Search results for: Senescence Detection Kit
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Fate of Lu(III) sorbed on 2-line ferrihydrite at pH 5.7 and aged for 12 years at room temperature. I: insights from ICP-OES, XRD, ESEM, AsFlFFF/ICP-MS, and EXAFS spectroscopy.Two-line ferrihydrite (2LFh) was aged for 12 years under ambient conditions and sheltered from light in the presence of Lu(III) used as surrogate for trivalent actinides. 2LFh aging produced hematite rhombohedra with overgrown acicular goethite particles. Analysis of the homogeneous suspension by asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AsFlFFF) coupled to ICP-MS indicated that particles have a mean hydrodynamic diameter of about 140 nm and the strong correlation of the Fe and Lu fractograms hinted at a structural association of the lanthanide with the solid phase(s). Unfortunately, recoveries were low and thus results cannot be considered representative of the whole sample. The suspension was centrifuged and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) at the Lu L-edge on the settled particles indicated that Lu(III) is sixfold coordinated by oxygen atoms, pointing to a retention by structural incorporation within particles. This result is consistent with AsFlFFF results on the same suspension without centrifugation. The detection of next nearest Fe and O atoms were consistent with the structure of goethite, ruling out incorporation within hematite. After centrifugation of the suspension, only nanoparticulate needle-like particles, very likely goethite, could be detected in the supernatant by ESEM. AsFlFFF data of the supernatant were comparable to that obtained for the homogeneous suspension, whereas XAS indicated that Lu(III) is predominantly present as dissolved species in the supernatant. Results from both techniques can be interpreted as a major fraction of Lu present as aqueous ions and a minor fraction as structurally incorporated. Findings from this study are corroborated by STEM-HAADF data and results from DFT calculations in a companion paper.
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Pachymic acid promotes induction of autophagy related to IGF-1 signaling pathway in WI-38 cells.The insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) signaling pathway has spotlighted as a mechanism to elucidate aging associated with autophagy in recent years. Therefore, we have tried to screen an effective compound capable of inducing autophagy to delay aging process.
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Prevalence and Geographic Distribution of Vector-Borne Pathogens in Apparently Healthy Dogs in Croatia.Vector-borne pathogens (VBPs) are a group of globally extended and quickly spreading pathogens that are transmitted by various arthropod vectors. The aim of the present study was to investigate the seroprevalence against Babesia canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Leishmania infantum, Dirofilaria immitis, and Ehrlichia canis in dogs in Croatia. We investigated 435 randomly selected apparently healthy dogs in 13 different locations of Croatia for antibodies to B. canis by indirect immunofluorescence using a commercial IFA IgG Antibody Kit. All samples were also tested for qualitative detection of D. immitis antigen and for antibodies to A. phagocytophilum, B. burgdorferi sensu lato, L. infantum, and E. canis with two point-of-care assays. Overall, 112 dogs (25.74%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 21.70-30.12) were serologically positive for one or more of the pathogens. B. canis was the most prevalent pathogen (20.00%, 95% CI 16.34-24.07), followed by A. phagocytophilum (6.21%, 95% CI 4.12-8.90), L. infantum, (1.38%, 95% CI 0.51-2.97), and B. burgdorferi sensu lato (0.69%, 95% CI 0.01-2.00). The lowest seroprevalence was for D. immitis and E. canis (0.46%, 95% CI 0.01-1.65). Coinfection was determined in 12 dogs (2.76%, 95% CI 1.43-4.77), of which 10 were positive to two pathogens (7 with B. canis and A. phagocytophilum and 1 B. canis with B. burgdorferi sensu lato or L. infantum or E. canis). One dog was positive to three pathogens and another dog to four pathogens. Seroprevalence for babesia was age, breed, and lifestyle/use dependent. Purebred dogs had almost half the chance of developing disease than crossbred (OR = 0.58, p < 0.026, 95% CI 0.37-0.94). Seropositivity to B. canis was 3.41 times higher for dogs that lived outdoors/shelter (p < 0.006) or 4.57 times higher in mixed/hunting (p < 0.001) compared to indoor/companion dogs. This is the first comprehensive survey of VBP seropositivity conducted in Croatia. Some of these VBPs are zoonotic and represent a potential risk to public health.
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Vincamine Alleviates Amyloid-β 25-35 Peptides-induced Cytotoxicity in PC12 Cells.Vincamine is a plant alkaloid used clinically as a peripheral vasodilator that increases cerebral blood flow and oxygen and glucose utilization by neural tissue to combat the effect of aging. The main purpose of the present study is to investigate the influence of vincamine on amyloid-β 25-35 (Aβ25-35) induced cytotoxicity, to gain a better understanding of the neuroprotective effects of this clinically used anti-Alzheimer's disease drug.
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Comparative performance of AmpFLSTR® Identifiler® Plus PCR amplification kit and QIAGEN® Investigator® IDplex Plus kit.Many forensic STR kits are currently available in the market. The AmpFLSTR® Identifiler® Plus kit, which targets 15 STRs, is commonly used worldwide. The Thai forensic DNA community is built around it in terms of instrument, databases, and interpretation. QIAGEN's IDplex Plus kit targets the same loci, but the PCR cycling time is shorter by about 90min. A direct comparison that assesses forensic parameters and applicability to casework between the two kits has never been carried out. In this study, we performed a direct comparison between the two kits using serial dilutions of two control DNA samples and 60 randomly selected casework samples, including samples taken from improvised explosive devices and terrorist raids. We statistically compared the performance of the two kits in terms of peak height, number of allele detected (allelic drop-out), intra-locus balance, inter-locus balance, inhibitor tolerance, stutter ratio, concordance, and allelic drop-in. The results demonstrate that both kits are statistically similar in performance. IDplex Plus gave higher peak heights in sensitivity test and tolerated inhibitors better, but had slightly worse inter-locus balances and stutter ratios. However, these differences were not practically significant, as seen by the resulting profiles of the casework samples (p=0.601). The performance on low-template samples also was not different. In conclusion, laboratories looking to replace the aging Identifiler® Plus might consider the IDplex Plus as a faster, more robust alternative that fits right into their existing structure without further investment in instrument and DNA database. Having more kits available worldwide by different companies could help bring the technology to different forensic laboratories and the justice system as a whole.
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The Immunomodulatory Activity of Mori folium, the Leaf ofL., in RAW 264.7 Macrophages In Vitro.Immunoregulatory elements have emerged as useful immunotherapeutic agents against cancer. In traditional medicine, Mori folium, the leaf ofL. (Moraceae), has been used for various medicinal purposes; however, the immunomodulatory effects have not been fully identified. We evaluated the immunoenhancing potential of water extract of Mori folium (WEMF) in murine RAW264.7 macrophages.
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Detection of cellular senescence within human invasive breast carcinomas distinguishes different breast tumor subtypes.Oncogene-induced senescence is thought to act as a barrier to tumorigenesis by arresting cells at risk of malignant transformation. Nevertheless, numerous findings suggest that senescent cells may conversely promote tumor progression through the development of the senescence-associated secretome they produce. It is likely that the composition and the physiological consequences mediated by the senescence secretome are dependent on the oncogenes that trigger the senescence program. Breast cancer represents a heterogenous disease that can be divided into breast cancer subtypes due to different subsets of genetic and epigenetic abnormalities. As tumor initiation and progression of these breast cancer subtypes is triggered by diverse oncogenic stimuli, differences in the senescence secretomes within breast tumors might be responsible for tumor initiation, progression, metastasis and therapeutic response. Many studies have addressed the role of senescence as a barrier to tumor progression using murine xenograft models. However, few investigations have been performed to elucidate the degree to which senescent tumor cells are present within untreated human tumors, and if present, whether these senescent tumor cells may play a role in disease progression. In the present study we analysed the appearance of senescent cells within invasive breast cancers. Detection of cellular senescence by the use of SAβ-galactosidase (SAβ-gal) staining within invasive breast carcinoms from 129 untreated patients revealed differences in the amount of SAβ-gal+ tumor cells between breast cancer subtypes. The highest percentages of SAβ-gal+ tumor cells were found in HER2-positive and luminal A breast carcinomas whereas triple negative tumors showed either little or no positivity.
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Bioassays for TSH Receptor Autoantibodies, from FRTL-5 Cells to TSH Receptor-LH/CG Receptor Chimeras: The Contribution of Leonard D. Kohn.Since the discovery 60 years ago of the "long-acting thyroid stimulator" by Adams and Purves, great progress has been made in the detection of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor (TSHR) autoantibodies (TRAbs) in Graves' disease. Today, commercial assays are available that can detect TRAbs with high accuracy and provide diagnostic and prognostic evaluation of patients with Graves' disease. The present review focuses on the development of TRAbs bioassays, and particularly on the role that Leonard D. Kohn had in this. Indeed, 30 years ago, the Kohn group developed a bioassay based on the use of FRTL-5 cells that was characterized by high reproducibility, feasibility, and diagnostic accuracy. Using this FRTL-5 bioassay, Kohn and his colleagues were the first to develop monoclonal antibodies (moAbs) against the TSHR. Furthermore, they demonstrated the multifaceted functional nature of TRAbs in patients with Graves' disease, with the identification of stimulating and blocking TRAbs, and even antibodies that activated pathways other than cAMP. After the cloning of the TSHR, the Kohn laboratory constructed human TSHR-rat luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin receptor chimeras. This paved the way to a new bioassay based on the use of non-thyroid cells transfected with the Mc4 chimera. The new Mc4 bioassay is characterized by high diagnostic and prognostic accuracy, greater than for other assays. The availability of a commercial kit based on the Mc4 chimera is spreading the use of this assay worldwide, indicating its benefits for these patients with Graves' disease. This review also describes the main contributions made by other researchers in TSHR molecular biology and TRAbs assay, especially with the development of highly potent moAbs. A comparison of the diagnostic accuracies of the main TRAbs assays, as both immunoassays and bioassays, is also provided.
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Comparison of Quantifiler(®) Trio and InnoQuant™ human DNA quantification kits for detection of DNA degradation in developed and aged fingerprints.The development techniques employed to visualize fingerprints collected from crime scenes as well as post-development ageing may result in the degradation of the DNA present in low quantities in such evidence samples. Amplification of the DNA samples with short tandem repeat (STR) amplification kits may result in partial DNA profiles. A comparative study of two commercially available quantification kits, Quantifiler(®) Trio and InnoQuant™, was performed on latent fingerprint samples that were either (i) developed using one of three different techniques and then aged in ambient conditions or (ii) undeveloped and then aged in ambient conditions. The three fingerprint development techniques used were: cyanoacrylate fuming, dusting with black powder, and the columnar-thin-film (CTF) technique. In order to determine the differences between the expected quantities and actual quantities of DNA, manually degraded samples generated by controlled exposure of DNA standards to ultraviolet radiation were also analyzed. A total of 144 fingerprint and 42 manually degraded DNA samples were processed in this study. The results indicate that the InnoQuant™ kit is capable of producing higher degradation ratios compared to the Quantifiler(®) Trio kit. This was an expected result since the degradation ratio is a relative value specific for a kit based on the length and extent of amplification of the two amplicons that vary from one kit to the other. Additionally, samples with lower concentrations of DNA yielded non-linear relationships of degradation ratio with the duration of aging, whereas samples with higher concentrations of DNA yielded quasi-linear relationships. None of the three development techniques produced a noticeably different degradation pattern when compared to undeveloped fingerprints, and therefore do not impede downstream DNA analysis.
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Role of peroxiredoxin 2 in H2O2‑induced oxidative stress of primary Leydig cells.Late‑onset hypogonadism is defined as a condition caused by a decline in the levels of testosterone with aging. One of the major factors contributing to the low levels of testosterone is the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in Leydig cells during the ageing process. Peroxiredoxin 2 (Prdx2), a member of the peroxiredoxin family, is an antioxidant protein, the predominant function of which is to neutralize ROS. However, its role in Leydig cells remains to be elucidated. In the present study, primary Leydig cells were exposed to low concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to induce oxidative stress. Cell apoptosis was measured using an Annexin V fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide apoptosis detection kit and flow cytometry. The level of testosterone was determined by radioimmunoassay, and the mRNA and protein expression levels of Prdx2 were detected by reverse transcription‑polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, respectively. The results revealed a significant increase in cell apoptosis and decrease in testosterone production. In addition, the expression of Prdx2 was decreased by H2O2 in a dose‑ and time‑dependent manner, and this decrease may have been caused by the induction of its molecular structure transformation due to H2O2 elimination. The above findings indicated that Prdx2 may prevent H2O2 accumulation in Leydig cells, and may be important in oxidative stress‑induced apoptosis and decreased testosterone production.
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