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#26271614   2015/08/14 Save this To Up

L-Methionine repressible promoters for tuneable gene expression in Trichoderma reesei.

Trichoderma reesei is the main producer of lignocellulolytic enzymes that are required for plant biomass hydrolysis in the biorefinery industry. Although the molecular toolbox for T. reesei is already well developed, repressible promoters for strain engineering and functional genomics studies are still lacking. One such promoter that is widely employed for yeasts is that of the L-methionine repressible MET3 gene, encoding ATP sulphurylase.

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#26169200   2015/09/25 Save this To Up

Use of the cysteine-repressible HpMET3 promoter as a novel tool to regulate gene expression in Hansenula polymorpha.

The promoter of HpMET3, encoding an ATP sulfurylase, was evaluated for its potential as a repressible promoter to downregulate the expression of target genes in the thermotolerant, methylotrophic yeast Hansenula polymorpha.

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#17822033   2007/09/07 Save this To Up

[Expression and purification of ATP sulfurylase from Saccharomyces cerevisias in Escherichia coli and its application in pyrosequencing].

ATP sulfurylase (ATPS,EC 2.7.7.4) reversibly catalyzes the reaction between ATP and sulfate to produce APS and pyrophosphate (PPi), and has been used in pyrosequencing. The gene coding ATP sulfurylase was amplified from the genomic DNA of Saccharomyces cerevisias (CICC 1202), and cloned into prokaryotic expression plasmid pET28a( + ) to provide a recombinant expression plasmid pET28a( + )-ATPS. Upon IPTG induction, ATP sulfurylase was produced by E. coli BL21 (DE3) harboring the recombinant expression plasmid pET28a( + )-ATPS. The relative molecular weight of recombinant ATP sulfurylase with His tag was about 60 kD. The recombinant ATP sulfurylase with electrophoretic pure grade was obtained only by two purification steps: His * Bind Resin affinity chromatography and ultrafiltration. The specific activity of the purified recombinant ATP sulfurylase was as high as 5.1 x 10(4) u/mg. The successful application of the enzyme in pyrosequencing was also demostrated.

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#16579462   2006/04/03 Save this To Up

[Construction of high sulphite-producing industrial strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae].

In the process of beer storage and transportation, off-flavor can be produced for oxidation of beer. Sulphite is important for stabilizing the beer flavor because of its antioxidant activity. However, the low level of sulphite synthesized by the brewing yeast is not enough to stabilize beer flavor. Three enzymes involve sulphite biosynthesis in yeast. One of them, APS kinase (encoded by MET14) plays important role in the process of sulphite formation. In order to construct high sulphite-producing brewing yeast strain for beer production, MET14 gene was cloned and overexpressed in industrial strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Primer 1 (5'-TGTGAATTCCTGTACACCAATGGCTACT-3', EcoR I) and primer 2 (5'-TATAAGCTTGATGA GGTGGATGAAGACG-3', HindIII) were designed according to the MET14 sequence in GenBank. A 1.1kb DNA fragment containing the open reading frame and terminator of MET14 gene was amplified from Saccharomyces cerevisiae YSF-5 by PCR, and inserted into YEp352 to generate recombinant plasmid pMET14. To express MET14 gene properly in S. cerevisiae, the recombinant expression plasmids pPM with URA3 gene as the selection marker and pCPM with URA3 gene and copper resistance gene as the selection marker for yeast transformation were constructed. In plasmid pPM, the PGK1 promoter from plasmid pVC727 was fused with the MET14 gene from pMET14, and the expression cassette was inserted into the plasmid YEp352. The dominant selection marker, copper-resistance gene expression cassette CUP1-MTI was inserted in plasmid pPM to result in pCPM. Restriction enzyme analysis showed that plasmids pPM and pCPM were constructed correctly. The laboratory strain of S. cerevisiae YS58 with ura3, trp1, leu2, his4 auxotroph was transformed with plasmid pPM. Yeast transformants were screened on synthetic minimal medium (SD) containing leucine, histidine and tryptophan. The sulphite production of the transformants carrying pPM was 2 fold of that in the control strain YS58, which showed that the MET14 gene on plasmid pPM was expressed functionally in YS58. The industrial brewing yeast strain YSF-38 was transformed with the plasmid pCPM and yeast transformants were selected on YEPD medium containing 4mmol/L copper sulphate. The recombinant strain carrying pCPM showed a 3.2-fold increase in sulphite production when compared to the host strain YSF-38 under laboratory culture conditions. Flask fermentation under brewing-like conditions was performed in Tsingtao Beer Brewery. The sulphite production of the recombinant strain began to be higher than that of the host strain YSF-38 at the fourth day and reached the maximum at the eighth day. At the end of fermentation, the sulphite produced by recombinant strain is 1.4 fold of that in the host strain. The overexpression of MET14 gene in both laboratory and industrial strains of S. cerevisiae increases the sulphite formation. It is the first time to construct high sulphite-producing industrial strain by functional expression of MET14 in S. cerevisiae. Such study provides the foundation for construction of an excellent brewing yeast strain that can produce proper sulphite and can be used in commercial beer production.

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#10806350   2000/07/06 Save this To Up

Functional characterization of a gene encoding a fourth ATP sulfurylase isoform from Arabidopsis thaliana.

ATP sulfurylase (ATP: sulfate adenylyl transferase, EC 2.7.7.4), the first enzyme of the sulfate assimilation pathway, is present in the chloroplast and cytosol of plants. In Arabidopsis thaliana cDNA cloning revealed the existence of three ATP sulfurylase isoforms (APS1, -2, and -3) all of which appear to be localized in plastids. In the present study the cytosolic isoform was sought by searching the expressed sequence tag (EST) database and by screening A. thaliana genomic libraries. A fourth isoform, APS4, was identified, but it also encodes a plastid-localized isoform. The APS genes all contain four introns. The introns are located at identical positions within the coding sequence of each of the APS genes. A putative TATA box was identified in the promoter of the APS3 and APS4 genes, but no regions of sequence similarity were found among the other promoters. Combined analysis of an APS4 cDNA and genomic clone revealed that the deduced protein is 469 amino acids and is most homologous to the A. thaliana APS1 subclass. The APS4 cDNA was able to functionally complement a yeast ATP sulfurylase (met3) mutant and the recombinant enzyme displayed ATP sulfurylase activity. The APS4 protein exhibits a plastid targeting peptide at its amino terminus that, when fused to green fluorescent protein, was able to target the reporter to chloroplasts. APS4 mRNA was detected at a similar steady-state level in roots and leaves, and its expression was not induced by sulfur starvation or by O-acetylserine treatment. Having identified a fourth plastid-localized ATP sulfurylase, the origin of cytosolic isoform in A. thaliana remains unclear. Based on sequence analysis, it is hypothesized that APS2 may encode the cytosolic ATP sulfurylase.

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#10361007   1999/08/13 Save this To Up

Real-time detection and quantification of adenosine triphosphate sulfurylase activity by a bioluminometric approach.

A real-time, sensitive, and simple assay for detection and quantification of adenosine triphosphate sulfurylase (ATP:sulfate adenylytransferase, EC 2.7.7.4) activity has been developed. The method is based on detection of ATP generated in the ATP sulfurylase reaction between APS and PPi by the firefly luciferase system. For the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATP sulfurylase, the concentrations of APS and PPi at the half-maximal rate were found to be about 0.5 and 7 microM, respectively. The assay is sensitive and yields linear response between 0.1 microU and 50 mU. The method can be used for monitoring and quantification of recombinant ATP sulfurylase activity in Escherichia coli lysate, as well as for detection of the activity during different purification procedures.

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#10092498   1999/05/03 Save this To Up

Production, purification, and luminometric analysis of recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae MET3 adenosine triphosphate sulfurylase expressed in Escherichia coli.

ATP sulfurylase cDNA from MET3 on chromosome X of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was amplified and cloned, and recombinant ATP sulfurylase was expressed in Escherichia coli. The synthesis of ATP sulfurylase was directed by an expression system that employs the regulatory genes of the luminous bacterium Vibrio fischeri. A soluble, biologically active form was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity from lysates of recombinant E. coli by ammonium sulfate fractionation, ion-exchange chromatography, and gel filtration. The specific activity of the purified enzyme was estimated to 140 U/mg. The apparent molecular mass of the recombinant enzyme was determined by gel filtration to be 470 kDa, which indicates that the active enzyme is an octamer of identical subunits (the molecular mass of a single subunit is 59.3 kDa). The ATP sulfurylase activity was monitored in real time by a very sensitive bioluminometric method.

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#7487067   1995/11/29 Save this To Up

Adenosine-5'-triphosphate-sulfurylase from Arabidopsis thaliana and Escherichia coli are functionally equivalent but structurally and kinetically divergent: nucleotide sequence of two adenosine-5'-triphosphate-sulfurylase cDNAs from Arabidopsis thaliana and analysis of a recombinant enzyme.

ATP-sulfurylase, the first enzyme of sulfate assimilation, catalyzes the formation of adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate from ATP and sulfate. Here we report that the higher plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, contains a three-member, expressed gene family encoding plastid localized forms of ATP sulfurylase. Three cDNAs from A. thaliana, designated APS1, APS2, and APS3, were isolated by their ability to functionally complement a met3 (ATP sulfurylase) mutant strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast). The nucleotide sequence of APS1 was reported previously (1). APS2 and APS3, reported here, have 476- and 465-codon open-reading frames encoding 53.6- and 52.0-kDa polypeptides, respectively. The translation products of both clones are highly homologous to APS1 (66 and 86% identity, respectively) over their entire lengths, including amino terminal sequences resembling transit peptides for plastid localization. Both clones are less homologous to MET3 (25 and 30% identity, respectively). Genomic blot analysis of A. thaliana revealed only three genes with homology to the APS cDNAs and RNA blot analysis showed that APS1 is the most highly expressed member of this gene family. The APS polypeptides share homology with ATP-sulfurylases from fungi, a marine worm and a chemoautotrophic bacterium, but, not from Escherichia coli or Rhizobium meliloti. Analysis of recombinant APS3 showed that the protein is structurally and kinetically similar to fungal ATP-sulfurylase, but very different from the E. coli enzyme. The APS3 polypeptide is a homotetramer with specific activities (mumol primary product x mg protein-1 at pH 8.0, 25 degrees C) for 2.9 for APS synthesis, 30.1 for molybdolysis, and 48.7 for ATP synthesis. Despite the sequence, structural, and kinetic differences between higher plant and E. coli ATP-sulfurylases, APS2 and APS3 are able to functionally complement E. coli cysD and cysN (ATP-sulfurylase) mutant strains.

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#7864819   1995/03/21 Save this To Up

Enzymatic radiolabelling to a high specific activity of legume lipo-oligosaccharidic nodulation factors from Rhizobium meliloti.

In this paper we describe the two-step coupled 35S-radiolabelling of the lipo-oligosaccharidic nodulation (Nod) factors of the bacterium Rhizobium meliloti to a specific radioactivity of 800 Ci/mmol. These radiolabelled Nod factors bind to a particulate fraction from roots of the bacterium's symbiotic host, Medicago truncatula, with an equilibrium dissociation constant (KD) of 117 nM, similar to that observed with a synthetic tritiated ligand. The first step of the 35S-labelling involves the synthesis of 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phospho[35S]sulphate ([35S]PAPS) from ATP and [35S]sulphate using yeast enzymes. The second step exploits the sulphotransferase activity of the R. meliloti NodH protein, which has been expressed in Escherichia coli, to transfer the labelled sulphate group from PAPS to non-sulphated Nod factors. This enzyme was found to be active in E. coli cultured at 18 degrees C but not 37 degrees C. NodH could also transfer the sulphate group from PAPS to a model substrate, tetra-N-acetyl chitotetraose, with apparent Km values of 56 and 70 microM respectively, and exhibited an apparent Km value for non-sulphated Nod factors of 28 microM. Coupling the two steps of the radiolabelling resulted in an efficiency of 35S incorporation from inorganic sulphate to the Nod factors of approximately 10%. These labelled factors will be a valuable tool in the search for high-affinity receptors for the lipo-oligosaccharidic nodulation factors.

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#7920699   1994/10/25 Save this To Up

Isolation and characterization of two cDNA clones encoding ATP-sulfurylases from potato by complementation of a yeast mutant.

Sulfur plays an important role in plants, being used for the biosynthesis of amino acids, sulfolipids and secondary metabolites. After uptake sulfate is activated and subsequently reduced to sulfide or serves as donor for sulfurylation reactions. The first step in the activation of sulfate in all cases studied so far is catalyzed by the enzyme ATP-sulfurylase (E.C. 2.7.7.4.) which catalyzes the formation of adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (APS). Two cDNA clones from potato encoding ATP-sulfurylases were identified following transformation of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant deficient in ATP-sulfurylase activity with a cDNA library from potato source leaf poly(A)+ RNA cloned in a yeast expression vector. Several transformants were able to grow on a medium with sulfate as the only sulfur source, this ability being strictly linked to the presence of two classes of cDNAs. The clones StMet3-1 and StMet3-2 were further analyzed. DNA analysis revealed an open reading frame encoding a protein with a molecular mass of 48 kDa in the case of StMet3-1 and 52 kDa for StMet3-2. The deduced polypeptides are 88% identical at the amino acid level. The clone StMet3-2 has a 48 amino acid N-terminal extension which shows common features of a chloroplast transit peptide. Sequence comparison of the ATP-sulfurylase Met3 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae with the cDNA StMet3-1 (StMet3-2) reveals 31% (30%) identity at the amino acid level. Protein extracts from the yeast mutant transformed with the clone StMet3-1 displayed ATP-sulfurylase activity. RNA blot analysis demonstrated the expression of both genes in potato leaves, root and stem, but not in tubers.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

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