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A simple route to highly active single-enzyme nanogels.

We have established a simple one-step synthesis of single-enzyme nanogels (SENs), , nanobiocatalysts consisting of an enzyme molecule embedded in a hydrophilic, polymeric crosslinked nanostructure, as a most attractive approach to enhance the stability of enzymes. In contrast to earlier protocols, we demonstrate here that the addition of a small amount of sucrose makes the nanogel formation equally effective as earlier two-step protocols requiring enzyme pre-modification. This provides the dual advantage of skipping a synthetic step and preserving the surface chemistry of the enzymes, hence their native structure. Enzymes encapsulated in this way exhibit a high catalytic activity, similar to that of the free enzymes, in a markedly widened pH range. With our method, the thickness of the hydrogel layer can be finely tuned by careful adjustment of reaction parameters. This is most important because the shell thickness strongly affects both enzyme activity and stability, as we observe for a wide selection of proteins. Finally, a single-molecule analysis by means of two-color confocal fluorescence coincidence analysis confirms that our encapsulation method is highly efficient and suppresses the occurrence of nanoparticles lacking an enzyme molecule. The proposed method is therefore highly attractive for biocatalysis applications, ensuring a high activity and stability of the enzymes.

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The effect of chlorhexidine on dental calculus formation: an in vitro study.

Chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) has been proven to be effective in preventing and controlling biofilm formation. At the same time, an increase in calculus formation is known as one of considerable side effects. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether mineral deposition preceding a calculus formation would occur at an early stage after the use of CHG using an in vitro saliva-related biofilm model.

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Cultrex In Vitro Angiogen Cultrex In Vitro Angiogen Rabbit Anti-FGF3 Oncogene Endothelial Tube Formatio FDA Standard Frozen Tissu FDA Standard Frozen Tissu FDA Standard Frozen Tissu FDA Standard Frozen Tissu FDA Standard Frozen Tissu FDA Standard Frozen Tissu Multiple organ tumor tiss Interleukin-34 IL34 (N-t

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Basal prolactin levels in rat plasma correlates with response to antidepressant treatment in animal model of depression.

Prolactin (PRL) has been shown to be altered by psychotropic drugs, including antidepressant drugs (ADs). Many studies have focused on the response to antidepressant treatment (especially related to the serotonergic system) using the fenfluramine test (PRF), however some data suggest lack of correlation between PRF and prediction of clinical response to ADs. In our study we have investigated the hypothesis that basal plasma level of prolactin is a better predictor of antidepressant treatment. We have used Chronic Mild Stress (CMS) - the animal model of depression. Rats are exposed to CMS in combination with imipramine (IMI) treatment for 5 consecutive weeks. Blood samples were collected from the rat tail vein three times: before the CMS procedure, after 2 weeks of stress and after the complete CMS procedure (after 5 weeks of stress and IMI treatment). The PRL level in plasma was determined using the commercially available ELISA kit. In CMS, anhedonia in rats is manifested by reduced consumption of sucrose solution while administration of antidepressant drugs reverses anhedonia. Some animals (ca.30%) did not respond to antidepressant therapy and were considered treatment-resistant. There was no correlation between basal PRL levels and stress response, however, from the results obtained by Spearman Rank Correlation analysis we have observed a significant negative correlation between basal PRL levels before the CMS procedure and behavioral response to IMI administration. The obtained results indicate that the basal PRL level in rat plasma correlates with a good response to treatment in the animal model of depression.

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Solvent Retention Capacities of Oat Flour.

This study measured the solvent retention capacities (SRCs) of flours from eight oat varieties and one wheat variety against different solvents to explore the swelling volume of oat flour with different solvents, and thus provide a theoretical basis for quick β-glucan analysis. The SRC profile consists of water SRC (WSRC), 50% sucrose SRC (SSRC), 5% lactic acid SRC (LASRC), 5% Na₂CO₃ SRC (SCASRC), NaCl SRC (SCSRC), CaCl₂ SRC (CCSRC), FeCl₃ SRC (FCSRC), sodium cholate SRC (SCHSRC), NaOH (pH 10) SRC (SHSRC), Na₂CO₃ (pH 10) SRC (SCABSRC) and SDS (pH 10) SRC (SDSSRC) values, and a Chopin SRC kit was used to measure the SRC value. SRCs of the oat flours increased when the solvents turned from neutral (water and NaCl) to acidic (5% lactic acid) or alkaline (5% Na₂CO₃, CaCl₂, FeCl₃, NaOH and pH 10 Na₂CO₃), and rose as the metal ion valencies of the metal salts (NaCl, CaCl₂ and FeCl₃) increased. The β-glucan contents were significantly positively correlated with the SCSRC (0.83**), CCSRC (0.82**), SCHSRC (0.80**) and FCSRC (0.78*). SRC measurements of β-glucan in oat flours revealed that the CCSRC values were related with β-glucan (0.64*) but not related with protein and starch. CaCl₂ could therefore potentially be exploited as a reagent for β-glucan assay.

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Diet-Induced Nutritional Stress and Pathogen Interference in Wolbachia-Infected Aedes aegypti.

The pathogen interference phenotype greatly restricts infection with dengue virus (DENV) and other pathogens in Wolbachia-infected Aedes aegypti, and is a vital component of Wolbachia-based mosquito control. Critically, the phenotype's causal mechanism is complex and poorly understood, with recent evidence suggesting that the cause may be species specific. To better understand this important phenotype, we investigated the role of diet-induced nutritional stress on interference against DENV and the avian malarial parasite Plasmodium gallinaceum in Wolbachia-infected Ae. aegypti, and on physiological processes linked to the phenotype. Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes were fed one of four different concentrations of sucrose, and then challenged with either P. gallinaceum or DENV. Interference against P. gallinaceum was significantly weakened by the change in diet however there was no effect on DENV interference. Immune gene expression and H2O2 levels have previously been linked to pathogen interference. These traits were assayed for mosquitoes on each diet using RT-qPCR and the Amplex Red Hydrogen Peroxide/Peroxidase Assay Kit, and it was observed that the change in diet did not significantly affect immune expression, but low carbohydrate levels led to a loss of ROS induction in Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes. Our data suggest that host nutrition may not influence DENV interference for Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes, but Plasmodium interference may be linked to both nutrition and oxidative stress. This pathogen-specific response to nutritional change highlights the complex nature of interactions between Wolbachia and pathogens in mosquitoes.

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Salvianolic acid B ameliorates depressive-like behaviors in chronic mild stress-treated mice: involvement of the neuroinflammatory pathway.

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a debilitating mental disorder associated with dysfunction of the neurotransmitter-neuroendocrine system and neuroinflammatory responses. Salvianolic acid B (SalB) has shown a variety of pharmacological activities, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and neuroprotective effects. In this study, we examined whether SalB produced antidepressant-like actions in a chronic mild stress (CMS) mouse model, and explored the mechanisms underlying the antidepressant-like actions of SalB.

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Xylitol Chewing Gums on the Market: Do They Prevent Caries?

To measure the xylitol content in sugar-free chewing gums available on the market in Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries in the Middle East, in order to identify those products that can provide the recommended daily dose of xylitol for caries prevention (6-7 g). Acid production from chewing gums was also measured in vitro and in vivo.

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Residual matrix from different separation techniques impacts exosome biological activity.

Exosomes are gaining a prominent role in research due to their intriguing biology and several therapeutic opportunities. However, their accurate purification from body fluids and detailed physicochemical characterization remain open issues. We isolated exosomes from serum of patients with Multiple Myeloma by four of the most popular purification methods and assessed the presence of residual contaminants in the preparations through an ad hoc combination of biochemical and biophysical techniques - including Western Blot, colloidal nanoplasmonics, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning helium ion microscopy (HIM). The preparations obtained by iodixanol and sucrose gradients were highly pure. To the contrary, those achieved with limited processing (serial centrifugation or one step precipitation kit) resulted contaminated by a residual matrix, embedding the exosomes. The contaminated preparations showed lower ability to induce NfkB nuclear translocation in endothelial cells with respect to the pure ones, probably because the matrix prevents the interaction and fusion of the exosomes with the cell membrane. These findings suggest that exosome preparation purity must be carefully assessed since it may interfere with exosome biological activity. Contaminants can be reliably probed only by an integrated characterization approach aimed at both the molecular and the colloidal length scales.

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RANK Ligand Soluble, Huma RANK Ligand Soluble, Huma MarkerGeneTM Fluorescent Rapid Microplate Assay K DAB Differentiating Solu Differentiating Solution Differentiating Solution Differentiating Solution Differentiating Solution Differentiating Solution Differentiating Solution Epidermal Growth Factor (

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Suppression of Kv1.5 protects against endothelial apoptosis induced by palmitate and in type 2 diabetes mice.

Palmitate, a common saturated free fatty acid, induces endothelial apoptosis in vitro in culture endothelial cells and in vivo in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. The present study aimed to investigate whether Kv1.5 regulates palmitate-induced endothelial apoptosis and endothelial dysfunction in T2DM.

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EGb761 attenuates depressive-like behaviours induced by long-term light deprivation in C57BL/6J mice through inhibition of NF-κB-IL-6 signalling pathway.

Our previous investigation found that Ginkgo extract EGb761 could attenuate the depressive-like behaviours induced by a single injection of lipopolysaccharide in mice. However, it has not been investigated whether EGb761 is effective on depressive-like behaviours induced by long-term light deprivation and whether its effects are associated with the inhibition of NF-κB-IL-6 signalling pathway. In this study, three groups (vehicle group, EGb761 low-dose group, and EGb761 high-dose group) of C57BL/6J male mice were exposed to constant darkness for four weeks. The control mice remained on a 12 : 12 light-dark cycle. Depressive-like behaviours were evaluated by tail suspension test (TST), forced swim test (FST), and sucrose preference test (SPT). Spontaneous locomotor activity was evaluated by open field test (OFT). Levels of IL-6, IL-6 mRNA, NF-κB p65, phospho-NF-κB p65, IκBα, and phospho-IκBα were measured using Elisa, western blotting, or PCR assays. NF-κB p65 DNA binding activity was evaluated using Chemi Transcription Factor Assay Kit. Results showed long-term light deprivation prolonged the immobile time in TST and FST, shortened the latency to immobility in FST, reduced spontaneous locomotor activity in OFT, decreased sucrose preference in SPT, and increased levels of IL-6, IL-6 mRNA, NF-κB p65, phospho-NF-κB p65, and phospho-IκBα in hippocampal tissue. EGb761 dose-dependently reversed the changes of the above parameters induced by long-term light deprivation, without affecting spontaneous locomotor activity. We conclude that EGb761 could attenuate the depressive-like behaviours and inhibit the NF-κB-IL-6 signalling pathway in a light-deprivation-induced mouse model of depression.

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