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#27795409   2016/10/31 Save this To Up

Structural Biology of the Arterivirus nsp11 Endoribonucleases.

Endoribonuclease (NendoU) is unique and conserved as a major genetic marker in nidoviruses that infect vertebrate hosts. Arterivirus nonstructural protein 11 (nsp11) was shown to have NendoU activity and play essential roles in the viral life cycle. Here, we report three crystal structures of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and equine arteritis virus (EAV) nsp11 mutants. The structures of arterivirus nsp11 contain two conserved compact domains: the N-terminal domain (NTD) and C-terminal domain (CTD). The structures of PRRSV and EAV endoribonucleases are similar and conserved in the arterivirus, but they are greatly different from that of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronaviruses (CoV), representing important human pathogens in the Nidovirales order. The catalytic center of NendoU activity is located in the CTD, where a positively charged groove is next to the key catalytic residues conserved in nidoviruses. Although the NTD is nearly identical, the catalytic region of the arterivirus nsp11 family proteins is remarkably flexible, and the oligomerization may be concentration dependent. In summary, our structures provide new insight into this key multifunctional NendoU family of proteins and lay a foundation for better understanding of the molecular mechanism and antiviral drug development.

2742 related Products with: Structural Biology of the Arterivirus nsp11 Endoribonucleases.

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#25746232   2015/06/19 Save this To Up

Inhibitor recognition specificity of MERS-CoV papain-like protease may differ from that of SARS-CoV.

The Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) papain-like protease (PLpro) blocking loop 2 (BL2) structure differs significantly from that of SARS-CoV PLpro, where it has been proven to play a crucial role in SARS-CoV PLpro inhibitor binding. Four SARS-CoV PLpro lead inhibitors were tested against MERS-CoV PLpro, none of which were effective against MERS-CoV PLpro. Structure and sequence alignments revealed that two residues, Y269 and Q270, responsible for inhibitor binding to SARS-CoV PLpro, were replaced by T274 and A275 in MERS-CoV PLpro, making critical binding interactions difficult to form for similar types of inhibitors. High-throughput screening (HTS) of 25 000 compounds against both PLpro enzymes identified a small fragment-like noncovalent dual inhibitor. Mode of inhibition studies by enzyme kinetics and competition surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analyses suggested that this compound acts as a competitive inhibitor with an IC50 of 6 μM against MERS-CoV PLpro, indicating that it binds to the active site, whereas it acts as an allosteric inhibitor against SARS-CoV PLpro with an IC50 of 11 μM. These results raised the possibility that inhibitor recognition specificity of MERS-CoV PLpro may differ from that of SARS-CoV PLpro. In addition, inhibitory activity of this compound was selective for SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV PLpro enzymes over two human homologues, the ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolases 1 and 3 (hUCH-L1 and hUCH-L3).

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#24668816   2014/05/05 Save this To Up

Structure of a conserved Golgi complex-targeting signal in coronavirus envelope proteins.

Coronavirus envelope (CoV E) proteins are ∼100-residue polypeptides with at least one channel-forming α-helical transmembrane (TM) domain. The extramembrane C-terminal tail contains a completely conserved proline, at the center of a predicted β-coil-β motif. This hydrophobic motif has been reported to constitute a Golgi-targeting signal or a second TM domain. However, no structural data for this or other extramembrane domains in CoV E proteins is available. Herein, we show that the E protein in the severe acute respiratory syndrome virus has only one TM domain in micelles, whereas the predicted β-coil-β motif forms a short membrane-bound α-helix connected by a disordered loop to the TM domain. However, complementary results suggest that this motif is potentially poised for conformational change or in dynamic exchange with other conformations.

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#22819936   2012/08/31 Save this To Up

Expression and purification of coronavirus envelope proteins using a modified β-barrel construct.

Coronavirus envelope (E) proteins are short (~100 residues) polypeptides that contain at least one transmembrane (TM) domain and a cluster of 2-3 juxtamembrane cysteines. These proteins are involved in viral morphogenesis and tropism, and their absence leads in some cases to aberrant virions, or to viral attenuation. In common to other viroporins, coronavirus envelope proteins increase membrane permeability to ions. Although an NMR-based model for the TM domain of the E protein in the severe acute respiratory syndrome virus (SARS-CoV E) has been reported, structural data and biophysical studies of full length E proteins are not available because efficient expression and purification methods for these proteins are lacking. Herein we have used a novel fusion protein consisting of a modified β-barrel to purify both wild type and cysteine-less mutants of two representatives of coronavirus E proteins: the shortest (76 residues), from SARS-CoV E, and one of the longest (109 residues), from the infectious bronchitis virus (IBV E). The fusion construct was subsequently cleaved with cyanogen bromide and all polypeptides were obtained with high purity. This is an approach that can be used in other difficult hydrophobic peptides.

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#21035159   2010/11/29 Save this To Up

Early gene expression events in ferrets in response to SARS coronavirus infection versus direct interferon-alpha2b stimulation.

Type I interferons (IFNs) are essential to the clearance of viral diseases, however, a clear distinction between genes upregulated by direct virus-cell interactions and genes upregulated by secondary IFN production has not been made. Here, we investigated differential gene regulation in ferrets upon subcutaneous administration of IFN-α2b and during SARS-CoV infection. In vivo experiments revealed that IFN-α2b causes STAT1 phosphorylation and upregulation of abundant IFN response genes (IRGs), chemokine receptors, and other genes that participate in phagocytosis and leukocyte transendothelial migration. During infection with SARS-CoV not only a variety of IRGs were upregulated, but also a significantly broader range of genes involved in cell migration and inflammation. This work allowed dissection of several molecular signatures present during SARS-CoV which are part of a robust IFN antiviral response. These signatures can be useful markers to evaluate the status of IFN responses during a viral infection and specific features of different viruses.

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#19769160   2009/09/22 Save this To Up

[The cloning, expression and structural analysis of putative unknown protein Orf 9b in SARS-CoV].

Orf 9b was amplified by PCR from SARS-CoV genome and cloned into the Nco I and Bam HI sites of the pET32c expression vector, and then recombinant plasmid pET32c-Orf 9b was constructed. The recombinant fusion protein Orf 9b was expressed by IPTG induction and purifed. After being cleaved by rEK, Orf 9b protein with MW 11 kD was separated and collected. It was demonstrated by ELISA that the purified Orf 9b protein could react with sera of SARS rehabilitaion patients but not with sera from healthy donors. CD and Infrared spectroscopy were used to predict the secondary structure of the purified Orf 9b protein. The distribution percentages for the the secondary structures of alpha-helix, beta-sheet, and random coil in the Orf 9b protein estimated by CD were 12.5%, 40%, and 47.5%, respectively, while the same parameters estimated by Infrared spectroscopy were 13.7%, 47.5%, and 37.9%, respectively. The results obtained by the two methods were substantially identical and showed that the structure of the Orf 9b protein consisted mostly of beta-sheet, and comprised only few alpha-helix. The acquisition of purified protein and the structural information presented herein may provide foundation for further functional study.

1979 related Products with: [The cloning, expression and structural analysis of putative unknown protein Orf 9b in SARS-CoV].

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#18579604   2008/08/15 Save this To Up

Pathways of cross-species transmission of synthetically reconstructed zoonotic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus.

Zoonotic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) likely evolved to infect humans by a series of transmission events between humans and animals in markets in China. Virus sequence data suggest that the palm civet served as an amplification host in which civet and human interaction fostered the evolution of the epidemic SARS Urbani strain. The prototypic civet strain of SARS-CoV, SZ16, was isolated from a palm civet but has not been successfully cultured in vitro. To propagate a chimeric recombinant SARS-CoV bearing an SZ16 spike (S) glycoprotein (icSZ16-S), we constructed cell lines expressing the civet ortholog (DBT-cACE2) of the SARS-CoV receptor (hACE2). Zoonotic SARS-CoV was completely dependent on ACE2 for entry. Urbani grew with similar kinetics in both the DBT-cACE2 and the DBT-hACE2 cells, while icSZ16-S only grew in DBT-cACE2 cells. The SZ16-S mutant viruses adapted to human airway epithelial cells and displayed enhanced affinity for hACE2 but exhibited severe growth defects in the DBT-cACE2 cells, suggesting that the evolutionary pathway that promoted efficient hACE2 interactions simultaneously abolished efficient cACE2 interactions. Structural modeling predicted two distinct biochemical interaction networks by which zoonotic receptor binding domain architecture can productively engage hACE2, but only the Urbani mutational repertoire promoted efficient usage of both hACE2 and cACE2 binding interfaces. Since dual species tropism was preserved in Urbani, it is likely that the virus evolved a high affinity for cACE2/hACE2 receptors through adaptation via repeated passages between human and civet hosts. Furthermore, zoonotic SARS-CoV was variably neutralized by antibodies that were effective against the epidemic strain, highlighting their utility for evaluating passive immunization efficacy.

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#18442051   2008/07/29 Save this To Up

Fusion core structure of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV): in search of potent SARS-CoV entry inhibitors.

Severe acute respiratory coronavirus (SARS-CoV) spike (S) glycoprotein fusion core consists of a six-helix bundle with the three C-terminal heptad repeat (HR2) helices packed against a central coiled-coil of the other three N-terminal heptad repeat (HR1) helices. Each of the three peripheral HR2 helices shows prominent contacts with the hydrophobic surface of the central HR1 coiled-coil. The concerted protein-protein interactions among the HR helices are responsible for the fusion event that leads to the release of the SARS-CoV nucleocapsid into the target host-cell. In this investigation, we applied recombinant protein and synthetic peptide-based biophysical assays to characterize the biological activities of the HR helices. In a parallel experiment, we employed a HIV-luc/SARS pseudotyped virus entry inhibition assay to screen for potent inhibitory activities on HR peptides derived from the SARS-CoV S protein HR regions and a series of other small-molecule drugs. Three HR peptides and five small-molecule drugs were identified as potential inhibitors. ADS-J1, which has been used to interfere with the fusogenesis of HIV-1 onto CD4+ cells, demonstrated the highest HIV-luc/SARS pseudotyped virus-entry inhibition activity among the other small-molecule drugs. Molecular modeling analysis suggested that ADS-J1 may bind to the deep pocket of the hydrophobic groove on the surface of the central coiled-coil of SARS-CoV S HR protein and prevent the entrance of the SARS-CoV into the host cells.

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#17258782   2007/04/30 Save this To Up

Exosomal vaccines containing the S protein of the SARS coronavirus induce high levels of neutralizing antibodies.

Infection with the SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) induces an atypical pulmonary disease with a high lethality rate. Although the initial SARS epidemic was contained, sporadic outbreaks of the disease still occur, suggesting a continuous need for a vaccine against this virus. We therefore explored exosome-based vaccines containing the spike S proteins of SARS-CoV. S-containing exosomes were obtained by replacing the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains of the S protein by those of VSV-G. The immunogenicity and efficacy of the S-containing exosomes were tested in mice and compared to an adenoviral vector vaccine expressing the S protein. Both, S-containing exosomes and the adenoviral vector vaccine induced neutralizing antibody titers. After priming with the SARS-S exosomal vaccine and boosting with the adenoviral vector the neutralizing antibody titers exceeded those observed in the convalescent serum of a SARS patient. Both approaches were effective in a SARS-S-expressing tumor challenge model and thus warrant further investigation.

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#17202208   2007/03/14 Save this To Up

Novel beta-barrel fold in the nuclear magnetic resonance structure of the replicase nonstructural protein 1 from the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus.

The nonstructural protein 1 (nsp1) of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus has 179 residues and is the N-terminal cleavage product of the viral replicase polyprotein that mediates RNA replication and processing. The specific function of nsp1 is not known. Here we report the nuclear magnetic resonance structure of the nsp1 segment from residue 13 to 128, which represents a novel alpha/beta-fold formed by a mixed parallel/antiparallel six-stranded beta-barrel, an alpha-helix covering one opening of the barrel, and a 3(10)-helix alongside the barrel. We further characterized the full-length 179-residue protein and show that the polypeptide segments of residues 1 to 12 and 129 to 179 are flexibly disordered. The structure is analyzed in a search for possible correlations with the recently reported activity of nsp1 in the degradation of mRNA.

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