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#28077633   2017/01/12 Save this To Up

Surveillance of Bat Coronaviruses in Kenya Identifies Relatives of Human Coronaviruses NL63 and 229E and Their Recombination History.

Bats harbor a large diversity of coronaviruses (CoVs), several of which are related to zoonotic pathogens that cause severe disease in humans. Our screening of bat samples collected in Kenya from 2007 to 2010 not only detected RNA from several novel CoVs but, more significantly, identified sequences that were closely related to human CoVs NL63 and 229E, suggesting that these two human viruses originate from bats. We also demonstrated that human CoV NL63 is a recombinant between NL63-like viruses circulating in Triaenops bats and 229E-like viruses circulating in Hipposideros bats, with the breakpoint located near 5' and 3' ends of the spike (S) protein gene. In addition, two further interspecies recombination events involving the S gene were identified, suggesting that this region may represent a recombination "hot spot" in CoV genomes. Finally, using a combination of phylogenetic and distance-based approaches, we showed that the genetic diversity of bat CoVs is primarily structured by host species and subsequently by geographic distances.IMPORTANCE Understanding the driving forces of cross-species virus transmission is central to understanding the nature of disease emergence. Previous studies have demonstrated that bats are the ultimate reservoir hosts for a number of coronaviruses (CoVs), including ancestors of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and human CoV 229E (HCoV-229E). However, the evolutionary pathways of bat CoVs remain elusive. We provide evidence for natural recombination between distantly related African bat coronaviruses associated with Triaenops afer and Hipposideros sp. bats that resulted in a NL63-like virus, an ancestor of the human pathogen HCoV-NL63. These results suggest that interspecies recombination may play an important role in CoV evolution and the emergence of novel CoVs with zoonotic potential.

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#25056892   2014/09/09 Save this To Up

Virus-specific memory CD8 T cells provide substantial protection from lethal severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) caused an acute human respiratory illness with high morbidity and mortality in 2002-2003. Several studies have demonstrated the role of neutralizing antibodies induced by the spike (S) glycoprotein in protecting susceptible hosts from lethal infection. However, the anti-SARS-CoV antibody response is short-lived in patients who have recovered from SARS, making it critical to develop additional vaccine strategies. SARS-CoV-specific memory CD8 T cells persisted for up to 6 years after SARS-CoV infection, a time at which memory B cells and antivirus antibodies were undetectable in individuals who had recovered from SARS. In this study, we assessed the ability of virus-specific memory CD8 T cells to mediate protection against infection in the absence of SARS-CoV-specific memory CD4 T or B cells. We demonstrate that memory CD8 T cells specific for a single immunodominant epitope (S436 or S525) substantially protected 8- to 10-month-old mice from lethal SARS-CoV infection. Intravenous immunization with peptide-loaded dendritic cells (DCs) followed by intranasal boosting with recombinant vaccinia virus (rVV) encoding S436 or S525 resulted in accumulation of virus-specific memory CD8 T cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL), lungs, and spleen. Upon challenge with a lethal dose of SARS-CoV, virus-specific memory CD8 T cells efficiently produced multiple effector cytokines (gamma interferon [IFN-γ], tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α], and interleukin 2 [IL-2]) and cytolytic molecules (granzyme B) and reduced lung viral loads. Overall, our results show that SARS-CoV-specific memory CD8 T cells protect susceptible hosts from lethal SARS-CoV infection, but they also suggest that SARS-CoV-specific CD4 T cell and antibody responses are necessary for complete protection.

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#23576515   2013/05/29 Save this To Up

Complete protection against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-mediated lethal respiratory disease in aged mice by immunization with a mouse-adapted virus lacking E protein.

Zoonotic coronaviruses, including the one that caused severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), cause significant morbidity and mortality in humans. No specific therapy for any human coronavirus is available, making vaccine development critical for protection against these viruses. We previously showed that recombinant SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) (Urbani strain based) lacking envelope (E) protein expression (rU-ΔE) provided good but not perfect protection in young mice against challenge with virulent mouse-adapted SARS-CoV (MA15). To improve vaccine efficacy, we developed a second set of E-deleted vaccine candidates on an MA15 background (rMA15-ΔE). rMA15-ΔE is safe, causing no disease in 6-week-, 12-month-, or 18-month-old BALB/c mice. Immunization with this virus completely protected mice of three ages from lethal disease and effected more-rapid virus clearance. Compared to rU-ΔE, rMA15-ΔE immunization resulted in significantly greater neutralizing antibody and SARS-CoV-specific CD4 and CD8 T cell responses. After challenge, inflammatory cell infiltration, edema, and lung destruction were decreased in the lungs of rMA15-ΔE-immunized mice compared to those in rU-ΔE-immunized 12-month-old mice. Collectively, these results show that immunization with a species-adapted attenuated coronavirus lacking E protein expression is safe and provides optimal immunogenicity and long-term protection against challenge with lethal virus. This approach will be generally useful for development of vaccines protective against human coronaviruses as well as against coronaviruses that cause disease in domestic and companion animals.

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#19420084   2009/06/25 Save this To Up

Early upregulation of acute respiratory distress syndrome-associated cytokines promotes lethal disease in an aged-mouse model of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection.

Several respiratory viruses, including influenza virus and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), produce more severe disease in the elderly, yet the molecular mechanisms governing age-related susceptibility remain poorly studied. Advanced age was significantly associated with increased SARS-related deaths, primarily due to the onset of early- and late-stage acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and pulmonary fibrosis. Infection of aged, but not young, mice with recombinant viruses bearing spike glycoproteins derived from early human or palm civet isolates resulted in death accompanied by pathological changes associated with ARDS. In aged mice, a greater number of differentially expressed genes were observed than in young mice, whose responses were significantly delayed. Differences between lethal and nonlethal virus phenotypes in aged mice could be attributed to differences in host response kinetics rather than virus kinetics. SARS-CoV infection induced a range of interferon, cytokine, and pulmonary wound-healing genes, as well as several genes associated with the onset of ARDS. Mice that died also showed unique transcriptional profiles of immune response, apoptosis, cell cycle control, and stress. Cytokines associated with ARDS were significantly upregulated in animals experiencing lung pathology and lethal disease, while the same animals experienced downregulation of the ACE2 receptor. These data suggest that the magnitude and kinetics of a disproportionately strong host innate immune response contributed to severe respiratory stress and lethality. Although the molecular mechanisms governing ARDS pathophysiology remain unknown in aged animals, these studies reveal a strategy for dissecting the genetic pathways by which SARS-CoV infection induces changes in the host response, leading to death.

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#19079579   2008/12/16 Save this To Up

MyD88 is required for protection from lethal infection with a mouse-adapted SARS-CoV.

A novel human coronavirus, SARS-CoV, emerged suddenly in 2003, causing approximately 8000 human cases and more than 700 deaths worldwide. Since most animal models fail to faithfully recapitulate the clinical course of SARS-CoV in humans, the virus and host factors that mediate disease pathogenesis remain unclear. Recently, our laboratory and others developed a recombinant mouse-adapted SARS-CoV (rMA15) that was lethal in BALB/c mice. In contrast, intranasal infection of young 10-week-old C57BL/6 mice with rMA15 results in a nonlethal infection characterized by high titer replication within the lungs, lung inflammation, destruction of lung tissue, and loss of body weight, thus providing a useful model to identify host mediators of protection. Here, we report that mice deficient in MyD88 (MyD88(-/-)), an adapter protein that mediates Toll-like receptor (TLR), IL-1R, and IL-18R signaling, are far more susceptible to rMA15 infection. The genetic absence of MyD88 resulted in enhanced pulmonary pathology and greater than 90% mortality by day 6 post-infection. MyD88(-/-) mice had significantly higher viral loads in lung tissue throughout the course of infection. Despite increased viral loads, the expression of multiple proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines within lung tissue and recruitment of inflammatory monocytes/macrophages to the lung was severely impaired in MyD88(-/-) mice compared to wild-type mice. Furthermore, mice deficient in chemokine receptors that contribute to monocyte recruitment to the lung were more susceptible to rMA15-induced disease and exhibited severe lung pathology similar to that seen in MyD88(-/-)mice. These data suggest that MyD88-mediated innate immune signaling and inflammatory cell recruitment to the lung are required for protection from lethal rMA15 infection.

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#18579604   2008/08/15 Save this To Up

Pathways of cross-species transmission of synthetically reconstructed zoonotic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus.

Zoonotic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) likely evolved to infect humans by a series of transmission events between humans and animals in markets in China. Virus sequence data suggest that the palm civet served as an amplification host in which civet and human interaction fostered the evolution of the epidemic SARS Urbani strain. The prototypic civet strain of SARS-CoV, SZ16, was isolated from a palm civet but has not been successfully cultured in vitro. To propagate a chimeric recombinant SARS-CoV bearing an SZ16 spike (S) glycoprotein (icSZ16-S), we constructed cell lines expressing the civet ortholog (DBT-cACE2) of the SARS-CoV receptor (hACE2). Zoonotic SARS-CoV was completely dependent on ACE2 for entry. Urbani grew with similar kinetics in both the DBT-cACE2 and the DBT-hACE2 cells, while icSZ16-S only grew in DBT-cACE2 cells. The SZ16-S mutant viruses adapted to human airway epithelial cells and displayed enhanced affinity for hACE2 but exhibited severe growth defects in the DBT-cACE2 cells, suggesting that the evolutionary pathway that promoted efficient hACE2 interactions simultaneously abolished efficient cACE2 interactions. Structural modeling predicted two distinct biochemical interaction networks by which zoonotic receptor binding domain architecture can productively engage hACE2, but only the Urbani mutational repertoire promoted efficient usage of both hACE2 and cACE2 binding interfaces. Since dual species tropism was preserved in Urbani, it is likely that the virus evolved a high affinity for cACE2/hACE2 receptors through adaptation via repeated passages between human and civet hosts. Furthermore, zoonotic SARS-CoV was variably neutralized by antibodies that were effective against the epidemic strain, highlighting their utility for evaluating passive immunization efficacy.

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#17620608   2007/07/20 Save this To Up

Potent cross-reactive neutralization of SARS coronavirus isolates by human monoclonal antibodies.

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) caused a worldwide epidemic in late 2002/early 2003 and a second outbreak in the winter of 2003/2004 by an independent animal-to-human transmission. The GD03 strain, which was isolated from an index patient of the second outbreak, was reported to resist neutralization by the human monoclonal antibodies (hmAbs) 80R and S3.1, which can potently neutralize isolates from the first outbreak. Here we report that two hmAbs, m396 and S230.15, potently neutralized GD03 and representative isolates from the first SARS outbreak (Urbani, Tor2) and from palm civets (SZ3, SZ16). These antibodies also protected mice challenged with the Urbani or recombinant viruses bearing the GD03 and SZ16 spike (S) glycoproteins. Both antibodies competed with the SARS-CoV receptor, ACE2, for binding to the receptor-binding domain (RBD), suggesting a mechanism of neutralization that involves interference with the SARS-CoV-ACE2 interaction. Two putative hot-spot residues in the RBD (Ile-489 and Tyr-491) were identified within the SARS-CoV spike that likely contribute to most of the m396-binding energy. Residues Ile-489 and Tyr-491 are highly conserved within the SARS-CoV spike, indicating a possible mechanism of the m396 cross-reactivity. Sequence analysis and mutagenesis data show that m396 might neutralize all zoonotic and epidemic SARS-CoV isolates with known sequences, except strains derived from bats. These antibodies exhibit cross-reactivity against isolates from the two SARS outbreaks and palm civets and could have potential applications for diagnosis, prophylaxis, and treatment of SARS-CoV infections.

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#16796401   2006/11/13 Save this To Up

Human monoclonal antibody combination against SARS coronavirus: synergy and coverage of escape mutants.

Experimental animal data show that protection against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) infection with human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) is feasible. For an effective immune prophylaxis in humans, broad coverage of different strains of SARS-CoV and control of potential neutralization escape variants will be required. Combinations of virus-neutralizing, noncompeting mAbs may have these properties.

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#16133409   2005/09/27 Save this To Up

Double-antigen sandwich ELISA for detection of antibodies to SARS-associated coronavirus in human serum.

The study presented here was conducted to evaluate the performance of a double-antigen sandwich ELISA to detect antibodies in human serum against the coronavirus associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). A recombinant partial nucleocapsid protein of SARS-associated coronavirus was used as a serodiagnostic antigen in the ELISA. A total of 2892 clinical serum samples were tested with the ELISA kit, which positively identified 25 of 35 (71.4%) samples of patients with confirmed SARS infection, 286 of 407 (70%) samples of patients suspected of having SARS, 229 of 302 (75.8%) samples of convalescent SARS patients, and 0 of 544 samples obtained from healthcare workers; only 1 of 1604 clinical samples obtained from patients with other diseases demonstrated a weakly positive result. These results indicate that the double-antigen sandwich ELISA is an effective screening method for the serodiagnosis of SARS-associated coronavirus.

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#16002634   2005/07/08 Save this To Up

Evaluation of inapparent nosocomial severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection in Vietnam by use of highly specific recombinant truncated nucleocapsid protein-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a recently emerged human disease associated with pneumonia. Inapparent infection with SARS coronavirus (CoV) is not well characterized. To develop a safe, simple, and reliable screening method for SARS diagnosis and epidemiological study, two recombinant SARS-CoV nucleocapsid proteins (N' protein and (N)Delta(121) protein) were expressed in Escherichia coli, purified by affinity chromatography, and used as antigens for indirect, immunoglobulin G enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Serum samples collected from healthy volunteers and SARS patients in Vietnam were used to evaluate the newly developed methods. The N' protein-based ELISA showed a highly nonspecific reaction. The (N)Delta(121) protein-based ELISA, with a nonspecific reaction drastically reduced compared to that of the nearly-whole-length N' protein-based ELISA, resulted in higher rates of positive reactions, higher titers, and earlier detection than the SARS-CoV-infected cell lysate-based ELISA. These results indicate that our newly developed SARS-CoV (N)Delta(121) protein-based ELISA is not only safe but also a more specific and more sensitive method to diagnose SARS-CoV infection and hence a useful tool for large-scale epidemiological studies. To identify inapparent SARS-CoV infections, serum samples collected from health care workers (HCWs) in Vietnam were screened by the (N)Delta(121) protein-based ELISA, and positive samples were confirmed by a virus neutralization test. Four out of 149 HCWs were identified to have inapparent SARS-CoV infection in Vietnam, indicating that subclinical SARS-CoV infection in Vietnam is rare but does exist.

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