Search results for: Soybean mosaic virus (SMV)
#28887190 2017/09/09 Save this To Up
Rapid detection of fifteen known soybean viruses by dot-immunobinding assay.A dot-immunobinding assay (DIBA) was optimized and used successfully for the rapid detection of 15 known viruses [Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV), Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV), Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV), Cowpea mild mottle virus (CPMMV), Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV), Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Peanut mottle virus (PeMoV), Peanut stunt virus (PSV), Southern bean mosaic virus (SBMV), Soybean dwarf virus (SbDV), Soybean mosaic virus (SMV), Soybean vein necrosis virus (SVNV), Tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV), Tomato ringspot virus (ToRSV), and Tobacco streak virus (TSV)] infecting soybean plants in Oklahoma. More than 1000 leaf samples were collected in approximately 100 commercial soybean fields in 24 counties of Oklahoma, during the 2012-2013 growing seasons. All samples were tested by DIBA using polyclonal antibodies of the above 15 plant viruses. Thirteen viruses were detected, and 8 of them were reported for the first time in soybean crops of Oklahoma. The highest average incidence was recorded for PeMoV (13.5%) followed by SVNV (6.9%), TSV (6.4%), BYMV, (4.5%), and TRSV (3.9%), while the remaining seven viruses were detected in less than 2% of the samples tested. The DIBA was quick, and economical to screen more than 1000 samples against 15 known plant viruses in a very short time.
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#28840434 2017/08/25 Save this To Up
Robust RNAi-mediated resistance to infection of seven potyvirids in soybean expressing an intron hairpin NIb RNA.Viral pathogens, such as soybean mosaic virus (SMV), are a major constraint in soybean production and often cause significant yield loss and quality deterioration. Engineering resistance by RNAi-mediated gene silencing is a powerful strategy for controlling viral diseases. In this study, a 248-bp inverted repeat of the replicase (nuclear inclusion b, NIb) gene was isolated from the SMV SC3 strain, driven by the leaf-specific rbcS2 promoter from Phaseolus vulgaris, and introduced into soybean. The transgenic lines had significantly lower average disease indices (ranging from 2.14 to 12.35) than did the non-transformed (NT) control plants in three consecutive generations, exhibiting a stable and significantly enhanced resistance to the SMV SC3 strain under field conditions. Furthermore, seed mottling did not occur in transgenic seeds, whereas the NT plants produced ~90% mottled seeds. Virus resistance spectrum screening showed that the greenhouse-grown transgenic lines exhibited robust resistance to five SMV strains (SC3, SC7, SC15, SC18, and a recombinant SMV), bean common mosaic virus, and watermelon mosaic virus. Nevertheless, no significantly enhanced resistance to bean pod mottle virus (BPMV, Comovirus) was observed in the transgenic lines relative to their NT counterparts. Consistent with the results of resistance evaluation, the accumulation of each potyvirid (but not of BPMV) was significantly inhibited in the transgenic plants relative to the NT controls as confirmed by quantitative real-time (qRT-PCR) and double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA). These results demonstrate that robust RNAi-mediated resistance to multiple potyvirids in soybean was conferred by expressing an intron hairpin SMV NIb RNA.
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#28825113 2017/08/21 Save this To Up
Fine-mapping and identification of a novel locus Rsc15 underlying soybean resistance to Soybean mosaic virus.Rsc15, a novel locus underlying soybean resistance to SMV, was fine mapped to a 95-kb region on chromosome 6. The Rsc15- mediated resistance is likely attributed to the gene GmPEX14 , the relative expression of which was highly correlated with the accumulation of H 2 O 2 along with the activities of POD and CAT during the early stages of SMV infection in RN-9. Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) causes severe yield losses and seed quality deterioration in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] worldwide. A series of single dominant SMV resistance genes have been identified on respective soybean chromosomes 2, 13 and 14, while one novel locus, Rsc15, underlying resistance to the virulent SMV strain SC15 from soybean cultivar RN-9 has been recently mapped to a 14.6-cM region on chromosome 6. However, candidate gene has not yet been identified within this region. In the present study, we aimed to fine map the Rsc15 region and identify candidate gene(s) for this invaluable locus. High-resolution fine-mapping revealed that the Rsc15 gene was located in a 95-kb genomic region which was flanked by the two simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers SSR_06_17 and BARCSOYSSR_06_0835. Allelic sequence comparison and expression profile analysis of candidate genes inferred that the gene Glyma.06g182600 (designated as GmPEX14) was the best candidate gene attributing for the resistance of Rsc15, and that genes encoding receptor-like kinase (RLK) (i.e., Glyma.06g175100 and Glyma.06g184400) and serine/threonine kinase (STK) (i.e., Glyma.06g182900 and Glyma.06g183500) were also potential candidates. High correlations were established between the relative expression level of GmPEX14 and the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentration and activities of catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) during the early stages of SMV-SC15 infection in RN-9. The results of the present study will be useful in marker-assisted breeding for SMV resistance and will lead to further understanding of the molecular mechanisms of host resistance against SMV.
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#28756582 2017/07/30 Save this To Up
RNAi-mediated SMV P3 cistron silencing confers significantly enhanced resistance to multiple Potyvirus strains and isolates in transgenic soybean.Robust RNAi-mediated resistance to multiple Potyvirus strains and isolates, but not to Secovirus BPMV, was conferred by expressing a short SMV P3 hairpin in soybean plants. Engineering resistance to multiple Potyvirus strains is of great interest because of a wide variability of the virus strains, and mixed infections of multiple viruses or strains commonly associated with field grown soybean. In this study, RNAi-mediated silencing of the soybean mosaic virus (SMV) P3 cistron, which is reported to participate in virus movements and pathogenesis and to be the putative determinant of SMV virulence, was used to induce resistance to multiple Potyvirus strains and isolates in soybean. A 302 bp inverted repeat (IR) of the P3 cistron, isolated from the SMV strain SC3, was introduced into soybean. The transgenic lines exhibited stable and enhanced resistance to SMV SC3 under field conditions over 3 consecutive years. The transgenic lines also showed significantly enhanced resistance to four other SMV strains (SC7, SC15, SC18, and SMV-R, a novel recombinant found in China), the soybean-infecting bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) and watermelon mosaic virus (WMV). Nevertheless, no significant differences were found between transgenic plants and their non-transformed (NT) counterparts in terms of resistance to bean pod mottle virus (BPMV, Secoviridae). Consistent with the results of resistance evaluations, the expression of the respective viral CP cistrons and virus accumulation were significantly lower in seven Potyvirus strains and isolates than in the NT plants, but not in BCMV-inoculated transgenic lines. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of engineering resistance to multiple Potyvirus strains and isolates via RNAi-mediated SMV P3 cistron silencing, and thus provide an effective control strategy against Potyvirus infections in soybean and other crops.
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#28695996 2017/07/11 Save this To Up
Downregulation of genes coding for core RNAi components and disease resistance proteins via corresponding microRNAs might be correlated with successful SMV infection in soybean.Plants protect themselves from virus infections by several different defense mechanisms. RNA interference (RNAi) is one prominent antiviral mechanism, which requires the participation of AGO (Argonaute) and Dicer/DCL (Dicer-like) proteins. Effector-triggered immunity (ETI) is an antiviral mechanism mediated by resistance (R) genes, most of which encode NBS-LRR family proteins. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important regulatory roles in plants, including regulation of host defenses. SMV (Soybean mosaic virus) is the most common virus in soybean and here we identified dozens of SMV-responsive miRNAs by microarray analysis in a SMV-susceptible soybean line. Among the up-regulated miRNAs, miR168a, miR403a, miR162b and miR1515a predictively regulate expression of AGO1, AGO2, DCL1 and DCL2 respectively, and miR1507a, miR1507c and miR482a putatively regulate expression of several NBS-LRR family disease resistance genes. Regulation of their target gene expression by these seven miRNAs was validated by both transient expression assays and RLM-RACE experiments. Transcript levels for AGO1, DCL1, DCL2 and five NBS-LRR family genes were repressed at different time points post SMV infection, while the corresponding miRNA levels were upregulated at these same time points. Furthermore, inhibition of miR1507a, miR1507c, miR482a, miR168a and miR1515a by STTM technology compromised SMV infection efficiency in soybean. Our results imply that SMV can counteract soybean defense responses by down-regulation of several RNAi pathway genes and NBS-LRR family resistance genes via inducing the accumulation of their corresponding miRNA levels. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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#28656325 2017/06/28 Save this To Up
Over-expression of GmSN1 enhances virus resistance in Arabidopsis and soybean.GmSN1 enhances virus resistance in plants most likely by affecting the expression of signal transduction and immune response genes. Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) infection causes severe symptom and leads to massive yield loss in soybean (Glycine max). By comparative analyzing gene expression in the SMV-resistant soybean cultivar Rsmv1 and the susceptible cultivar Ssmv1 at a transcriptome level, we found that a subgroup of Gibberellic Acid Stimulated Transcript (GAST) genes were down-regulated in SMV inoculated Ssmv1 plants, but not Rsmv1 plants. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis indicated that one of the GAST genes, GmSN1, was closely related to Snakin-1, a well-characterized potato microbial disease resistance gene. When over-expressed in Arabidopsis and soybean, respectively, under the control of the 35S promoter, GmSN1 enhanced turnip mosaic virus resistance in the transgenic Arabidopsis plants, and SMV resistance in the transgenic soybean plants, respectively. Transcriptome analysis results showed that the up-regulated genes in the 35S:GmSN1 transgenic Arabidopsis plants were largely enriched in functional terms including "signal transduction" and "immune response". Real-time PCR assay indicated that the expression of GmAKT2, a potassium channel gene known to enhance SMV resistance when over-expressed in soybean, was elevated in the 35S:GmSN1 transgenic soybean plants. Taken together, our results suggest that GmSN1 enhances virus resistance in plants most likely by affecting the expression of signal transduction and immune response genes.
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#28352959 2017/03/29 Save this To Up
Inheritance, fine-mapping, and candidate gene analyses of resistance to soybean mosaic virus strain SC5 in soybean.Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) is one of the most devastating pathogens for soybeans in China. Among the country-wide 22 strains, SC5 dominates in Huang-Huai and Changjiang valleys. For controlling its damage, the resistance gene was searched through Mendelian inheritance study, gene fine-mapping, and candidate gene analysis combined with qRT-PCR (quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction) analysis. The parents F1, F2, and RILs (recombinant inbred lines) of the cross Kefeng-1 (Resistance, R) × NN1138-2 (Susceptible, S) were used to examine the inheritance of SC5-resistance. The F1 was resistant and the F2 and RILs segregated in a 3R:1S and 1R:1S ratio, respectively, indicating a single dominant gene conferring the Kefeng-1 resistance. Subsequently, the genomic region conferring the resistance was found in "Bin 352-Bin353 with 500 kb" on Chromosome 2 using the phenotyping data of the 427 RILs and a high-density genetic map with 4703 bin markers. In the 500 kb genomic region, 38 putative genes are contained. The association analysis between the SNPs in a putative gene and the resistance phenotype for the 427 RILs prioritized 11 candidate genes using Chi-square criterion. The expression levels of these genes were tested by qRT-PCR. On infection with SC5, 7 out of the 11 genes had differential expression in Kefeng-1 and NN1138-2. Furthermore, integrating SNP-phenotype association analysis with qRT-PCR expression profiling analysis, Glyma02g13495 was found the most possible candidate gene for SC5-resistance. This finding can facilitate the breeding for SC5-resistance through marker-assisted selection and provide a platform to gain a better understanding of SMV-resistance gene system in soybean.
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#28116525 2017/01/24 Save this To Up
Erratum to: Complete nucleotide sequences of seven soybean mosaic viruses (SMV), isolated from wild soybeans (Glycine soja) in China.
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#27965641 2016/12/14 Save this To Up
The Current Status of the Soybean-Soybean Mosaic Virus (SMV) Pathosystem.Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) is one of the most devastating pathogens that cost huge economic losses in soybean production worldwide. Due to the duplicated genome, clustered and highly homologous nature of R genes, as well as recalcitrant to transformation, soybean disease resistance studies is largely lagging compared with other diploid crops. In this review, we focus on the major advances that have been made in identifying both the virulence/avirulence factors of SMV and mapping of SMV resistant genes in soybean. In addition, we review the progress in dissecting the SMV resistant signaling pathways in soybean, with a special focus on the studies using virus-induced gene silencing. The soybean genome has been fully sequenced, and the increasingly saturated SNP markers have been identified. With these resources available together with the newly developed genome editing tools, and more efficient soybean transformation system, cloning SMV resistant genes, and ultimately generating cultivars with a broader spectrum resistance to SMV are becoming more realistic than ever.
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#27909932 2016/12/02 Save this To Up
Complete nucleotide sequences of seven soybean mosaic viruses (SMV), isolated from wild soybeans (Glycine soja) in China.Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) is a devastating plant virus classified in the family Potyviridae, and known to infect cultivated soybeans (Glycine max). In this study, seven new SMVs were isolated from wild soybean samples and analyzed by whole-genome sequencing. An updated SMV phylogeny was built with the seven new and 83 known SMV genomic sequences. Results showed that three northeastern SMV isolates were distributed in clade III and IV, while four southern SMVs were grouped together in clade II and all contained a recombinant BCMV fragment (~900 bp) in the upstream part of the genome. This work revealed that wild soybeans in China also act as important SMV hosts and play a role in the transmission and diversity of SMVs.
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