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#20218691   2010/05/07 Save this To Up

Proteomic profiling of Plasmodium falciparum through improved, semiquantitative two-dimensional gel electrophoresis.

Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) is one of the most commonly used technologies to obtain a snapshot of the proteome at any specific time. However, its application to study the Plasmodial (malaria parasite) proteome is still limited due to inefficient extraction and detection methods and the extraordinarily large size of some proteins. Here, we report an optimized protein extraction method, the most appropriate methods for Plasmodial protein quantification and 2-DE detection, and finally protein identification by mass spectrometry (MS). Linear detection of Plasmodial proteins in a optimized lysis buffer was only possible with the 2-D Quant kit, and of the four stains investigated, Flamingo Pink was superior regarding sensitivity, linearity, and excellent MS-compatibility. 2-DE analyses of the Plasmodial proteome using this methodology resulted in the reliable detection of 349 spots and a 95% success rate in MS/MS identification. Subsequent application to the analyses of the Plasmodial ring and trophozoite proteomes ultimately resulted in the identification of 125 protein spots, which constituted 57 and 49 proteins from the Plasmodial ring and trophozoite stages, respectively. This study additionally highlights the presence of various isoforms within the Plasmodial proteome, which is of significant biological importance within the Plasmodial parasite during development in the intraerythrocytic developmental cycle.

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#18754684   2008/10/06 Save this To Up

MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS reveals elevated serum haptoglobin and amyloid A in Behcet's disease.

Behcet's disease (BD) is a multisystemic autoimmune disease with unclear etiology and pathogenesis. To screen aberrant serum proteins in BD, serum samples were obtained from eight male BD patients with active uveitis and eight male healthy volunteers with informed consent. The serum samples from active BD patients and normal controls were pooled. Highly abundant serum proteins (albumin and IgG) were depleted from these two samples using an affinity capture based kit. The obtained samples were subjected to two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). Protein spots were visualized with the "blue silver" staining. Differently expressed proteins were subsequently identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption /ionization tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS). Western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were performed using the serum samples from 18 patients with active BD, 6 patients with inactive BD, 22 patients with Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) syndrome, and 20 healthy volunteers to validate the results of 2-DE and MS. Proteomic profiles of the pooled samples were compared, and approximately 800 protein spots were observed in each of the gels. Expression levels of four of the protein spots in active BD were significantly higher than those in the normal controls. Mass spectrometric protein identification revealed that the four protein spots corresponded to two proteins: haptoglobin (Hp) and serum amyloid A (SAA). Western blot and ELISA showed that Hp was only overexpressed in active BD but not in inactive BD, VKH syndrome, or healthy controls. An obvious band of SAA was detected in 72.2% of the serum samples from BD patients, whereas a vague band of this protein was found in 10.0% of the tested normal samples and 9.1% of VKH samples. Our results revealed a significantly increased expression of Hp and SAA in serum of active BD patients. These two proteins may be involved in the development of BD.

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#16841516   2006/07/17 Save this To Up

Comparative proteomics analysis of differentially expressed phosphoproteins in adult rat ventricular myocytes subjected to diazoxide preconditioning.

Mitochondrial ATP sensitive potassium channels (mitoK(ATP) channels) are involved in the cardioprotection afforded by ischemic preconditioning (IPC) and diazoxide, a selective mitoK(ATP) channel opener. The activation of some kinases, including phoshoprotein kinase (PKC)-epsilon and mitogen-activating protein kinases (MAPK), is involved in signal conduction of preconditioning downstream from mitoK(ATP) channel opening. Diazoxide can open mitoK(ATP) channels and activate PKC-epsilon, which will phosphorylate some substrate proteins. These proteins that exhibit altered post-translational modification via phosphorylation due to diazoxide pretreatment may be the target molecules and play an important role in cellular protection after mitoK(ATP) channel opening. To analyze and identify the phosphoproteins associated with diazoxide preconditioning, phosphoprotein enrichment and comparative two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-GE) were used. Cultured adult rat ventricular myocytes were pretreated in the presence and absence of 100 micronol/1l diazoxide for 10 min and enriched phosphoproteins from control myocytes and those pretreated with 100 micromol/l diazoxide were separated by 2D-GE and stained with a silver staining kit. Phosphoproteins of interest were further identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Eight protein spots with different abundance were found, of which six differentially expressed proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF MS. They included 94 kDa glucose-regulated protein, calpactin I heavy chain, chaperonin containing TCP-1 zeta subunit, hypothetical protein XP_346548, ferritin light chain and ferritin light chain 2. These findings provide new clues to understanding the mechanism of ischemic preconditioning in cardiomyocytes downstream from mitoK(ATP) channel opening.

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#14997504   2004/03/03 Save this To Up

Protein profiling and identification of modulators regulated by the E7 oncogene in the C33A cell line by proteomics and genomics.

Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) have been recognized as the primary cause of cervical cancer. HPV 16 E7 binds to tumor suppressor retinoblastoma protein, and interferes with its function, causing release of the transcription factor E2F, which influences expression of cell cycle-related genes. This study was performed to identify the genes and proteins modulated by the HPV E7 oncogene. An HPV-negative cervical cancer cell line (C33A) was prepared to establish a stable cell line expressing E7. In order to analyze the target molecules modulated by E7 expression, we used two approaches: matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and DNA microarrays. Forty-seven spots were identified in C33A/E7 by two-dimensional electrophoresis and MALDI/TOF MS. Protein disulfide isomerase A3, integrase interactor 1 protein, growth inhibitory protein, glutathione S-transferase P, and vav proto-oncogene were down-regulated, whereas heat shock 60 kDa protein 1, Ku70 binding protein, alpha enolase, 26S proteasome subunit were up-regulated. A genomic approach using a microarray kit showed that IL-12R beta 1, cytochrome c, and tumor necrosis factor receptor II were induced by the E7 oncogene. These results suggest that E7 can evade immune surveillance by suppressing or inducing these cell signaling factors, cell cycle regulators, and chaperones.

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