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#20018887   2010/02/22 Save this To Up

Phosphorylation of maize eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF5A) by casein kinase 2: identification of phosphorylated residue and influence on intracellular localization of eIF5A.

Maize eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (ZmeIF5A) co-purifies with the catalytic alpha subunit of protein kinase CK2 and is phosphorylated by this enzyme. Phosphorylated ZmeIF5A was also identified after separation of maize leaf proteins by two-dimensional electrophoresis. Multiple sequence alignment of eIF5A proteins showed that in monocots, in contrast to other eukaryotes, there are two serine/threonine residues that could potentially be phosphorylated by CK2. To identify the phosphorylation site(s) of ZmeIF5A, the serine residues potentially phosphorylated by CK2 were mutated. ZmeIF5A and its mutated variants S2A and S4A were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. Of these recombinant proteins, only ZmeIF5A-S2A was not phosphorylated by maize CK2. Also, Arabidopsis thaliana and Saccharomyces cerevisiae eIF5A-S2A mutants were not phosphorylated despite effective phosphorylation of wild-type variants. A newly developed method exploiting the specificity of thrombin cleavage was used to confirm that Ser(2) in ZmeIF5A is indeed phosphorylated. To find a role of the Ser(2) phosphorylation, ZmeIF5A and its variants mutated at Ser(2) (S2A and S2D) were transiently expressed in maize protoplasts. The expressed fluorescence labeled proteins were visualized by confocal microscopy. Although wild-type ZmeIF5A and its S2A variant were distributed evenly between the nucleus and cytoplasm, the variant with Ser(2) replaced by aspartic acid, which mimics a phosphorylated serine, was sequestered in the nucleus. These results suggests that phosphorylation of Ser(2) plays a role in regulation of nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of eIF5A in plant cells.

2078 related Products with: Phosphorylation of maize eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF5A) by casein kinase 2: identification of phosphorylated residue and influence on intracellular localization of eIF5A.

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#12571244   2003/04/07 Save this To Up

Protein kinase CK2 phosphorylates the high mobility group domain protein SSRP1, inducing the recognition of UV-damaged DNA.

The structure-specific recognition protein SSRP1 plays a role in transcription and replication in the chromatin context. Mediated by its C-terminal high mobility group (HMG) box domain, SSRP1 binds DNA non-sequence specifically but recognizes certain DNA structures. Using acetic acid urea polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, we have examined the phosphorylation of maize SSRP1 by protein kinase CK2 alpha. The kinase phosphorylated several amino acid residues in the C-terminal part of the SSRP1 protein. Two phosphorylation sites were mapped in the very C-terminal region next to the HMG box domain, and about seven sites are localized within the acidic domain. Circular dichroism showed that the phosphorylation of the two C-terminal sites by CK2 alpha resulted in a structural change in the region of HMG box domain, because the negative peak of the CD spectrum at 222 nm was decreased by approximately 10%. In parallel, the phosphorylation induced the recognition of UV-damaged DNA, whereas the non-phosphorylated protein does not discriminate between UV-damaged DNA and control DNA. The affinity of CK2 alpha-phosphorylated SSRP1 for the DNA correlates with the degree of UV-induced DNA damage. Moreover, maize SSRP1 can restore the increased UV-sensitivity of a yeast strain lacking the NHP6A/B HMG domain proteins to levels of the control strain. Collectively, these findings indicate a role for SSRP1 in the UV response of eukaryotic cells.

2389 related Products with: Protein kinase CK2 phosphorylates the high mobility group domain protein SSRP1, inducing the recognition of UV-damaged DNA.

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#11827163   2002/02/05 Save this To Up

Cloning and characterization of the cDNA coding for the catalytic alpha subunit of CK2 from tobacco.

We have previously reported the participation of the protein kinase CK2 in the mechanism by which salicylic acid activates transcription of genes, such as those coding for glutathion S-transferases, in tobacco. With the purpose of further studying the participation of CK2 in this signal transduction pathway, we isolated and sequenced the cDNA from the NtCK2A gene, coding for the catalytic alpha subunit of CK2 from tobacco. The NtCK2A cDNA was isolated by screening of a tobacco cDNA library with a heterologous probe from Arabidopsis thaliana, followed by 3' RACE to obtain the 3' region. Sequence analysis of the NtCK2A cDNA showed a high level of identity between this CK2alpha protein sequence and the corresponding sequences of other plant species such as Arabidopsis and maize (92-95% identity), or those of animal species such as human and Xenopus laevis (75% identity). The expression of the NtCK2A gene in different tissues from tobacco plants was analyzed by Northern blot. High levels of expression of this gene were observed in proliferating tissues such as shoot and root apical meristems. A recombinant CK2alpha protein was obtained after expression of the NtCK2A cDNA in Escherichia coli. The ability of this recombinant CK2alpha subunit to phosphorylate casein was inhibited by heparin and stimulated by the CK2beta subunit from Xenopus laevis.

2353 related Products with: Cloning and characterization of the cDNA coding for the catalytic alpha subunit of CK2 from tobacco.

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#11260493   2001/03/22 Save this To Up

Maize protein kinase CK2: regulation and functionality of three beta regulatory subunits.

Biochemical and crystallographic data suggest that, in contrast with other organisms, the active maize protein kinase CK2 might be composed simply of a catalytic polypeptide (CK2alpha), thus lacking CK2beta regulatory subunits. To investigate the existence and functionality of CK2beta regulatory subunits in Zea mays, we have screened a maize cDNA library using different approaches and have isolated three full-length cDNAs encoding CK2beta regulatory subunits (CK2beta-1, CK2beta-2 and CK2beta-3) and a cDNA coding for a novel CK2alpha catalytic subunit, CK2alpha-3. The pattern of expression of all these alpha/beta subunits has been studied in different organs and developmental stages using specific probes for each isoform, and indicates that while CK2alpha subunits are constitutive, CK2beta subunits are expressed differentially during embryo development. The yeast two-hybrid system and pull-down assays have been used to study specific interactions between the different subunits. While CK2alpha subunits are unable to self-associate, preferential interactions between alpha/beta isoforms and beta/beta isoforms can be predicted. Furthermore, we show that maize CK2alpha/beta subunits assemble into a structural tetrameric complex which has very similar properties to those described in other organisms, and that expression of maize CK2beta subunits in yeast allows the rescue of the phenotypic defects associated to the lack of CK2 function, thus demonstrating the functionality of maize CK2beta regulatory subunits.

2668 related Products with: Maize protein kinase CK2: regulation and functionality of three beta regulatory subunits.

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#10931203   2000/10/18 Save this To Up

The crystal structure of the complex of Zea mays alpha subunit with a fragment of human beta subunit provides the clue to the architecture of protein kinase CK2 holoenzyme.

The crystal structure of a complex between the catalytic alpha subunit of Zea mays CK2 and a 23-mer peptide corresponding the C-terminal sequence 181-203 of the human CK2 regulatory beta subunit has been determined at 3.16-A resolution. The complex, composed of two alpha chains and two peptides, presents a molecular twofold axis, with each peptide interacting with both alpha chains. In the derived model of the holoenzyme, the regulatory subunits are positioned on the opposite side with respect to the opening of the catalytic sites, that remain accessible to substrates and cosubstrates. The beta subunit can influence the catalytic activity both directly and by promoting the formation of the alpha2 dimer, in which each alpha chain interacts with the active site of the other. Furthermore, the two active sites are so close in space that they can simultaneously bind and phosphorylate two phosphoacceptor residues of the same substrate.

2590 related Products with: The crystal structure of the complex of Zea mays alpha subunit with a fragment of human beta subunit provides the clue to the architecture of protein kinase CK2 holoenzyme.

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#10810161   2000/07/17 Save this To Up

Mutation of recombinant catalytic subunit alpha of the protein kinase CK2 that affects catalytic efficiency and specificity.

In order to understand better the structural and functional relations between protein kinase CK2 catalytic subunit, the triphosphate moiety of ATP, the catalytic metal and the peptidic substrate, we built a structural model of Yarrowia lipolytica protein kinase CK2 catalytic subunit using the recently solved three-dimensional structure of the maize enzyme and the structure of cAMP-dependent protein kinase peptidic inhibitor (1CDK) as templates. The overall structure of the catalytic subunit is close to the structure solved by Niefind et al. It comprises two lobes, which move relative to each other. The peptide used as substrate is tightly bound to the enzyme, at specific locations. Molecular dynamic calculations in combination with the study of the structural model led us to identify amino acid residues close to the triphosphate moiety of ATP and a residue sufficiently far from the peptide that could be mutated so as to modify the specificity of the enzyme. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to replace by charged residues both glycine-48, a residue located within the glycine-rich loop, involved in binding of ATP phosphate moiety, and glycine-177, a residue close to the active site. Kinetic properties of purified wild-type and mutated subunits were studied with respect to ATP, MgCl(2) and protein kinase CK2 specific peptide substrates. The catalytic efficiency of the G48D mutant increased by factors of 4 for ATP and 17.5 for the RRRADDSDDDDD peptide. The mutant G48K had a low activity with ATP and no detectable activity with peptide substrates and was also inhibited by magnesium. An increased velocity of ADP release by G48D and the building of an electrostatic barrier between ATP and the peptidic substrate in G48K could explain these results. The kinetic properties of the mutant G177K with ATP were not affected, but the catalytic efficiency for the RRRADDSDDDDD substrate increased sixfold. Lysine 177 could interact with the lysine-rich cluster involved in the specificity of protein kinase CK2 towards acidic substrate, thereby increasing its activity.

1104 related Products with: Mutation of recombinant catalytic subunit alpha of the protein kinase CK2 that affects catalytic efficiency and specificity.

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#10412900   1999/08/03 Save this To Up

Characterization, subcellular localization and nuclear targeting of casein kinase 2 from Zea mays.

We have isolated and characterized the genomic clone of maize casein kinase 2 (CK2) alpha subunit using the previously described alphaCK2-1 cDNA clone as a probe. The genomic clone is 7.5 kb long and contains 10 exons, separated by 9 introns of different size, two larger than 1.5 kb and the others around 100-150 bp. The sequence of the exons is 100% homologous to the sequence of the alphaCK2-1 cDNA. Southern hybridization of total genomic DNA from maize embryos with aCK2 cDNA indicated that the alphaCK2-1 gene is part of a multigenic family. We also isolated a new embryo cDNA clone coding for an alphaCK2-2 subunit. We studied the regulation of the enzyme in embryos at the mRNA level, at the protein level and by activity testing. By using immunocytochemistry the CK2 protein was localized in several types of cells of mature embryos. Particularly strong signals were visible in the cytoplasm of epidermis and meristematic cells. Decoration of nuclei of root cortex and scutellum cells was also observed suggesting that CK2 can shift from the cytoplasm into nuclei in specific cell types. We examined whether CK2 contained specific protein domains which actively target the protein to the nucleus by using in-frame fusions of the maize CK2alpha subunit to the reporter gene encoding beta-glucuronidase (GUS) which were assayed in transiently transformed onion epidermal cells. Analysis of chimeric constructs identified one region containing a nuclear localization signal (NLS) that is highly conserved in other alphaCK2 proteins.

1104 related Products with: Characterization, subcellular localization and nuclear targeting of casein kinase 2 from Zea mays.

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#1740141   1992/03/24 Save this To Up

Purification and characterization of maize seedling casein kinase IIB, a monomeric enzyme immunologically related to the alpha subunit of animal casein kinase-2.

Casein kinase IIB (CKIIB), a protein kinase related to animal casein kinase-2 (CK2), has been purified to homogeneity. It appears to be a monomeric enzyme, composed by an individual 39 kDa subunit, homologous to the alpha/alpha' subunits of animal CK2 and devoid of the autophosphorylatable 25-kDa alpha subunit of animal CK2, which display an heterotetrameric alpha 2 beta 2/alpha alpha' beta 2 structure. Such a conclusion is supported by the following lines of evidence: (1) CKIIB displays an apparent 39,000 Mr by gel filtration on Ultrogel AcA 34 and it gives rise to a single prominent protein band of similar Mr (38,000) upon SDS/PAGE; (2) upon incubation of the enzyme with [32P]ATP, no radiolabeled bands are detectable which might be attributable to either canonical or atypical beta subunits; (3) the 39-kDa band immunoreacts with antisera that recognize the alpha subunit of rat and chicken CK2; (4) conversely, no component immunologically related with the beta subunit could be detected in CKIIB by Western-blot analyses with antisera that recognize animal beta subunits; (5) the recombinant beta subunit of human CK2 is readily phosphorylated by CKIIB, the reaction being prevented, rather than stimulated, by polylysine, a behaviour typical of animal CK2 autophosphorylation. While the responsiveness of CKIIB to either heparin inhibition or polylysine stimulation are reminiscent of those of animal CK2, its peptide substrate specificity is significantly different and its thermolability is increased. Altogether these data would indicate that maize seedling CKIIB represents a naturally occurring monomeric form of CK2 devoid of non-catalytic subunits. Its properties, compared to those of animal CK2, suggest that the beta subunits of animal CK2 may be responsible for structural modifications conferring an altered specificity and an increased stability to the catalytic subunit.

2606 related Products with: Purification and characterization of maize seedling casein kinase IIB, a monomeric enzyme immunologically related to the alpha subunit of animal casein kinase-2.

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