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Extracellular vesicles containing miR-146a attenuate experimental colitis by targeting TRAF6 and IRAK1.

Accumulating evidence indicates that microRNA-146a (miR-146a), a well-known anti-inflammatory miRNA, acts as a negative feedback regulator of the innate immune response, but its role in modulation of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) remains unclear and the issue related to the stability of exogenous miR-146a in blood is up in the air. In this study, extracellular vesicles (EVs) from cultured medium of bone-marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) transfected with recombinant lentiviruses can serve as a stable delivery system and overexpress miR-146a, which significantly inhibited TNF receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) and IL-1 receptor-associated kinase 1 (IRAK1) expression in TNBS-induced colitis of rats. Moreover, the increased phosphorylation levels of NF-κB p65 and IκBα were down-regulated by the administration of EVs containing miR-146a. Coupled with the associated influence of over-expressed miR-146a on phosphorylated proteins above, the production of inflammation factors such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and Interleukin-1β is apparently suppressed by this non-coding RNA. Collectively, these data elucidated that EVs containing miR-146a ameliorates experimental colitis caused 2,4,6‑trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) by targeting TRAF6 and IRAK1.

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Bone morphogenetic protein 2 alleviated intervertebral disc degeneration through mediating the degradation of ECM and apoptosis of nucleus pulposus cells via the PI3K/Akt pathway.

The present study aimed to explore the underlying mechanisms of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) in alleviating intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD). A rat puncture IDD model was constructed, and the rats were randomly divided into six groups: Control; IDD (model); IDD+PBS [containing 1010 adeno‑associated virus serotype 2 (AAV)]; and IDD + AAV2‑BMP2 (106, 108 and 1010). IL‑1β was used to treat primary nucleus pulposus (NP) cells to mimic IDD in vitro. The effects of BMP2 in IDD were determined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), hematoxylin and eosin staining and Alcian Blue staining in vivo. The levels of collagen II, aggrecan, transcription factor SOX9 (SOX9) and matrix metalloproteinase 13 (MMP‑13) were examined using western blot analysis and reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT‑qPCR) in NP tissues and cells. The expression of C‑telopeptide of type II collagen (CTX‑II) in the sera or cell supernatants was determined by ELISA. In addition, the levels of phosphorylation of phosphoinositide 3‑kinase (PI3K) and protein kinase B (Akt), and the levels of apoptosis‑associated proteins and apoptosis ratio of NP cells were also determined by western blot analysis and flow cytometry, respectively. LY29400, an inhibitor of PI3K, was used to additionally confirm the signal pathway mechanism of BMP2 treatment in IDD. BMP2 significantly extended the interval between discs and alleviated the fibrous ring rupture and the decrease in the levels of glycoproteins in IDD rats, as determined by MRI and histological staining. Additionally, BMP2 treatment significantly upregulated the levels of collagen II, aggrecan and SOX9, but downregulated the levels of MMP‑13 and CTX‑II in IDD rats and NP cells in a dose‑dependent manner. Concurrently, recombinant human (rh)BMP2 pretreatment also significantly decreased the apoptosis ratio of interleukin (IL)‑1β‑treated NP cells via downregulating the level of cleaved caspase‑3 and upregulating the level of uncleaved poly (adenosine 5'‑diphosphate‑ribose) polymerase. It was demonstrated that rhBMP2 also significantly decreased the inflammatory response in NP tissues and cells, based on levels of IL‑6, TNF‑α and IL‑10. In addition, rhBMP2 inhibited cell apoptosis via upregulating the phosphorylation levels of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, and LY29400 pretreatment inhibited the effects of BMP2 in IL‑1β treated NP cells. BMP2 alleviated IDD via the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway by inhibiting NP cell apoptosis and decreasing the levels of matrix proteins.

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miR-136-5p Regulates the Inflammatory Response by Targeting the IKKβ/NF-κB/A20 Pathway After Spinal Cord Injury.

miR-136-5p participates in recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI) via an unknown mechanism. We investigated the mechanism underlying the involvement of miR-136-5p in the inflammatory response in a rat model of SCI.

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Ubiquitin Carboxyl Terminal Hydrolase L1 Attenuates TNF-α-Mediated Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Migration Through Suppression of NF-κB Activation.

Ubiquitin carboxyl terminal hydrolase L1 (UCH-L1) is one of the deubiquitinating enzymes in the ubiquitin-proteasome system. It has been shown that UCH-L1 could markedly decrease neointima formation through suppressing vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation in the balloon-injured rat carotid. However, whether UCH-L1 plays roles in VSMC migration remains to be determined. In this study, the primary VSMCs were isolated from aortic media of rats and TNF-α to was used to induce VSMC migration. Using a modified Boyden chamber and wound healing assay, it was found that TNF-α can dose and time-dependently induce VSMC migration with a maximal effect at 10 ng/mL. Moreover, UCH-L1 expression increased gradually with the prolonged induction time at 10 ng/mL of TNF-α. UCH-L1 content in VSMC was then modulated by recombinant adenoviruses expressing UCH-L1 or RNA interference to evaluate its roles in cell migration. The results showed that over-expression of UCH-L1 attenuated VSMC migration, while knockdown of it enhanced cell migration significantly no matter whether TNF-α treatment or not. Finally, the effect of UCH-L1 on NF-κB activation was demonstrated by NF-κB nuclear translocation and DNA binding activity, and the levels of IL-6 and IL-8 in cell culture media were examined by ELISA. It was showed that UCH-L1 over-expression inhibited NF-κB activation and decrease IL-6 and IL-8 levels, while knockdown of it enhanced NF-κB activation and increase IL-6 and IL-8 levels during TNF-α treatment. These data suggest that UCH-L1 can inhibit TNF-α-induced VSMCs migration, and this kind of effect may partially due to its suppression role in NF-κB activation.

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Nerve growth factor continuously elevates in a rat rotator cuff tear model.

Nerve growth factor (NGF) plays a key role in osteoarthritic pain and low back pain. Rotator cuff tear (RCT) is often associated with severe shoulder pain. However, the role of NGF in RCT remains to be fully understood.

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Protective effects of a novel drug RC28-E blocking both VEGF and FGF2 on early diabetic rat retina.

To investigate protective effects of a novel recombinant decoy receptor drug RC28-E on retinal damage in early diabetic rats.

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Mesencephalic Astrocyte-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Prevents Traumatic Brain Injury in Rats by Inhibiting Inflammatory Activation and Protecting the Blood-Brain Barrier.

Our previous studies have shown that mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (MANF) provides a neuroprotective effect against ischemia/reperfusion injury and is also involved in inflammatory disease models. This study investigates the potential role and mechanism of MANF in acute brain damage after traumatic brain injury (TBI).

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Giardia lamblia: identification of molecules that contribute to direct mast cell activation.

Mast cells play a central role in the early clearance of the intestinal parasite Giardia lamblia. In a previous study, we reported that G. lamblia live trophozoites or trophozoite-derived total soluble extract induced direct activation (IgE-independent) of mast cells and release of IL-6 and TNF-α. To identify the Giardia molecules and the mast cell receptors involved in this activation, trophozoite-derived total soluble proteins separated into three fractions (F1-F3) were evaluated for its ability to activate mast cells in vitro. F2 activated mast cells in a greater extent than F1 and F3. Furthermore, F2 induced the release of IL-6 and TNF-α by mast cells. TLR2 and TLR4 expression increased slightly after mast cell stimulation with either F2 or total soluble extract; however, these receptors were not involved in F2 or total soluble extract-induced proinflammatory cytokine production. Proteins present in F2 as unique and high-intensity bands identified by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry, include molecules with important biological activities such as enolase and arginine deiminase (ADI). Recombinant ADI and enolase were tested for their ability to activate mast cells, but only ADI induced a significant release of IL-6 and TNF-α. ADI product, citrulline but not ammonium, also induced mast cell release of TNF-α. Interestingly, recombinant ADI still stimulated the secretion of TNF-α by mast cells in a arginine-free medium, although in a lower extend that in the presence of arginine, indicating that either ADI itself can stimulate mast cells or through its metabolic product, citrulline.

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Serum amyloid A primes microglia for ATP-dependent interleukin-1β release.

Acute-phase response is a systemic reaction to environmental/inflammatory insults and involves production of acute-phase proteins, including serum amyloid A (SAA). Interleukin-1β (IL-1β), a master regulator of neuroinflammation produced by activated inflammatory cells of the myeloid lineage, in particular microglia, plays a key role in the pathogenesis of acute and chronic diseases of the peripheral nervous system and CNS. IL-1β release is promoted by ATP acting at the purinergic P2X receptor (P2XR) in cells primed with toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands.

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Toxoplasma gondii Histone 4 Affects Some Functions of Murine Ana-1 Macrophages In Vitro.

Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is an obligate intracellular protozoan that can infect almost all nucleated cells. Histone proteins and DNA form the nucleosomes, which are the fundamental building blocks of eukaryotic chromatin. Histone 4 is an essential component of a histone octamer. In the present study, T. gondii histone 4 (TgH4) was cloned and the regulatory effect of TgH4 on murine macrophages was characterized. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that TgH4 was highly conserved in structure. Recombinant TgH4 (rTgH4) protein was identified by sera from rats experimentally infected with T. gondii and native TgH4 in the total soluble protein of T. gondii tachyzoites was recognized by polyclonal antibodies against rTgH4, as indicated by immunoblotting analysis. Immunofluorescence assay showed that TgH4 binds to macrophages. Following incubation with rTgH4, the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) level of the macrophages was downregulated. Meanwhile, chemotaxis and the proliferation of macrophages were inhibited. However, rTgH4 can promote phagocytosis, apoptosis, and the secretion of nitric oxide, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α from macrophages. Just 80 μg/ml rTgH4 can significantly elevate the secretion of interleukin-10 and interleukin-1β (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01). Viewed together, these outcomes indicated that rTgH4 can affect the functions of murine macrophages in vitro.

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