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#27396119   2016/07/11 Save this To Up

[Relationship between cellulose synthesis metabolism and lodging resistance in intercropping soybean at seedling stage].

Physical characteristics of stem are closely relative to the crop lodging. Increase of stem strength is conducive to resolve the problem of lodging. Three soybean cultivars with different shade tolerance were planted under maize-soybean intercropping and soybean monocropping, respectively. Physiological and biochemical indices including cellulose, soluble sugar, sucrose, starch contents and enzyme activity were investigated to assess the snapping resistance and lodging resistance of the stems of soybean seedling, and snapping- and lodging-resistance indices were calculated for further verification. Furthermore, relationship analyses between these factors and the lodging of inter-cropped soybean showed that the intercropping soybean lodged seriously, the snapping resistance, lodging resistance index, contents of cellulose, soluble sugar, sucrose, starch and activities of the related enzymes were significantly lower than monocropping soybean at seedling stage. The three soybean cultivars showed different phenotypes in intercropping condition. The snapping-resistant Nandou12 with strong shade-tolerant traits was the most lodging-resistant phenotype, and it also harbored high contents of cellulose, soluble sugar, sucrose, starch and active enzymes. The lodging resistance index, cellulose content of the stems of intercropped soybean seedling were significantly positively correlated with the snapping resistance, and were significantly negatively correlated with the actual lodging percentage. The activities of sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) , sucrose synthase (SS) and neutral invertase (NI) were positively correlated with sucrose is content, but not the acid invertase (AI). The activities of SPS, NI and SS were positively correlated with cellulose content, but not Al. In a word, the high activities of SPS and SS in the soybean stem were the enzymatic basis to maintain relatively higher cellulose and sucrose content, which is conducive to improve the stem-sfrength and enhance the lodging resistance ability in intercropping condition. Effects of different light conditions on cellulose metabolic mechanism of soybean seedling stems, lodging resistant characteristics of soybean seedlings studied in the corn-soybean intercropping system provided a basis for screening more shade-tolerant soybean variety.

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#26055333   2015/09/05 Save this To Up

Transgenic alfalfa (Medicago sativa) with increased sucrose phosphate synthase activity shows enhanced growth when grown under N2-fixing conditions.

Overexpression of SPS in alfalfa is accompanied by early flowering, increased plant growth and an increase in elemental N and protein content when grown under N2-fixing conditions. Sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS; EC 2.3.1.14) is the key enzyme in the synthesis of sucrose in plants. The outcome of overexpression of SPS in different plants using transgenic approaches has been quite varied, but the general consensus is that increased SPS activity is associated with the production of new sinks and increased sink strength. In legumes, the root nodule is a strong C sink and in this study our objective was to see how increasing SPS activity in a legume would affect nodule number and function. Here we have transformed alfalfa (Medicago sativa, cv. Regen SY), with a maize SPS gene driven by the constitutive CaMV35S promoter. Our results showed that overexpression of SPS in alfalfa, is accompanied by an increase in nodule number and mass and an overall increase in nitrogenase activity at the whole plant level. The nodules exhibited an increase in the level of key enzymes contributing to N assimilation including glutamine synthetase and asparagine synthetase. Moreover, the stems of the transformants showed higher level of the transport amino acids, Asx, indicating increased export of N from the nodules. The transformants exhibited a dramatic increase in growth both of the shoots and roots, and earlier flowering time, leading to increased yields. Moreover, the transformants showed an increase in elemental N and protein content. The overall conclusion is that increased SPS activity improves the N status and plant performance, suggesting that the availability of more C in the form of sucrose enhances N acquisition and assimilation in the nodules.

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SPS | sucrose phosphate s Plant Sucrose Phosphate S Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehyd MarkerGene™ â Galactos Rapid Microplate Assay K Normal Antibody Diluent Normal Antibody Diluent Normal Antibody Diluent Normal Antibody Diluent Primary Antibody Diluent Primary Antibody Diluent Primary Antibody Diluent

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#25867429   2015/04/14 Save this To Up

Cloning and sequence analysis of sucrose phosphate synthase gene from varieties of Pennisetum species.

Sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) is an enzyme used by higher plants for sucrose synthesis. In this study, three primer sets were designed on the basis of known SPS sequences from maize (GenBank: NM_001112224.1) and sugarcane (GenBank: JN584485.1), and five novel SPS genes were identified by RT-PCR from the genomes of Pennisetum spp (the hybrid P. americanum x P. purpureum, P. purpureum Schum., P. purpureum Schum. cv. Red, P. purpureum Schum. cv. Taiwan, and P. purpureum Schum. cv. Mott). The cloned sequences showed 99.9% identity and 80-88% similarity to the SPS sequences of other plants. The SPS gene of hybrid Pennisetum had one nucleotide and four amino acid polymorphisms compared to the other four germplasms, and cluster analysis was performed to assess genetic diversity in this species. Additional characterization of the SPS gene product can potentially allow Pennisetum to be exploited as a biofuel source.

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Plant Sucrose Phosphate S SPS | sucrose phosphate s Androgen Receptor (Phosph Androgen Receptor (Phosph Androgen Receptor (Ab 650 F box and leucine rich re Fatty Acid Synthase (FASN Glycogen Synthase Antibod phosphate-regulating neut ATP synthase C mature ant Fatty Acid Synthase antib Fatty Acid Synthase antib

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#25213117   2015/01/05 Save this To Up

Impact of concurrent overexpression of cytosolic glutamine synthetase (GS1) and sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) on growth and development in transgenic tobacco.

The outcome of simultaneously increasing SPS and GS activities in transgenic tobacco, suggests that sucrose is the major determinant of growth and development, and is not affected by changes in N assimilation. Carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) are the major components required for plant growth and the metabolic pathways for C and N assimilation are very closely interlinked. Maintaining an appropriate balance or ratio of sugar to nitrogen metabolites in the cell, is important for the regulation of plant growth and development. To understand how C and N metabolism interact, we manipulated the expression of key genes in C and N metabolism individually and concurrently and checked for the repercussions. Transgenic tobacco plants with a cytosolic soybean glutamine synthetase (GS1) gene and a sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) gene from maize, both driven by the CaMV 35S promoter were produced. Co-transformants, with both the transgenes were produced by sexual crosses. While GS is the key enzyme in N assimilation, involved in the synthesis of glutamine, SPS plays a key role in C metabolism by catalyzing the synthesis of sucrose. Moreover, to check if nitrate has any role in this interaction, the plants were grown under both low and high nitrogen. The SPS enzyme activity in the SPS and SPS/GS1 co-transformants were the same under both nitrogen regimens. However, the GS activity was lower in the co-transformants compared to the GS1 transformants, specifically under low nitrogen conditions. The GS1/SPS transformants showed a phenotype similar to the SPS transformants, suggesting that sucrose is the major determinant of growth and development in tobacco, and its effect is only marginally affected by increased N assimilation. Sucrose may be functioning in a metabolic capacity or as a signaling molecule.

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SPS | sucrose phosphate s Plant Sucrose Phosphate S Mouse Anti-Insulin-Like G DNA (cytosine 5) methyltr Human Insulin-like Growth Human Insulin-like Growth Androgen Receptor (Phosph Androgen Receptor (Phosph Rabbit Anti-Human Androge Rabbit Anti-Human Androge Mouse Insulin-like Growth Androgen Receptor (Ab 650

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#22294153   2012/08/03 Save this To Up

Magnesium deficiency results in damage of nitrogen and carbon cross-talk of maize and improvement by cerium addition.

Magnesium (Mg) deficiency has been reported to affect plant photosynthesis and growth, and cerium (Ce) was considered to be able to improve plant growth. However, the mechanisms of Mg deficiency and Ce on plant growth remain poorly understood. The main aim of this work is to identify whether or not Mg deprivation affects the interdependent nitrogen and carbon assimilations in the maize leaves and whether or not Ce modulates the assimilations in the maize leaves under Mg deficiency. Maize plants were cultivated in Hoagland’s solution. They were subjected to Mg deficiency and to cerium chloride administration in the Mg-present Hoagland’s media and Mg-deficient Hoagland’s media.After 2 weeks,we measured chlorophyll (Chl) a fluorescence and the activities of nitrate reductase (NR), sucrose-phosphate synthase(SPS), and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPCase)in metabolic checkpoints coordinating primary nitrogen and carbon assimilations in the maize leaves. The results showed that Mg deficiency significantly inhibited plant growth and decreased the activities of NR, SPS, and PEPCase and the synthesis of Chl and protein. Mg deprivation in maize also significantly decreased the oxygen evolution, electron transport,and efficiency of photochemical energy conversion by photosystem II (PSII). However, Ce addition may promote nitrogen and carbon assimilations, increase PSII activities,and improve maize growth under Mg deficiency. Moreover,our findings would help promote usage of Mg or Ce fertilizers in maize production.

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#21835494   2011/10/31 Save this To Up

Leaf photosynthesis and carbohydrates of CO₂-enriched maize and grain sorghum exposed to a short period of soil water deficit during vegetative development.

Among C₄ species, sorghum is known to be more drought tolerant than maize. The objective was to evaluate differences in leaf gas exchanges, carbohydrates, and two enzyme activities of these nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-malic enzyme (NADP-ME) C₄ subtype monocots in response to water deficit and CO₂ concentration ([CO₂]). Maize and sorghum were grown in pots in sunlit environmental-controlled chambers. Treatments included well watered (WW) and water stressed (WS) (water withheld at 26 days) and daytime [CO₂] of 360 (ambient) and 720 (elevated) μmol mol⁻¹. Midday gas exchange rates, concentrations of nonstructural carbohydrates, and activities of sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS) and adenosine 5'-diphosphoglucose pyrophosphorylase (ADGP) were determined for fully expanded leaf sections. There was no difference in leaf CO₂ exchange rates (CER) between ambient and elevated [CO₂] control plants for both maize and sorghum. After withholding water, leaf CER declined to zero after 8 days in maize and 10 days for sorghum. Sorghum had lower stomatal conductance and transpiration rates than maize, which resulted in a longer period of CER under drought. Nonstructural carbohydrates of both control maize and sorghum were hardly affected by elevated [CO₂]. Under drought, however, increases in soluble sugars and decreases in starch were generally observed for maize and sorghum at both [CO₂] levels. For stressed maize and sorghum, decreases in starch occurred earlier and were greater at ambient [CO₂] than at elevated [CO₂]. For maize, drought did not meaningfully affect SPS activity. However, a decline in SPS activity was observed for drought-stressed sorghum under both [CO₂] treatments. There was an increase in ADGP activity in maize under drought for both [CO₂] treatments. Such a response in ADGP to drought, however, did not occur for sorghum. The generally more rapid response of maize than sorghum to drought might be related to the more rapid growth of leaf area of maize.

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#18485062   2008/09/10 Save this To Up

If the antibody fails--a mass western approach.

Sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS) has attracted the interest of plant scientists for decades. It is the key enzyme in sucrose metabolism and is under investigation in various plant species, e.g. spinach, tobacco, poplar, resurrection plants, maize, rice, kiwi and Arabidopsis thaliana. In A. thaliana, there are four distinct SPS isoforms. Their expression is thought to depend on environmental conditions and plant tissue. However, these data were derived from mRNA expression levels only. No data on SPS protein identification from crude extracts have been available until now. An antibody approach failed to distinguish the four isoforms. Therefore, we developed a method for SPS quantification and isoform-specific identification in A. thaliana complex protein samples. Samples were separated on SDS-PAGE, digested and directly applied to liquid chromatography/triple-stage quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC/TSQ-MS). In this approach, known as mass Western, samples were analysed in multi-reaction monitoring (MRM) mode, so that all four SPS isoforms could be measured in one experiment. In addition to the relative quantification, stable isotope-labelled internal peptide standards allowed absolute quantification of SPS proteins. Protein extracts from various plant tissues, samples harvested during the day or the night, and cold-stressed plants were analysed. The stress-specific SPS5a isoform showed increased concentrations in cold-stressed leaf material.

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#16876912   2007/07/02 Save this To Up

Phylogenetic and expression analysis of sucrose phosphate synthase isozymes in plants.

In plants and microbes, sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) is an important enzyme in sucrose biosynthesis. Several different isozymes of SPS exist in plants. Genomic and EST sequence data from Arabidopsis, rice and maize has been analyzed. This analysis has revealed that the Arabidopsis genome contains four unique SPS genes. The rice databases (Monsanto proprietary, and public databases) contain five unique full-length SPS genes. Using the Monsanto maize EST and genomic sequence databases, we have identified five full length and two partial SPS sequences, bringing the total number of presently known maize SPS genes to at least seven. Phylogenetic analysis of all known SPS sequences revealed several putative evolutionary branches of SPS. We have classified SPS genes into three major groups in higher plants, all with distinct features from the known microbial SPS genes. Furthermore, this analysis suggests evolutionary divergence of monocotyledonous (monocot) and dicotyledonous (dicot) SPS sequences. The evidence suggests that several gene duplication events occurred at various points during evolution, both before and after the monocot/dicot split. It appears that at least one of the major forms of SPS genes may have evolved after the divergence of monocots and dicots. In addition, several more recent gene duplication events may have occurred after maize/rice speciation, giving rise to additional SPS genes in maize. Some of the variants lack one or more of the presently known regulatory sites, implying that this evolutionary divergence may have given rise to enzymes with functional differences. We present evidence from transcript distribution studies using cDNA libraries as well as transcriptional profiling experiments and propose that specific SPS genes have diverse patterns of expression that are sometimes responsive to environmental signals. Our data suggests that higher plant SPS isozymes differ with respect to their patterns of expression and regulation and that our proposed phylogenetic classification reflects specific functional categories for higher plant SPS isozymes.

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#15247374   2004/07/21 Save this To Up

Evolution and function of the sucrose-phosphate synthase gene families in wheat and other grasses.

Suc-phosphate synthase (SPS) is a key regulatory enzyme in the pathway of Suc biosynthesis and has been linked to quantitative trait loci controlling plant growth and yield. In dicotyledonous plants there are three SPS gene families: A, B, and C. Here we report the finding of five families of SPS genes in wheat (Triticum aestivum) and other monocotyledonous plants from the family Poaceae (grasses). Three of these form separate subfamilies within the previously described A, B, and C gene families, but the other two form a novel and distinctive D family, which on present evidence is only found in the Poaceae. The D-type SPS proteins lack the phosphorylation sites associated with 14-3-3 protein binding and osmotic stress activation, and the linker region between the N-terminal catalytic glucosyltransferase domain and the C-terminal Suc-phosphatase-like domain is 80 to 90 amino acid residues shorter than in the A, B, or C types. The D family appears to have arisen after the divergence of mono- and dicotyledonous plants, with a later duplication event resulting in the two D-type subfamilies. Each of the SPS gene families in wheat showed different, but overlapping, spatial and temporal expression patterns, and in most organs at least two different SPS genes are expressed. Analysis of expressed sequence tags indicated similar expression patterns to wheat for each SPS gene family in barley (Hordeum vulgare) but not in more distantly related grasses. We identified an expressed sequence tag from rice (Oryza sativa) that appears to be derived from an endogenous antisense SPS gene, and this might account for the apparently low level of expression of the related OsSPS11 sense gene, adding to the already extensive list of mechanisms for regulating the activity of SPS in plants.

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SPS | sucrose phosphate s Plant Sucrose Phosphate S DNA (cytosine 5) methyltr Human Epstein-Barr Virus Androgen Receptor (Phosph Androgen Receptor (Phosph Rabbit Anti-Human Androge Rabbit Anti-Human Androge Mouse Epstein-Barr Virus Rat TGF-beta-inducible ea Rat TGF-beta-inducible ea Androgen Receptor (Ab 650

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#15232213   2004/07/02 Save this To Up

Expression of sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS) in non-photosynthetic tissues of maize.

Sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) is responsible for sucrose synthesis in photosynthetic tissues. We have detected SPS expression in non-photosynthetic tissues. It was predominantly expressed in the basal region of developing endosperm, suggesting that sucrose is re-synthesized in this region, where sucrose is unloaded from the phloem and hydrolyzed into glucose and fructose. The SPS transcript in endosperm was approximately 300 nt smaller than in leaf. However, the size of the SPS protein was similar to that of leaf but had higher activity. SPS expression was also detected in developing and germinating embryos, indicating that sucrose resynthesis also occurs in embryos. Although the level of SPS mRNA and protein was lower in embryos than in leaf, enzymatic activity was higher. Similarly, the level of SPS transcript was 10-fold lower in endosperm than in leaf but the level of SPS protein was comparable, and activity was 2 fold higher. Thus, SPS expression was evident in maize kernels, and its expression and regulation were different from the SPS in leaf.

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