospho- Cell Cycle Control Phosph IGF-1R Signaling Phospho- Insulin Receptor Phospho- Insulin Glucose Phospho-S Apoptosis (Human) Antibod Apoptosis (Human) Antibod Insulin Insulin promoter factor 1 Insulin 1 (Rat), syntheti

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Fundamental insight into the effect of carbodiimide crosslinking on cellular recognition of collagen-based scaffolds.

Research on the development of collagen constructs is extremely important in the field of tissue engineering. Collagen scaffolds for numerous tissue engineering applications are frequently crosslinked with 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl-carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) in the presence of N-hydroxy-succinimide (NHS). Despite producing scaffolds with good biocompatibility and low cellular toxicity the influence of EDC/NHS crosslinking on the cell interactive properties of collagen has been overlooked. Here we have extensively studied the interaction of model cell lines with collagen I-based materials after crosslinking with different ratios of EDC in relation to the number of carboxylic acid residues on collagen. Divalent cation-dependent cell adhesion, via integrins αβ, αβ, αβand αβ, were sensitive to EDC crosslinking. With increasing EDC concentration, this was replaced with cation-independent adhesion. These results were replicated using purified recombinant I domains derived from integrin αand αsubunits. Integrin αβ-mediated cell spreading, apoptosis and proliferation were all heavily influenced by EDC crosslinking of collagen. Data from this rigorous study provides an exciting new insight that EDC/NHS crosslinking is utilising the same carboxylic side chain chemistry that is vital for native-like integrin-mediated cell interactions. Due to the ubiquitous usage of EDC/NHS crosslinked collagen for biomaterials fabrication this data is essential to have a full understanding in order to ensure optimized collagen-based material performance.

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Rat Tail Type I Collagen Bovine Type I Collagen ba QuantiChrom™ LDH Cytoto Ofloxacin CAS Number [824 Bcl-2 Oncoprotein; Clone Bcl-2 Oncoprotein; Clone c-erbB-2 Oncoprotein c-erbB-2 Oncoprotein c-erbB-3 Oncoprotein; Cl c-erbB-3 Oncoprotein; Cl c-erbB-2 Oncoprotein; Cl c-erbB-2 Oncoprotein; Cl

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