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#29053450   2017/10/20 Save this To Up

Two-Dimensional Isoelectric Focusing OFFGEL, Micro-fluidic Lab-on-Chip Electrophoresis and FTIR for assessment of long-term stability of rhG-CSF formulation.

Recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) has been increasingly recognized from among one of the most abundant families of biosimilars. Upon long-term storage, rhG-CSF is subject to subtle chemical modifications that rapidly occur and, in particular, produce deaminated variants with divergent charge. Indeed, changes in charge from glutamine deamination may alter the way rhG-SCF will refold and the structure of resulting molecule. To assess this charge heterogeneity, 2D gel electrophoresis has limited application. Recent micro-fluidic based technical advances offer a great alternative method to better control liquid volumes on a minute scale. Here, we used IEF OFFGEL-Lab-On-Chip electrophoresis for two-dimensional separation of rhG-CSF peptides according to their isoelectric point (pI) and molecular weight (kDa). We used a rhG-CSF commercial therapeutic formulation, kept refrigerated 24 months after expiry. The samples were analyzed for particulate matter and charge variants. Subsequently, the secondary structure was assessed by FTIR spectroscopy and residual biological activity was recorded. Interestingly, we showed an additional band in the acidic gel area above and below the most intense protein band (fractions 10, 11 and 12 at 22.84s). This observation reveals the presence of rhG-CSF variant charges without any additional high molecular weight impurity or biological activity decrease. We conclude that after two years of storage, the rhG-CSF solution maintained its native secondary structure with little β-sheet deviation, as reflected in the 1622 cm-1 and 1695 cm-1. These data demonstrated that a combined strategy is a more suitable and accurate analytical assessment of rhG-CSF and recombinant protein-based biosimilars.Recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) has been increasingly recognized from among one of the most abundant families of biosimilars. Upon long-term storage, rhG-CSF is subject to subtle chemical modifications that rapidly occur and, in particular, produce deaminated variants with divergent charge. Indeed, changes in charge from glutamine deamination may alter the way rhG-SCF will refold and the structure of resulting molecule. To assess this charge heterogeneity, 2D gel electrophoresis has limited application. Recent micro-fluidic based technical advances offer a great alternative method to better control liquid volumes on a minute scale. Here, we used IEF OFFGEL-Lab-On-Chip electrophoresis for two-dimensional separation of rhG-CSF peptides according to their isoelectric point (pI) and molecular weight (kDa). We used a rhG-CSF commercial therapeutic formulation, kept refrigerated 24 months after expiry. The samples were analyzed for particulate matter and charge variants. Subsequently, the secondary structure was assessed by FTIR spectroscopy and residual biological activity was recorded. Interestingly, we showed an additional band in the acidic gel area above and below the most intense protein band (fractions 10, 11 and 12 at 22.84s). This observation reveals the presence of rhG-CSF variant charges without any additional high molecular weight impurity or biological activity decrease. We conclude that after two years of storage, the rhG-CSF solution maintained its native secondary structure with little β-sheet deviation, as reflected in the 1622 cm-1 and 1695 cm-1. These data demonstrated that a combined strategy is a more suitable and accurate analytical assessment of rhG-CSF and recombinant protein-based biosimilars.

2712 related Products with: Two-Dimensional Isoelectric Focusing OFFGEL, Micro-fluidic Lab-on-Chip Electrophoresis and FTIR for assessment of long-term stability of rhG-CSF formulation.

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#28383479   2017/04/06 Save this To Up

SCF/C-Kit/JNK/AP-1 Signaling Pathway Promotes Claudin-3 Expression in Colonic Epithelium and Colorectal Carcinoma.

Claudin-3 is a major protein of tight junctions (TJs) in the intestinal epithelium and is critical for maintaining cell-cell adhesion, barrier function, and epithelium polarity. Recent studies have shown high claudin-3 levels in several solid tumors, but the regulation mechanism of claudin-3 expression remains poorly understood. In the present study, colorectal cancer (CRC) tissues, HT-29 and DLD-1 CRC cell lines, CRC murine model (C57BL/6 mice) and c-kit loss-of-function mutant mice were used. We demonstrated that elevated claudin-3 levels were positively correlated with highly expressed c-kit in CRC tissues based upon analysis of protein expression. In vitro, claudin-3 expression was clearly increased in CRC cells by overexpressed c-kit or stimulated by exogenous recombinant human stem cell factor (rhSCF), while significantly decreased by the treatment with c-kit or c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitors. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and luciferase reporter assay showed that SCF/c-kit signaling significantly promoted activator protein-1 (AP-1) binding with CLDN-3 promoter and enhanced its transcription activity. Furthermore, decreased expression of claudin-3 was obtained in the colonic epithelium from the c-Kit loss-of-function mutant mice. In conclusion, SCF/c-kit-JNK/AP-1 signaling pathway significantly promoted claudin-3 expression in colonic epithelium and CRC, which could contribute to epithelial barrier function maintenance and to CRC development.

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#28111017   2017/01/23 Save this To Up

Structural Mimicry by a Bacterial F Box Effector Hijacks the Host Ubiquitin-Proteasome System.

Ankyrin B (AnkB/LegAU13) is a translocated F box effector essential for the intracellular replication of the pathogen Legionella pneumophila. AnkB co-opts a host ubiquitin ligase to decorate the pathogen-containing vacuole with K(48)-linked polyubiquitinated proteins and degrade host proteins as a source of energy. Here, we report that AnkB commandeers the host ubiquitin-proteasome system through mimicry of two eukaryotic protein domains. Using X-ray crystallography, we determined the 3D structure of AnkB in complex with Skp1, a component of the human SCF ubiquitination ligase. The structure confirms that AnkB contains an N-terminal F box similar to Skp2 and a C-terminal substrate-binding domain similar to eukaryotic ankyrin repeats. We identified crucial amino acids in the substrate-binding domain of AnkB and showed them to be essential for the function of AnkB in L. pneumophila intracellular proliferation. The study reveals how Legionella uses molecular mimicry to manipulate the host ubiquitination pathway and proliferate intracellularly.

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#28082680   2017/01/13 Save this To Up

Structural Determinants of the Gain-of-Function Phenotype of Human Leukemia-associated Mutant CBL Oncogene.

Mutations of the tyrosine kinase-directed ubiquitin ligase CBL cause myeloid leukemias, but the molecular determinants of the dominant leukemogenic activity of mutant CBL oncogenes are unclear. Here, we first define a gain-of-function attribute of the most common leukemia-associated CBL mutant, Y371H, by demonstrating its ability to increase proliferation of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) derived from CBL-null and CBL/CBL-B-null mice. Next, we express second-site point/deletion mutants of CBL-Y371H in CBL/CBL-B-null HSPCs or the cytokine-dependent human leukemic cell line TF-1 to show that individual or combined Tyr → Phe mutations of established phosphotyrosine residues (Tyr-700, Tyr-731, and Tyr-774) had little impact on the activity of the CBL-Y371H mutant in HSPCs, and the triple Tyr → Phe mutant was only modestly impaired in TF-1 cells. In contrast, intact tyrosine kinase-binding (TKB) domain and proline-rich region (PRR) were critical in both cell models. PRR deletion reduced the stem cell factor (SCF)-induced hyper-phosphorylation of the CBL-Y371H mutant and the c-KIT receptor and eliminated the sustained p-ERK1/2 and p-AKT induction by SCF. GST fusion protein pulldowns followed by phospho-specific antibody array analysis identified distinct CBL TKB domains or PRR-binding proteins that are phosphorylated in CBL-Y371H-expressing TF-1 cells. Our results support a model of mutant CBL gain-of-function in which mutant CBL proteins effectively compete with the remaining wild type CBL-B and juxtapose TKB domain-associated PTKs with PRR-associated signaling proteins to hyper-activate signaling downstream of hematopoietic growth factor receptors. Elucidation of mutant CBL domains required for leukemogenesis should facilitate targeted therapy approaches for patients with mutant CBL-driven leukemias.

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#27861801   2016/11/18 Save this To Up

Centromere protein W interacts with beta-transducin repeat-containing protein 1 and modulates its subcellular localization.

Beta-transducin repeat-containing protein 1 (β-TrCP1) is a substrate-recognition module of SCF(β-Tr)(CP)(1) ubiquitin ligases and its subcellular distribution is known to be critical for target specificity. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) U, an abundant nuclear protein, is known to be a unique regulator of β-TrCP1 shuttling between the cytoplasm and the nucleus. In this study, we report that centromere protein W (CENP-W), which is frequently overexpressed in a variety of human cancers, may also contribute to β-TrCP1 shuttling. Although hnRNP U and CENP-W can interact with β-TrCP1 and transport it independently, these proteins do not compete for β-TrCP1 binding, but rather cooperate to form a stable shuttling complex. Intriguingly, we found that overexpression of CENP-W leads to accumulation of β-TrCP1 in the nucleus. Thus, we propose that CENP-W may function as a booster of β-TrCP1 nuclear import to increase the oncogenicity of β-TrCP1.

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#27301759   2016/06/15 Save this To Up

Large-scale purification and characterization of recombinant human stem cell factor in Escherichia coli.

The pharmacological importance of recombinant human stem cell factor (rhSCF) has increased the demand to establish effective and large-scale production and purification processes. A good source of bioactive recombinant protein with capability of being scaled-up without losing activity has always been a challenge. The objectives of the study were the rapid and efficient pilot-scale expression and purification of rhSCF. The gene encoding stem cell factor (SCF) was cloned into pBV220 and transformed into Escherichia coli. The recombinant SCF was expressed and isolated using a procedure consisting of isolation of inclusion bodies (IBs), denaturation, and refolding followed by chromatographic steps toward purification. The yield of rhSCF reached 835.6 g/20 L, and the expression levels of rhSCF were about 33.9% of the total E. coli protein content. rhSCF was purified by isolation of IBs, denaturation, and refolding, followed by SP-Sepharose chromatography, Source 30 reversed-phase chromatography, and Q-Sepharose chromatography. This procedure was developed to isolate 5.5 g of rhSCF (99.5% purity) with specific activity at 0.96 × 10(6)  IU/mg, endotoxin levels of pyrogen at 1.0 EU/mg, and bacterial DNA at 10 ng/mg. Pilot-scale fermentations and purifications were set up for the production of rhSCF that can be upscaled for industry.

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#26834157   2016/02/09 Save this To Up

Ptch2 loss drives myeloproliferation and myeloproliferative neoplasm progression.

JAK2V617F(+) myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) frequently progress into leukemias, but the factors driving this process are not understood. Here, we find excess Hedgehog (HH) ligand secretion and loss of PTCH2 in myeloproliferative disease, which drives canonical and noncanonical HH-signaling. Interestingly, Ptch2(-/-) mice mimic dual pathway activation and develop a MPN-phenotype with leukocytosis (neutrophils and monocytes), strong progenitor and LKS mobilization, splenomegaly, anemia, and loss of lymphoid lineages. HSCs exhibit increased cell cycling with improved stress hematopoiesis after 5-FU treatment, and this results in HSC exhaustion over time. Cytopenias, LKS loss, and mobilization are all caused by loss of Ptch2 in the niche, whereas hematopoietic loss of Ptch2 drives leukocytosis and promotes LKS maintenance and replating capacity in vitro. Ptch2(-/-) niche cells show hyperactive noncanonical HH signaling, resulting in reduced production of essential HSC regulators (Scf, Cxcl12, and Jag1) and depletion of osteoblasts. Interestingly, Ptch2 loss in either the niche or in hematopoietic cells dramatically accelerated human JAK2V617F-driven pathogenesis, causing transformation of nonlethal chronic MPNs into aggressive lethal leukemias with >30% blasts in the peripheral blood. Our findings suggest HH ligand inhibitors as possible drug candidates that act on hematopoiesis and the niche to prevent transformation of MPNs into leukemias.

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#26724416   2016/01/26 Save this To Up

Improving the soluble expression and purification of recombinant human stem cell factor (SCF) in endotoxin-free Escherichia coli by disulfide shuffling with persulfide.

We here present a new method for the expression and purification of recombinant human stem cell factor (rhSCF(164)) in endotoxin-free ClearColi(®) BL21(DE3) cells harboring codon-optimized Profinity eXact™-tagged hSCF cDNA. Previously, we demonstrated that co-expression with thioredoxin increased the solubility of rhSCF in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3), and addition of l-arginine enhanced chromatography performance by removing the endotoxin-masked surface of rhSCF. Initially, we tried to express rhSCF in an endotoxin-free strain using a thioredoxin co-expression system, which resulted in significantly lower expression, possibly due to the stress imposed by overexpressed thioredoxin or antibiotics susceptibility. Therefore, we developed a new expression system without thioredoxin. External redox coupling was tested using persulfides such as glutathione persulfide or cysteine persulfide for the in vivo-folding of hSCF in the cytoplasm. Persulfides improved the protein solubility by accelerating disulfide-exchange reactions for incorrectdisulfides during folding in E. coli. Furthermore, the persulfides enhanced the expression level, likely due to upregulation of the enzymatic activity of T7 RNA polymerase. The recombinant protein was purified via affinity chromatography followed by cleavage with sodium fluoride, resulting in complete proteolytic removal of the N-terminal tag. The endotoxin-free fusion protein from ClearColi(®) BL21(DE3) could bind to the resin in the standard protocol using sodium phosphate (pH 7.2). Furthermore, purified rhSCF enhanced the proliferation and maturation of the human mast cell line LAD2. Thus, we conclude that use of the protein expression system employing E. coli by disulfide shuffling with persulfide addition could be a very useful method for efficient protein production.

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#26456073   2015/10/12 Save this To Up

Structural Analysis of the Pin1-CPEB1 interaction and its potential role in CPEB1 degradation.

The Cytoplasmic Polyadenylation Element Binding proteins are RNA binding proteins involved in the translational regulation of mRNA. During cell cycle progression, CPEB1 is labeled for degradation by phosphorylation-dependent ubiquitination by the SCF(β-TrCP) ligase. The peptidyl-prolyl isomerase Pin1 plays a key role in CPEB1 degradation. Conditioned by the cell cycle stage, CPEB1 and Pin1 interactions occur in a phosphorylation-independent or -dependent manner. CPEB1 contains six potential phosphorylatable Pin1 binding sites. Using a set of biophysical techniques, we discovered that the pS210 site is unique, since it displays binding activity not only to the WW domain but also to the prolyl-isomerase domain of Pin1. The NMR structure of the Pin1 WW-CPEB1 pS210 (PDB ID: 2n1o) reveals that the pSerPro motif is bound in trans configuration through contacts with amino acids located in the first turn of the WW domain and the conserved tryptophan in the β3-strand. NMR relaxation analyses of Pin1 suggest that inter-domain flexibility is conferred by the modulation of the interaction with peptides containing the pS210 site, which is essential for degradation.

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#26428235   2016/01/05 Save this To Up

Targeting c-kit receptor in neuroblastomas and colorectal cancers using stem cell factor (SCF)-based recombinant bacterial toxins.

Autocrine activation of c-kit (KIT receptor tyrosine kinase) has been postulated to be a potent oncogenic driver in small cell lung cancer, neuroblastoma (NB), and poorly differentiated colorectal carcinoma (CRC). Although targeted therapy involving tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) such as imatinib mesylate is highly effective for gastrointestinal stromal tumor carrying V560G c-kit mutation, it does not show much potential for targeting wild-type KIT (WT-KIT). Our study demonstrates the role of stem cell factor (SCF)-based toxin conjugates for targeting WT-KIT-overexpressing malignancies such as NBs and CRCs. We constructed SCF-based recombinant bacterial toxins by genetically fusing mutated form of natural ligand SCF to receptor binding deficient forms of Diphtheria toxin (DT) or Pseudomonas exotoxin A (ETA') and evaluated their efficacy in vitro. Efficient targeting was achieved in all receptor-positive neuroblastoma (IMR-32 and SHSY5Y) and colon cancer cell lines (COLO 320DM, HCT 116, and DLD-1) but not in receptor-negative breast carcinoma cell line (MCF-7) thereby proving specificity. While dose- and time-dependent cytotoxicity was observed in both neuroblastoma cell lines, COLO 320DM and HCT 116 cells, only an anti-proliferative effect was observed in DLD-1 cells. We prove that these novel targeting agents have promising potential as KIT receptor tyrosine kinase targeting system.

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