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           Search results for: TG-101348 Mechanisms: JAK2 inhibitor   

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#27923824   2016/12/07 Save this To Up

Human Dendritic Cells Mitigate NK-Cell Dysfunction Mediated by Nonselective JAK1/2 Blockade.

Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors have achieved positive responses in myeloproliferative neoplasms, but at the expense of decreased natural killer (NK) cell numbers and compromised function. Selective JAK2 inhibition may also have a role in preventing and treating graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Although JAK inhibitors can impair monocyte-derived dendritic cell (moDC) activation and function and suppress effector T-cell responses, the effects on NK cells and the relevant mechanisms remain undefined. Using common γc cytokines and distinct human dendritic cell (DC) subtypes, we compared the effects of a JAK2-specific (TG101348) with a less selective JAK1/2 (ruxolitinib) inhibitor on NK-cell activation and function. Ruxolitinib treatment completely blocked IL2, IL15, and DC-mediated STAT5 phosphorylation, along with the capacity of NK cells to secrete IFNγ or lyse NK cell-sensitive targets. Only NK-cell proliferation stimulated by moDCs resisted ruxolitinib treatment. In contrast, TG101348 treatment of stimulated NK cells resulted in far less functional compromise. TG101348 completely inhibited only soluble IL15-mediated STAT5 phosphorylation, which Langerhans-type DCs (LCs), presenting membrane-bound IL15 in trans, could salvage. These results demonstrate that ruxolitinib's nonselective inhibition of JAK1/2 results in profound NK-cell dysfunction by blocking downstream pSTAT5, hence providing a persuasive rationale for the development of selective JAK2 inhibitors for immunotherapeutic applications. Cancer Immunol Res; 5(1); 52-60. ©2016 AACR.

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#26859825   2016/02/25 Save this To Up

Decrease of Store-Operated Ca2+ Entry and Increase of Na+/Ca2+ Exchange by Pharmacological JAK2 Inhibition.

Cell proliferation and migration are regulated by cytosolic Ca2+ activity ([Ca2+]i). Mechanisms modifying [Ca2+]i include store-operated Ca(2+)-entry (SOCE) accomplished by the pore-forming ion channel unit Orai1 and its regulator STIM1, as well as Ca2+ extrusion by Na+/Ca2+ exchanger NCX1. Kinases participating in the orchestration of cell proliferation include the Janus activated kinase JAK2. The present study explored the impact of pharmacological JAK2 inhibition on SOCE and Na+/Ca2+ exchange.

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#26833125   2016/03/02 Save this To Up

An Integrated Analysis of Heterogeneous Drug Responses in Acute Myeloid Leukemia That Enables the Discovery of Predictive Biomarkers.

Many promising new cancer drugs proceed through preclinical testing and early-phase trials only to fail in late-stage clinical testing. Thus, improved models that better predict survival outcomes and enable the development of biomarkers are needed to identify patients most likely to respond to and benefit from therapy. Here, we describe a comprehensive approach in which we incorporated biobanking, xenografting, and multiplexed phospho-flow (PF) cytometric profiling to study drug response and identify predictive biomarkers in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. To test the efficacy of our approach, we evaluated the investigational JAK2 inhibitor fedratinib (FED) in 64 patient samples. FED robustly reduced leukemia in mouse xenograft models in 59% of cases and was also effective in limiting the protumorigenic activity of leukemia stem cells as shown by serial transplantation assays. In parallel, PF profiling identified FED-mediated reduction in phospho-STAT5 (pSTAT5) levels as a predictive biomarker of in vivo drug response with high specificity (92%) and strong positive predictive value (93%). Unexpectedly, another JAK inhibitor, ruxolitinib (RUX), was ineffective in 8 of 10 FED-responsive samples. Notably, this outcome could be predicted by the status of pSTAT5 signaling, which was unaffected by RUX treatment. Consistent with this observed discrepancy, PF analysis revealed that FED exerted its effects through multiple JAK2-independent mechanisms. Collectively, this work establishes an integrated approach for testing novel anticancer agents that captures the inherent variability of response caused by disease heterogeneity and in parallel, facilitates the identification of predictive biomarkers that can help stratify patients into appropriate clinical trials.

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#25063672   2014/08/28 Save this To Up

The Janus kinase 2 inhibitor fedratinib inhibits thiamine uptake: a putative mechanism for the onset of Wernicke's encephalopathy.

The clinical development of fedratinib, a Janus kinase (JAK2) inhibitor, was terminated after reports of Wernicke's encephalopathy in myelofibrosis patients. Since Wernicke's encephalopathy is induced by thiamine deficiency, investigations were conducted to probe possible mechanisms through which fedratinib may lead to a thiamine-deficient state. In vitro studies indicate that fedratinib potently inhibits the carrier-mediated uptake and transcellular flux of thiamine in Caco-2 cells, suggesting that oral absorption of dietary thiamine is significantly compromised by fedratinib dosing. Transport studies with recombinant human thiamine transporters identified the individual human thiamine transporter (hTHTR2) that is inhibited by fedratinib. Inhibition of thiamine uptake appears unique to fedratinib and is not shared by marketed JAK inhibitors, and this observation is consistent with the known structure-activity relationship for the binding of thiamine to its transporters. The results from these studies provide a molecular basis for the development of Wernicke's encephalopathy upon fedratinib treatment and highlight the need to evaluate interactions of investigational drugs with nutrient transporters in addition to classic xenobiotic transporters.

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#23023734   2012/10/19 Save this To Up

Current outlook on molecular pathogenesis and treatment of myeloproliferative neoplasms.

Discovery of the JAK2 V617F mutation in the myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) essential thrombocythemia (ET), polycythemia vera (PV), and primary myelofibrosis (PMF) has stimulated great interest in the underlying molecular mechanisms and treatment of these diseases. Along with acceleration of technologies, novel mutations in genes such as MPL, LNK, and CBL have been discovered that converge on the JAK-STAT pathway. Several additional novel mutations in genes involved in epigenetic regulation of the genome, including TET2, ASXL1, DNMT3A, and IDH1/2, have emerged, in addition to several mutations in cellular splicing machinery. While understanding of the pathogenetic mechanisms of these novel mutations in MPNs has improved, it is still lagging behind the pace of mutation discovery. Concurrent with molecular discoveries, especially with regard to JAK-STAT signaling, therapeutic development has accelerated in recent years. More than ten JAK kinase inhibitors have been advanced into clinical trials. Recently the first JAK2 inhibitor was approved for use in patients with PMF. Most JAK-targeting agents share similar characteristics with regard to clinical benefit, consisting of improvements in splenomegaly, constitutional symptoms, and cytopenias, for example. It remains to be determined if JAK2 inhibitors can considerably impact disease progression and bone marrow histologic features (e.g., fibrosis) or significantly impact the JAK2 allele burden. While JAK2 inhibitors appear to be promising in PV and ET, they need to be compared with standard therapies, such as hydroxyurea or interferon-based therapies. Future clinical development will focus on optimal combination partners and agents that target alternative mechanisms, deepen the response, and achieve molecular remissions.

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