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Evidence for gastroprotective, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant potential of methanolic extract of Cordia dichotoma leaves on indomethacin and stress induced gastric lesions in Wistar rats.

The Cordia dichotoma (CD) is having anticancer and other pharmacological effects as it contains mainly flavonoids. The present study was aimed to demonstrate the gastroprotective effect of methanolic extract of CD leaves (MECD) obtained using Soxhlet extractor. In this study the qualitative phytochemical analysis of MECD revealed the presence of bioflavonoids and determination of quercetin was confirmed by HPLC analysis. The MECD was administered orally at doses 50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg against indomethacin induced gastric ulceration and stress-induced gastric ulceration in Wistar rats. Omeprazole at 10 mg/kg orally was used as the reference standard. The various parameters like gastric volume, gastric pH, total acidity, ulcer index, percent protection were estimated for assessment of anti-secretory and gastroprotective effects of MECD. At the same time antioxidant parameters like superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in addition to that inflammatory parameters such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 and interleukin-10 were also estimated according to their respective method of estimation using analyzing kit. The MECD have reduced gastric volume, total acidity and gastric mucosal damage in both the experimental models significantly and dose dependently as compared with control group. Similarly the antioxidant enzymes like SOD and CAT were increased while MDA levels were decreased significantly, at the same time TNF-α and IL-6 levels were decreased and anti-inflammatory IL-10 levels were increased significantly in MECD treated groups. Thus the pretreatment with MECD has shown significant gastroprotective potential probably due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.

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Erythrocyte phenotype in a pregnant woman of Sri Lanka. Description of the case and complications related to communication problems.

The Bombay phenotype is a rare genetic trait which is characterized by the absence of A, B and H antigens on red cells as well as in body secretions. The serum shows the presence of antibodies against antigen H. Patients with this rare blood type are not easily transfusable. We had observed a woman aged 18, at the 20th week of pregnancy, native of Sri Lanka, with an IgG and IgM class anti-H. We report the case and the clinical issues arisen.

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MiR-212 Attenuates MPP⁺-Induced Neuronal Damage by Targeting KLF4 in SH-SY5Y Cells.

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common age-dependent neurodegenerative disease. MiR-212 has been demonstrated to exert protective effects in several neurological disorders. The present study aimed to investigate the role and underlying molecular mechanism of miR-212 in PD.

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The protective effect of beta-casomorphin-7 via promoting Foxo1 activity and nuclear translocation in human lens epithelial cells.

To investigate the protective effect of beta-casomorphin-7 (β-CM-7) in oxidative stressed human lens epithelial cells (HLECs) and to explore the possible mechanism for oxidative stress in HLECs induced by high glucose.

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Ang-(1-7) protects HUVECs from high glucose-induced injury and inflammation via inhibition of the JAK2/STAT3 pathway.

Angiotensin (Ang)‑1‑7, which is catalyzed by angiotensin‑converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) from angiotensin‑II (Ang‑II), exerts multiple biological and pharmacological effects, including cardioprotective effects and endothelial protection. The Janus kinase 2 (JAK2)/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) pathway has been demonstrated to be involved in diabetes‑associated cardiovascular complications. The present study hypothesized that Ang‑(1‑7) protects against high glucose (HG)‑induced endothelial cell injury and inflammation by inhibiting the JAK2/STAT3 pathway in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). HUVECs were treated with 40 mmol/l glucose (HG) for 24 h to establish a model of HG‑induced endothelial cell injury and inflammation. Protein expression levels of p‑JAK2, t‑JAK2, p‑STAT3, t‑STAT3, NOX‑4, eNOS and cleaved caspase‑3 were tested by western blotting. CCK‑8 assay was performed to assess cell viability of HUVECs. Apoptotic cell death was analyzed by Hoechst 33258 staining. Mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was obtained using JC‑1. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was tested by SOD assay kit. Interleukin (IL)‑1β, IL‑10, IL‑12 and TNF‑α levels in culture media were tested by ELISA. The findings demonstrated that exposure of HUVECs to HG for 24 h induced injury and inflammation. This injury and inflammation were significantly ameliorated by pre‑treatment of cells with either Ang‑(1‑7) or AG490, an inhibitor of the JAK2/STAT3 pathway, prior to exposure of the cells to HG. Exposure of the cells to HG also increased the phosphorylation of JAK2/STAT3 (p‑JAK2 and p‑STAT3). Increased activation of the JAK2/STAT3 pathway was attenuated by pre‑treatment with Ang‑(1‑7). To the best of our knowledge, the findings from the present study provided the first evidence that Ang‑(1‑7) protects against HG‑induced injury and inflammation by inhibiting activation of the JAK2/STAT3 pathway in HUVECs.

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The effect of curcumin on cell adhesion of human esophageal cancer cell.

Esophageal cancer is the 8th most common cancers worldwide and the 6th most common cause of death among cancers. Curcumin has been reported to have the function of anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-rheumatoid, and anti-atherosclerosis role. It can also reduce lipid, eliminate free radicals and inhibit the growth of the tumor. Many reports had suggested that curcumin has shown great potential in the treatment of tumors by inducing apoptosis. Little is known about the effects of curcumin on cell adhesion of tumor cancer. Therefore, in this study, we attempted to look for a new approach to target resistant cells and improve efficacy without toxicity.

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Relationship of antioxidant system and reactive oxygen species with clinical semen parameters in infertile men.

To determine the correlation of antioxidant system and reactive oxygen species with clinical parameters in infertile semen samples.

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Hepatitis C virus core protein induces dysfunction of liver sinusoidal endothelial cell by down-regulation of silent information regulator 1.

Hepatic fibrosis is a frequent feature of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Some evidence has suggested the potential role of silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1) in organ fibrosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of HCV core protein on expression of SIRT1 of liver sinusoidal endothelial cell (LSEC) and function of LSEC. LSECs were co-cultured with HepG2 cells or HepG2 cells expressing HCV core protein and LSECs cultured alone were used as controls. After co-culture, the activity and expression levels of mRNA and protein of SIRT1 in LSEC were detected by a SIRT1 fluorometric assay kit, real time-PCR (RT-PCR), Western blot, respectively. The levels of adiponectin receptor 2 (AdipoR2), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were measured by Western blot. Cluster of differentiation 31 (CD31), CD14, and von Willebrand factor (vWf) of LSECs was performed by flow cytometry. The level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was assayed. Malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), adiponectin, nitric oxide (NO), and endothelin-1 (ET-1) levels in the co-culture supernatant were measured. The co-culture supernatant was then used to cultivate LX-2 cells. The levels of α-smooth muscle actin (ASMA) and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) protein in LX-2 cells were measured by Western blot. Compared with LSEC co-cultured with HepG2 cells group, in LSEC co-cultured with HepG2-core cells group, the activity and expression level of mRNA and protein of SIRT1 reduced; the level of adiponectin reduced and the expression level of AdipoR2 protein decreased; ROS levels increased; the expression level of eNOS, VEGF protein decreased; and the expression level of CD14 decreased; the expression level of vWf and CD31 increased; NO and SOD levels decreased; whereas ET-1 and MDA levels increased; the levels of ASMA and TGF-β1 protein in LX-2 cells increased. SIRT1 activator improved the above-mentioned changes. HCV core protein may down-regulate the activity and the expression of SIRT1 of LSEC, then decreasing synthesis of adiponectin and the expression of AdipoR2, thus inducing contraction of LSEC and hepatic sinusoidal capillarization and increasing oxidative stress, ultimately cause hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation. Treatment with SIRT1 activator restored the function of LSEC and inhibited the activation of HSC.

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[Experimental observation of hyperbaric oxygen combined with radioactive seed implantation in the treatment of nude mice bearing esophageal squamous cell carcinoma].

To investigate the effect and mechanism of hyperbaric oxygen combined with radioactive seed implantation in the treatment of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Subcutaneous tumor model of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma using TE-8 cells was established. Tumor bearing Balb/c(nu/nu) mice (60 mice) were divided into four groups, Cont group that treated with normal oxygen level, HBO group that treated with hyperbaric oxygen, RSI group that treated with radioactive seed implantation, and HBO+ RSI group that treated with hyperbaric oxygen combined with radioactive seed implantation. Tumor volume ratio and mean survival time of tumor bearing mice were observed. Pathological changes of tumor tissue after treatment were observed by hematoxylin eosin (HE) staining. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay kit was used to detect oxidative stress. Apoptosis related proteins were detected by Western blot. After treatment, the tumor volume ratio of HBO+ RSI group was 3.51±0.80 and was significantly lower than that of Cont group, HBO group, and RSI group (<0.05). The mean survival time of HBO+ RSI group tumor bearing mice was 62 d and was significantly longer than that in Cont group, HBO group, and RSI group (<0.05). HE staining showed that the pathological changes of tumor tissues were most obvious in HBO+ RSI group. After treatment, the MDA and Bax levels in nude mice of HBO+ RSI group were significantly higher than those in Cont group, HBO group and RSI group, but the levels of GSH, SOD and Bcl-2 were significantly lower than those of Cont group, HBO group and RSI group (<0.05). Hyperbaric oxygen combined with radioactive seed implantation could slow tumor growth and increase survival time of tumor bearing mice. The possible mechanism is that hyperbaric oxygen combined with radioactive seed implantation can improve the oxidative stress response and the expression of apoptosis protein in tumor bearing nude mice.

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Troxerutin protects hippocampal neurons against amyloid beta-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disease linked with increased production and/or deposition of amyloid-beta (Aβ) in the brain. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible neuroprotective effect of troxerutin on an animal model of Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimer model was induced by a single dose intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of Aβ 1-42 (5 nmol/5 µl). Thereafter, troxerutin (300 mg/kg) was gavaged for 14 days. The hippocampal malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. In addition, the number of apoptotic cells in the dentate gyrus (DG) was assessed by TUNEL kit. The results showed that ICV microinjection of Aβ 1-42 increased MDA levels, reduced SOD and GPx, and increased AChE activities in the hippocampus. Chronic administration of troxerutin significantly attenuated MDA levels and AChE activity and increased SOD and GPx activities in the hippocampus. Moreover, the number of apoptotic cells was decreased by troxerutin treatment. Taken together, our study demonstrated that troxerutin could increase the resistance of hippocampal neurons against apoptosis, at least in part, by diminishing the activity of AChE and oxidative stress. Therefore, troxerutin may have beneficial effects in the management of Alzheimer's disease.

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