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[Effect of single-stranded DNA binding proteins on template/primer-independent DNA synthesis in the presence of nicking endonuclease Nt.BspD6I].

In the presence of the Nt.BspD6I nicking endonuclease DNA polymerase Bst stimulates intensive template/primer-independent DNA synthesis. Template/primer-independent DNA synthesis could be the reason for appearing nonspecific DNA products in many DNA amplification reactions particularly in the reactions with using nicking endonucleases. Search of the modes for inhibition template/primer-independent DNA synthesis becomes an urgent task because of broadening the DNA amplification methods with using nicking endonucleases. We report here that the E. coli single-stranded DNA binding protein has no effect on the template/primer-independent DNA synthesis. In the absence of the nicking endonuclease the single-stranded DNA binding protein encoded by bacteriophage T4 gene 32 completely inhibits template/primer-independent DNA synthesis. This protein does not inhibit synthesis of specific DNA product in the presence of nicking endonuclease but remarkably decreases the amount of nonspecific products.

2528 related Products with: [Effect of single-stranded DNA binding proteins on template/primer-independent DNA synthesis in the presence of nicking endonuclease Nt.BspD6I].

E. coli SSB (Single Stran E. coli SSB (Single Stran E. coli SSB (Single Stran E. coli SSB (Single Stran Taq SSB (Single Stranded Taq SSB (Single Stranded Single Strand DNA Ligase, Single Strand DNA Ligase, DNA (cytosine 5) methyltr Recombinant E. coli HSP40 Recombinant E. coli HSP40 Recombinant E. coli HSP40

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Thermodynamic analysis of DNA binding by a Bacillus single stranded DNA binding protein.

Single-stranded DNA binding proteins (SSB) are essential for DNA replication, repair, and recombination in all organisms. SSB works in concert with a variety of DNA metabolizing enzymes such as DNA polymerase.

2998 related Products with: Thermodynamic analysis of DNA binding by a Bacillus single stranded DNA binding protein.

E. coli SSB (Single Stran E. coli SSB (Single Stran E. coli SSB (Single Stran E. coli SSB (Single Stran Taq SSB (Single Stranded Taq SSB (Single Stranded DNA Binding Protein 7 (DB EpiQuik General Protein D  EpiQuik General Protein DNA Binding Protein 7 (DB DNA Binding Protein 7 (DB DNA Binding Protein-7 (DB

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Human replication protein A melts a DNA triple helix structure in a potent and specific manner.

Alternate DNA structures other than double-stranded B-form DNA can potentially impede cellular processes such as transcription and replication. The DNA triplex helix and G4 tetraplex structures that form by Hoogsteen hydrogen bonding are two examples of alternate DNA structures that can be a source of genomic instability. In this study, we have examined the ability of human replication protein A (RPA), a single-stranded DNA binding protein that is implicated in all facets of DNA metabolism, to destabilize DNA triplexes and tetraplexes. Biochemical studies demonstrate that RPA efficiently melts an intermolecular DNA triple helix consisting of a pyrimidine motif third strand annealed to a 4 kb duplex DNA fragment at protein concentrations equimolar to the triplex substrate. Heterologous single-stranded DNA binding proteins ( Escherichia coli SSB, T4 gene 32) melt the triplex substrate very poorly or not at all, suggesting that the triplex destabilizing effect of RPA is specific. In contrast to the robust activity on DNA triplexes, RPA does not melt intermolecular G4 tetraplex structures. Cellular assays demonstrated increased triplex DNA content when RPA is transiently repressed, suggesting that RPA melting of triple helical structures is physiologically important. On the basis of our results, we suggest that the abundance of RPA known to exist in vivo is likely to be a strong deterrent to the stability of triplexes that can potentially form from human genomic DNA sequences.

1814 related Products with: Human replication protein A melts a DNA triple helix structure in a potent and specific manner.

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Divergence of the mRNA targets for the Ssb proteins of bacteriophages T4 and RB69.

The single-strand binding (Ssb) protein of phage T4 (T4 gp32, product of gene 32) is a mRNA-specific autogenous translational repressor, in addition to being a sequence-independent ssDNA-binding protein that participates in phage DNA replication, repair and recombination. It is not clear how this physiologically essential protein distinguishes between specific RNA and nonspecific nucleic acid targets. Here, we present phylogenetic evidence suggesting that ssDNA and specific RNA bind the same gp32 domain and that plasticity of this domain underlies its ability to configure certain RNA structures for specific binding. We have cloned and characterized gene 32 of phage RB69, a relative of T4 We observed that RB69 gp32 and T4 gp32 have nearly identical ssDNA binding domains, but diverge in their C-terminal domains. In T4 gp32, it is known that the C-terminal domain interacts with the ssDNA-binding domain and with other phage-induced proteins. In translation assays, we show that RB69 gp32 is, like T4 gp32, an autogenous translational repressor. We also show that the natural mRNA targets (translational operators) for the 2 proteins are diverged in sequence from each other and yet can be repressed by either gp32. Results of chemical and RNase sensitivity assays indicate that the gp32 mRNA targets from the 2 related phages have similar structures, but differ in their patterns of contact with the 2 repressors. These and other observations suggest that a range of gp32-RNA binding specificities may evolve in nature due to plasticity of the protein-nucleic acid interaction and its response to modulation by the C-terminal domain of this translational repressor.

2711 related Products with: Divergence of the mRNA targets for the Ssb proteins of bacteriophages T4 and RB69.

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Rad51 uses one mechanism to drive DNA strand exchange in both directions.

The Rad51 protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, like its bacterial counterpart RecA, promotes strand exchange between circular single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and linear double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) in vitro. However, the two proteins differ in the requirement for initiating joint molecules and in the polarity of branch migration. Whereas RecA initiates joint molecules from any type of ends on the dsDNA and branch migration proceeds exclusively in the 5'- to 3'-direction with respect to the single strand DNA substrate, initiation mediated by Rad51 requires a complementary 3' or 5' overhanging end of the linear dsDNA and branch migration proceeds in either direction. Here we report that the rates of Rad51-mediated branch migration in either the 5'- to 3'- or 3'- to 5'-directions are affected to the same extent by temperature and MgCl(2). Furthermore, branch migration in both directions is equally impeded by insertions of non-homologous sequences in the dsDNA, inserts of 6 base pairs or more being completely inhibitory. We have also found that the preference of strand exchange in the 5'- to 3'-direction does not change if RPA is replaced by Escherichia coli SSB or T4 gene 32 proteins, suggesting that the preference for the direction of strand exchange is intrinsic to Rad51. Based on these results, we conclude that Rad51-promoted branch migration in either direction occurs fundamentally by the same mechanism, quite probably by stabilizing successively formed heteroduplex base pair.

2315 related Products with: Rad51 uses one mechanism to drive DNA strand exchange in both directions.

removed without changing E. coli SSB (Single Stran E. coli SSB (Single Stran E. coli SSB (Single Stran E. coli SSB (Single Stran Taq SSB (Single Stranded Taq SSB (Single Stranded DNA (cytosine 5) methyltr Recombinant Human Interfe Native Influenza HA (A To Native Influenza HA (A To Native Influenza HA (A To

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Simultaneous interactions of bacteriophage T4 DNA replication proteins gp59 and gp32 with single-stranded (ss) DNA. Co-modulation of ssDNA binding activities in a DNA helicase assembly intermediate.

The T4 gp59 protein is the major accessory protein of the phage's replicative DNA helicase, gp41. gp59 helps load gp41 at DNA replication forks by promoting its assembly onto single-stranded (ss) DNA covered with cooperatively bound molecules of gp32, the T4 single-strand DNA binding protein (ssb). A gp59-gp32-ssDNA ternary complex is an obligatory intermediate in this helicase loading mechanism. Here, we characterize the properties of gp59-gp32-ssDNA complexes and reveal some of the biochemical interactions that occur within them. Our results indicate the following: (i) gp59 is able to co-occupy ssDNA pre-saturated with either gp32 or gp32-A (a truncated gp32 species lacking interactions with gp59); (ii) gp59 destabilizes both gp32-ssDNA and (gp32-A)-ssDNA interactions; (iii) interactions of gp59 with the A-domain of gp32 alter the ssDNA-binding properties of gp59; and (iv) gp59 organizes gp32-ssDNA versus (gp32-A)-ssDNA into morphologically distinct complexes. Our results support a model in which gp59-gp32 interactions are non-essential for the co-occupancy of both proteins on ssDNA but are essential for the formation of structures competent for helicase assembly. The data argue that specific "cross-talk" between gp59 and gp32, involving conformational changes in both, is a key feature of the gp41 helicase assembly pathway.

2756 related Products with: Simultaneous interactions of bacteriophage T4 DNA replication proteins gp59 and gp32 with single-stranded (ss) DNA. Co-modulation of ssDNA binding activities in a DNA helicase assembly intermediate.

E. coli SSB (Single Stran E. coli SSB (Single Stran E. coli SSB (Single Stran E. coli SSB (Single Stran Taq SSB (Single Stranded Taq SSB (Single Stranded DNA (cytosine 5) methyltr DNA Binding Protein 7 (DB removed without changing pCAMBIA0105.1R Vector, (G Mouse Anti-DNA, intercala EpiQuik General Protein D

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Functional and physical interaction between WRN helicase and human replication protein A.

The human premature aging disorder Werner syndrome (WS) is associated with a large number of symptoms displayed in normal aging. The WRN gene product, a DNA helicase, has been previously shown to unwind short DNA duplexes (

2721 related Products with: Functional and physical interaction between WRN helicase and human replication protein A.

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Role of the acidic carboxyl-terminal domain of the single-stranded DNA-binding protein of bacteriophage T7 in specific protein-protein interactions.

The gene 2.5 single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) binding protein of bacteriophage T7 is essential for T7 DNA replication and recombination. Earlier studies have shown that the COOH-terminal 21 amino acids of the gene 2.5 protein are essential for specific protein-protein interaction with T7 DNA polymerase and T7 DNA helicase/primase. A truncated gene 2.5 protein, in which the acidic COOH-terminal 21 amino acid residues are deleted no longer supports T7 growth, forms dimers, or interacts with either T7 DNA polymerase or T7 helicase/primase in vitro. The single-stranded DNA-binding protein encoded by Escherichia coli (SSB protein) and phage T4 (gene 32 protein) also have acidic COOH-terminal domains, but neither protein can substitute for T7 gene 2.5 protein in vivo. To determine if the specificity for the protein-protein interaction involving gene 2.5 protein resides in its COOH terminus, we replaced the COOH-terminal region of the gene 2.5 protein with the COOH-terminal region from either E. coli SSB protein or T4 gene 32 protein. Both of the two chimeric proteins can substitute for T7 gene 2.5 protein to support the growth of phage T7. The two chimeric proteins, like gene 2.5 protein, form dimers and interact with T7 DNA polymerase and helicase/primase to stimulate their activities. In contrast, chimeric proteins in which the COOH terminus of T7 gene 2.5 protein replaced the COOH terminus of E. coli SSB protein or T4 gene 32 protein cannot support the growth of phage T7. We conclude that an acidic COOH terminus of the gene 2.5 protein is essential for protein-protein interaction, but it alone cannot account for the specificity of the interaction.

2491 related Products with: Role of the acidic carboxyl-terminal domain of the single-stranded DNA-binding protein of bacteriophage T7 in specific protein-protein interactions.

E. coli SSB (Single Stran E. coli SSB (Single Stran E. coli SSB (Single Stran E. coli SSB (Single Stran Taq SSB (Single Stranded Taq SSB (Single Stranded Pfu DNA Polymerase protei SH3 domain-binding protei DNA Binding Protein 7 (DB DNA Binding Protein 7 (DB DNA Binding Protein 7 (DB DNA Binding Protein-7 (DB

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Interaction of Escherichia coli primase with a phage G4ori(c)-E. coli SSB complex.

We earlier reported that Escherichia coli single-stranded DNA-binding protein (SSB) bound in a fixed position to the stem-loop structure of the origin of complementary DNA strand synthesis in phage G4 (G4ori(c)), leaving stem-loop I and the adjacent 5' CTG 3', the primer RNA initiation site, as an SSB-free region (W. Sun and G. N. Godson, J. Biol. Chem. 268:8026-8039, 1993). Using a small 278-nucleotide (nt) G4ori(c) single-stranded DNA fragment that supported primer RNA synthesis, we now demonstrate by gel shift that E. coli primase can stably interact with the SSB-G4ori(c) complex. This stable interaction requires Mg2+ for specificity. At 8 mM Mg2+, primase binds to an SSB-coated 278-nt G4ori(c) fragment but not to an SSB-coated control 285-nt LacZ ss-DNA fragment. In the absence of Mg2+, primase binds to both SSB-coated fragments and gives a gel shift. T4 gene 32 protein cannot substitute for E. coli SSB in this reaction. Stable interaction of primase with naked G4ori(c). single-stranded DNA was not observed. DNase I and micrococcal nuclease footprinting, of both 5' and 3' 32P-labeled DNA, demonstrated that primase interacts with two regions of G4ori(c): one covering stem-loop I and the 3' sequence flanking stem-loop I which contains the pRNA initiation site and another located on the 5' sequence flanking stem-loop III.

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The E.coli RuvAB proteins branch migrate Holliday junctions through heterologous DNA sequences in a reaction facilitated by SSB.

During genetic recombination a heteroduplex joint is formed between two homologous DNA molecules. The heteroduplex joint plays an important role in recombination since it accommodates sequence heterogeneities (mismatches, insertions or deletions) that lead to genetic variation. Two Escherichia coli proteins, RuvA and RuvB, promote the formation of heteroduplex DNA by catalysing the branch migration of crossovers, or Holliday junctions, which link recombining chromosomes. We show that RuvA and RuvB can promote branch migration through 1800 bp of heterologous DNA, in a reaction facilitated by the presence of E.coli single-stranded DNA binding (SSB) protein. Reaction intermediates, containing unpaired heteroduplex regions bound by SSB, were directly visualized by electron microscopy. In the absence of SSB, or when SSB was replaced by a single-strand binding protein from bacteriophage T4 (gene 32 protein), only limited heterologous branch migration was observed. These results show that the RuvAB proteins, which are induced as part of the SOS response to DNA damage, allow genetic recombination and the recombinational repair of DNA to occur in the presence of extensive lengths of heterology.

1222 related Products with: The E.coli RuvAB proteins branch migrate Holliday junctions through heterologous DNA sequences in a reaction facilitated by SSB.

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