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           Search results for: Recombinant SARS Virus Matrix Proteins    

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#21762752   2011/08/16 Save this To Up

Chimeric severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) S glycoprotein and influenza matrix 1 efficiently form virus-like particles (VLPs) that protect mice against challenge with SARS-CoV.

SARS-CoV was the cause of the global pandemic in 2003 that infected over 8000 people in 8 months. Vaccines against SARS are still not available. We developed a novel method to produce high levels of a recombinant SARS virus-like particles (VLPs) vaccine containing the SARS spike (S) protein and the influenza M1 protein using the baculovirus insect cell expression system. These chimeric SARS VLPs have a similar size and morphology to the wild type SARS-CoV. We tested the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of purified chimeric SARS VLPs and full length SARS S protein vaccines in a mouse lethal challenge model. The SARS VLP vaccine, containing 0.8 μg of SARS S protein, completely protected mice from death when administered intramuscular (IM) or intranasal (IN) routes in the absence of an adjuvant. Likewise, the SARS VLP vaccine, containing 4 μg of S protein without adjuvant, reduced lung virus titer to below detectable level, protected mice from weight loss, and elicited a high level of neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV. Sf9 cell-produced full length purified SARS S protein was also an effective vaccine against SARS-CoV but only when co-administered IM with aluminum hydroxide. SARS-CoV VLPs are highly immunogenic and induce neutralizing antibodies and provide protection against lethal challenge. Sf9 cell-based VLP vaccines are a potential tool to provide protection against novel pandemic agents.

1103 related Products with: Chimeric severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) S glycoprotein and influenza matrix 1 efficiently form virus-like particles (VLPs) that protect mice against challenge with SARS-CoV.

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#20154085   2010/04/19 Save this To Up

Self-assembly of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus membrane protein.

Coronavirus membrane (M) protein can form virus-like particles (VLPs) when coexpressed with nucleocapsid (N) or envelope (E) proteins, suggesting a pivotal role for M in virion assembly. Here we demonstrate the self-assembly and release of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) M protein in medium in the form of membrane-enveloped vesicles with densities lower than those of VLPs formed by M plus N. Although efficient N-N interactions require the presence of RNA, we found that M-M interactions were RNA-independent. SARS-CoV M was observed in both the Golgi area and plasma membranes of a variety of cells. Blocking M glycosylation does not appear to significantly affect M plasma membrane labeling intensity, M-containing vesicle release, or VLP formation. Results from a genetic analysis indicate involvement of the third transmembrane domain of M in plasma membrane-targeting signal. Fusion proteins containing M amino-terminal 50 residues encompassing the first transmembrane domain were found to be sufficient for membrane binding, multimerization, and Golgi retention. Surprisingly, we found that fusion proteins lacking all three transmembrane domains were still capable of membrane binding, Golgi retention, and interacting with M. The data suggest that multiple SARS-CoV M regions are involved in M self-assembly and subcellular localization.

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#20007283   2010/01/25 Save this To Up

A single tyrosine in the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus membrane protein cytoplasmic tail is important for efficient interaction with spike protein.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) encodes 3 major envelope proteins: spike (S), membrane (M), and envelope (E). Previous work identified a dibasic endoplasmic reticulum retrieval signal in the cytoplasmic tail of SARS-CoV S that promotes efficient interaction with SARS-CoV M. The dibasic signal was shown to be important for concentrating S near the virus assembly site rather than for direct interaction with M. Here, we investigated the sequence requirements of the SARS-CoV M protein that are necessary for interaction with SARS-CoV S. The SARS-CoV M tail was shown to be necessary for S localization in the Golgi region when the proteins were exogenously coexpressed in cells. This was specific, since SARS-CoV M did not retain an unrelated glycoprotein in the Golgi. Importantly, we found that an essential tyrosine residue in the SARS-CoV M cytoplasmic tail, Y(195), was important for S-M interaction. When Y(195) was mutated to alanine, M(Y195A) no longer retained S intracellularly at the Golgi. Unlike wild-type M, M(Y195A) did not reduce the amount of SARS-CoV S carbohydrate processing or surface levels when the two proteins were coexpressed. Mutating Y(195) also disrupted SARS-CoV S-M interaction in vitro. These results suggest that Y(195) is necessary for efficient SARS-CoV S-M interaction and, thus, has a significant involvement in assembly of infectious virus.

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#19534833   2009/07/03 Save this To Up

Studies on membrane topology, N-glycosylation and functionality of SARS-CoV membrane protein.

The glycosylated membrane protein M of the severe acute respiratory syndrome associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) is the main structural component of the virion and mediates assembly and budding of viral particles. The membrane topology of SARS-CoV M and the functional significance of its N-glycosylation are not completely understood as is its interaction with the surface glycoprotein S. Using biochemical and immunofluorescence analyses we found that M consists of a short glycosylated N-terminal ectodomain, three transmembrane segments and a long, immunogenic C-terminal endodomain. Although the N-glycosylation site of M seems to be highly conserved between group 1 and 3 coronaviruses, studies using a recombinant SARS-CoV expressing a glycosylation-deficient M revealed that N-glycosylation of M neither influence the shape of the virions nor their infectivity in cell culture. Further functional analysis of truncated M proteins showed that the N-terminal 134 amino acids comprising the three transmembrane domains are sufficient to mediate accumulation of M in the Golgi complex and to enforce recruitment of the viral spike protein S to the sites of virus assembly and budding in the ERGIC.

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#19513614   2009/06/10 Save this To Up

Construction of plasmids expressing Sars-CoV encoding proteins and their effects on transcription of hfgl2 prothrombinase.

SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) is the etiologic agent of severe acute respiratory syndrome. The aim of this study was to construct Sars-CoV membrane (M), nucleocapsid (N) and spike 2 (S2) gene eukaryotic expression plasmids, and identify their expression in vitro. Gene fragments encoding N protein, M protein and S2 protein of SARS-CoV were amplified by PCR using cDNA obtained from lung samples of SARS patients as template, and subcloned into pcDNA3.1 vector to form eukaryotic expression plasmids. SARS-CoV protein eukaryotic expression plasmids were transfected respectively into CHO cells. Immunohistochemistry was employed to detect the expression of the structural proteins of SARS-CoV in transfected cells. SARS-CoV protein eukaryotic expression plasmids were successfully constructed by identification with digestion of restriction enzymes and sequencing. M, N and S2 proteins of SARS-CoV were detected in the cytoplasm of transfected CHO cells. It was concluded that these recombinant eukaryotic expression plasmids were constructed successfully, and SARS-CoV encoding proteins could activate transcription and expression of hfgl2 gene.

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#19322648   2009/04/16 Save this To Up

Expression and membrane integration of SARS-CoV E protein and its interaction with M protein.

The severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV E gene fragment was cloned and expressed as a recombinant protein fused with a myc tag at the N-terminus in vitro and in Vero E6 cells. Similar to other N-glycosylated proteins, the glycosylation of SARS-CoV E protein occurred co-translationally in the presence of microsomes. The SARS-CoV E protein is predicted to be a double-spanning membrane protein lacking a conventional signal peptide. Both of the transmembrane regions (a.a. 11-33 and 37-59) are predicted to be alpha-helices, which penetrate into membranes by themselves. As expected, these two transmembrane regions inserted a cytoplasmic protein into the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. Either of these two transmembrane domains co-localized with M protein. Both the transmembrane domains of E protein are required to interact with M protein, while either of the hydrophilic regions (a.a. 1-10 or 60-76) is dispensable as shown by co-immunoprecipitation assay. These results are important for the study of SARS-CoV assembly.

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#18760437   2008/10/20 Save this To Up

An immunosuppressed Syrian golden hamster model for SARS-CoV infection.

Several small animal models have been developed for the study of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) replication and pathogenesis. Syrian golden hamsters are among the best small animal models, though little clinical illness and no mortality are observed after virus infection. Cyclophosphamide was used to immunosuppress hamsters leading to a prolonged disease course and higher mortality after SARS-CoV infection. In addition, there was a significant weight loss, expanded tissue tropism, and increased viral pathology in the lung, heart, kidney, and nasal turbinate tissues. Infection with recombinant SARS-CoV viruses bearing disruptions in the gene 7 coding region showed no significant change in replication kinetics, tissue tropism, morbidity, or mortality suggesting that the ORF7a (7a) and ORF7b (7b) proteins are not required for virus replication in immunosuppressed hamsters. This modified hamster model may provide a useful tool for SARS-CoV pathogenesis studies, evaluation of antiviral therapy, and analysis of additional SARS-CoV mutants.

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#18533276   2008/07/21 Save this To Up

A chimeric multi-epitope DNA vaccine elicited specific antibody response against severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus which attenuated the virulence of SARS-CoV in vitro.

Epitope-based vaccines designed to induce antibody responses specific for severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) are being developed as a means for increasing vaccine potency. In this study, we identified four B cell epitopes from the spike (S) and membrane (M) protein through bioinformatics analysis and constructed a multi-epitope DNA vaccine. Intramuscular immunization of mice with this vaccine was sufficient to induce specific prime as well as a long-term memory humoral immune response to at least two candidate epitopes, S(437-459) and M(1-20). A DNA prime-protein boost strategy greatly enhanced the antibody generation and the immune sera not only reacted with the lysates of SARS-CoV-infected Vero cells but also neutralized the cytopathic effect of SARS by 75% at 1:160 dilution. The novel immunogenic S protein peptide revealed in this study provides new target for SARS vaccine design; and our work indicated multi-epitope DNA vaccine as an effective means for eliciting polyvalent humoral immune response against SARS-CoV.

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#18367528   2008/05/15 Save this To Up

Persistent replication of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus in human tubular kidney cells selects for adaptive mutations in the membrane protein.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a systemic disease characterized by both lung pathology and widespread extrapulmonary virus dissemination causing multiple organ injuries. In this regard, renal dysfunction is an ominous sign in patients with SARS. Indeed, clusters of SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) particles have been detected in the cytoplasm of renal tubular epithelial cells in postmortem studies, explaining the presence of infectious virus in the urine of SARS patients. In order to investigate the potential SARS-CoV kidney tropism, we have evaluated the susceptibility of human renal cells of tubular and glomerular origin to in vitro SARS-CoV infection. Immortalized cultures of differentiated proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTEC), glomerular mesangial cells (MC), and glomerular epithelial cells (podocytes) were found to express the SARS-CoV receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 on their surface. Productive infection, however, occurred only in PTEC but not in glomerular cells. A transient infection with poor virus production was observed in MC, whereas podocytes were not permissive to SARS-CoV infection. In contrast to the cytopathic infection of the Vero E6 cell line, SARS-CoV did not cause overt cytopathic effects in PTEC or MC. Of interest, PTEC, but not MC, maintained stable levels of SARS-CoV production in serial subcultures, suggesting a persistent state of infection. In this regard, a SARS-CoV variant with increased replication capacity in PTEC was selected after four serial subculture passages. This SARS-CoV variant acquired a single nonconservative amino acid change from glutamic acid (E) to alanine (A) at position 11 in the viral membrane (M) protein. The E11A point mutation was sufficient for enhanced SARS-CoV replication and persistence in PTEC when introduced in a SARS-CoV recombinant infectious clone. These findings indicate that human PTEC may represent a site of SARS-CoV productive and persistent replication favoring the emergence of viral variants with increased replication capacity, at least in these kidney cells.

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#18050746   2007/12/03 Save this To Up

[Optimization of expression condition of SARS-CoV PUPs genes in E. coli].

According to previous studies of SARS-CoV (Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus), a variety of novel accessory genes have been identified in SARS-CoV genome, which were interspersed the structural genes of SARS-CoV and considered to be unique to the SARS-CoV genome. The predicted unknown proteins (PUPs) encoded by the accessory genes might play important roles in the SARS-CoV infection. Three of those genes, called X4, X5 and ORF10, were synthesized and introduced into E. coli to induce expression. SDS-PAGE and Western blotting revealed that the three genes have been expressed in E. coli. The induction of SARS PUPs genes expression in different temperatures, induction times, IPTG concentrations and A values of E. coli cells were performed. The optimal induction condition of SARS-CoV PUPs genes was characterized according to the orthorgonal analysis. The ratio of recombinant proteins of PUPs to total proteins is as follows: X4, 20%; X5, 27.8%; ORF10, 68.5% under the optimum conditions.

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